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Central Africa republic

Patrick Karangwa, Diane Mostert, Privat Ndayihanzamaso, Thomas Dubois, Björn Niere, Alexandra Zum Felde, Alexander Schouten, Guy Blomme, Fenton Beed, Altus Viljoen
Banana Fusarium wilt is a major production constraint globally and a significant threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in East and Central Africa (ECA). A proper understanding of the diversity and population dynamics of the causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), could be useful for the development of sustainable disease management strategies for the pathogen. The current study investigated the diversity of Foc in ECA using vegetative compatibility group (VCG) analysis, PCR-RFLPs of the ribosomal DNA's intergenic spacer region, as well as phylogenetic analysis of the elongation factor-1α gene...
March 2018: Plant Disease
Reena H Doshi, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Jeffrey B Doty, Angelie Dzabatou Babeaux, Audrey Matheny, Jillybeth Burgado, Michael B Townsend, Clint N Morgan, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar, Nestor Ndakala, Therese Kanjingankolo, Lambert Kitembo, Jean Malekani, Lem's Kalemba, Elisabeth Pukuta, Tobi N'kaya, Fabien Kangoula, Cynthia Moses, Andrea M McCollum, Mary G Reynolds