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Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin Thida Thwin, Mya Myitzu, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David A Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Htay Aung, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sara Serhal, Myat Thet Nwe, Pyae Phyo Aung, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: Every year millions of people in developing countries suffer from snakebite, causing a large number of deaths and long term complications. Prevention and appropriate first aid could reduce the incidence and improve the health outcomes for those who suffer bites. However, many communities where snakebite is a major issue suffer from a lack of information about prevention and first aid measures that a family or community member could take to prevent severe envenoming, complications and poor outcomes...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
L Lee Grismer, Perry L Jr Wood, Myint Kyaw Thura, Nay Myo Win, Marta S Grismer, Llyod A Trueblood, Evan S H Quah
The karstic foothills and hilly western edge of the Shan Plateau of eastern Myanmar continue to be sources of discovery for new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus. Two new karst-associated species within this unique landscape from Mandalay Region-C. aunglini sp. nov. from the Kyauk Nagar Cave and C. myaleiktaung sp. nov. from Mya Leik Taung Mountain-are described on the basis of color pattern, morphology, and genetics. A molecular phylogeny of the C. gansi group (defined herein) based on 1481 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs place C...
December 4, 2018: Zootaxa
Felix Wilhelm Siebert, Deike Albers, U Aung Naing, Paolo Perego, Chamaiparn Santikarn
Developing countries are subject to increased motorization, particularly in the number of motorcycles. As helmet use is critical to the safety of motorcycle riders, the goal of this study was to identify observable patterns of helmet use, which allow a more accurate assessment of helmet use in developing countries. In a video based observation study, 124,784 motorcycle riders were observed at seven observation sites throughout Myanmar. Recorded videos were coded for helmet use, number of riders on the motorcycle, rider position, gender, and time of day...
January 10, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kyaw Lwin Show, Le Le Win, Saw Saw, Chomar Kaung Myint, Kyi Maw Than, Yin Thet Nu Oo, Khin Thet Wai
INTRODUCTION: Tattooing especially gains popularity among both men and women in adulthood from the wide range of socioeconomic groups and is noted as a risk taking behaviour in adults. Especially when tattooing does not perform to the highest standards, it can potentially be the hazardous practice. Myanmar has a paucity of evidence-based information on the estimated prevalence of tattoos and awareness of potential disease transmission from tattooing under insanitary conditions as well as the infection risk...
2019: PloS One
Aung Kyaw Kyaw, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Takeshi Nabeshima, Corazon C Buerano, Tsuyoshi Ando, Shingo Inoue, Daisuke Hayasaka, Chang Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Hlaing Myat Thu, Kyaw Zin Thant, Kouichi Morita
This study was conducted to find the burden of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among children under the age of 13, who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at Mandalay Children Hospital in Myanmar in 2013. Molecular and serological investigations were performed on 123 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from these patients. By neutralization tests and/or virus isolation, four (3.3%) JEV- and one DENV-associated encephalitis cases (0.8%) were confirmed. Antibody titer against JEV Genotype 3 was the highest among the laboratory-confirmed JEV cases...
January 7, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Thant Zaw Lwin, Aye Aye Than, Aung Zaw Min, Mark Gregory Robson, Wattasit Siriwong
Introduction: Kyauk Kan village of Nyaung-U, Mandalay region, Myanmar is one of the most famous groundnut-growing zones and has been exposed to pesticides. Methods: This study design provided evaluation of within-person changes in the season across growing and nongrowing periods. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify health problems related to organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, to explore the protected use of this pesticide among 400 participants in the community by face-to-face interviews, and to determine the reproductive effects of OP exposure by using biomarkers of 100 male groundnut farmers aged 18-49 years...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Kyaw Ko Ko Htet, Tippawan Liabsuetrakul, Saw Thein, Edward B McNeil, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
BACKGROUND: Contact tracing for tuberculosis (TB) is a recommended measure to improve the case detection rate; however, actual implementation in Myanmar is limited and low detection rates have been reported. Household contacts of a known index TB case are at high risk of infection, thus a more strategic action for contact tracing is required to achieve the goal of the World Health Organization End TB Strategy. This study aimed to assess TB case detection rates among household contacts by an integrated approach and identify risk factors for TB...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Srinath Satyanarayana, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Aye Aye Mon, Than Than Lwin, Thet Ko Aung, Myo Minn Oo, Zaw Zaw Aung, Thurain Htun, Nang Seng Noon Kham, Theingi Mya, Ajay M V Kumar, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Early initiation and longer duration of anti-retroviral therapy either as prophylaxis (pARV) or lifelong treatment (ART) in HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery has a huge impact in reducing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, maternal morbidity, mortality and increasing retention in care. In this study, we aimed to determine the following in a 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' (PMTCT) programme in Central Women Hospital, Mandalay, Myanmar: i) uptake of ART and factors associated with the uptake ii) duration of ART/ pARV received by HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery, iii) factors associated with ART/ pARV initiation after delivery and iv) factors associated with shorter duration of ART/ pARV (≤ 8 weeks prior to delivery)...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Benjamin F R Dickson, Patricia M Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Richard S Bradbury, William J McBride
Lymphatic filariasis is widely endemic in Myanmar. Despite the establishment of an elimination program in 2000, knowledge of the remaining burden of disease relies predominantly on programmatic information. To assist the program, we conducted an independent cross-sectional household cluster survey to determine the prevalence of filariasis infection, morbidity and mass-drug administration coverage in four townships of the Mandalay Region: Amarapura, Patheingyi, Tada-U and Wundwin. The survey included 1014 individuals from 430 randomly selected households in 24 villages...
November 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
K Myo, M Zaw, T L Swe, Y Y Kyaw, T Thwin, T T Myo, K O Aye, A A Myint
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there are limited data from the South-East Asian region. SETTING: This study was carried out at a tertiary-level children's hospital in Mandalay, Myanmar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Xpert as a diagnostic test for PTB in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of children with suspected PTB...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin-Thida Thwin, Mya Myint Zu Kyaw, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sarah Serhal, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: The global incidence of snakebite is estimated at more than 2.5 million cases annually, with greater than 100,000 deaths. Historically, Myanmar has one of the highest incidences of venomous snakebites. In order to improve the health outcomes of snakebite patients in Myanmar, access to accurate snakebite incidence data is crucial. The last population-based study in Myanmar was conducted more than a decade ago. In 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sports data from health facilities indicated an incidence of about 29...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daniel O'Keefe, Soe Moe Aung, Naanki Pasricha, Thu Wun, Soe Khaing Linn, Nay Lin, Campbell Aitken, Chad Hughes, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has prioritised people who inject drugs (PWID) as a key population for HIV mitigation efforts, with targets for needle and syringe distribution set at a population level. However, individual-level coverage, defined as the percentage of an individual's injecting episodes covered by a sterile syringe, is a more sensitive measure of intervention coverage. We sought to examine individual-level coverage in a sample of PWID in Myanmar. METHODS: We recruited 512 PWID through urban drop-in-centres in Yangon, Mandalay and Pyin Oo Lwin...
August 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
K K K Htet, K T Soe, A M V Kumar, S Saw, H M Win Maung, Z Myint, T M M Khine, S T Aung
SETTING: Regional tuberculosis (TB) centres of the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar, which account for 65% of all notified rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) cases countrywide. OBJECTIVE: To determine 1) initial loss to follow-up (LTFU), 2) treatment delay, and 3) factors associated with initial LTFU and treatment delay among RR-TB patients residing in the Yangon and Mandalay regions diagnosed using Xpert® during January-August 2016. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A J Nguyen, C Lee, M Schojan, P Bolton
Background: Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming. Methods: We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals...
2018: Global Mental Health
Eli Coleman, Mariette Pathy Allen, Jessie V Ford
This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life...
May 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Eliza Schioldann, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Mya Myitzu Kyaw, Dale Halliday, Khin Thida Thwin, Nyein Nyein Chit, Robert Cumming, David Bacon, Sam Alfred, Julian White, David Warrell, Chen Au Peh
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Farmers are particularly exposed to snakes, and due to their rural location often experience delays in accessing formal healthcare. The reasons to use traditional healers may include difficulties in accessing formal healthcare, certain beliefs about snakes and snake venom, tradition, and trust in the capacity of traditional healers. Traditional healing, however, may have serious consequences in terms of delays or added complications...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Vanessa Veronese, Zaw Min Oo, Zaw Win Thein, Poe Poe Aung, Bridget L Draper, Chad Hughes, Claire Ryan, Alisa Pedrana, Mark Stoové
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) are a priority population for HIV prevention in Myanmar but report sub-optimal HIV testing frequency. Previous studies have shown that peer involvement in HIV testing can normalize stigmatized sexualities and reduce barriers to testing. We explored the acceptability of peer-delivered HIV testing among 425 undiagnosed MSM and TW in Yangon and Mandalay. An overwhelming majority of participants (86%) reported being 'comfortable/very comfortable' with peer-delivered HIV testing...
August 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Aung Kyaw Kyaw, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Corazon C Buerano, Takeshi Nabeshima, Miako Sakaguchi, Tsuyoshi Ando, Shingo Inoue, Yi Yi Mya, Daisuke Hayasaka, Hlaing Myat Thu, Kyaw Zin Thant, Kouichi Morita
An entomological surveillance of arboviruses was conducted in Myanmar in 2014. A total of 8357 Culex mosquito vectors were collected in the Mandalay area and virus isolation was done by using the mosquito cell line C6/36 E2. A total of eighteen strains of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) were isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui and Cx. fuscocephala. Like other insect-specific flaviviruses, CxFV can replicate only in mosquito cells but not in mammalian cells. These CxFV strains that were isolated in Japan from mosquitoes collected in Myanmar were closely related to the Wang Thong virus detected from Cx fusocephalus in Thailand and Cx...
March 2, 2018: Virus Research
Phyo Theingi, Anthony D Harries, Khin Thet Wai, Hemant D Shewade, Saw Saw, Than Win, Saw Thein, Myo Su Kyi, Htun Nyunt Oo, Si Thu Aung
Background: HIV-associated TB is a serious public health problem in Myanmar. Study objectives were to describe national scale-up of collaborative activities to reduce the double burden of TB and HIV from 2005 to 2016 and to describe TB treatment outcomes of individuals registered with HIV-associated TB in 2015 in the Mandalay Region. Methods: Secondary analysis of national aggregate data and, for treatment outcomes, a cohort study of patients with HIV-associated TB in the Mandalay Region...
September 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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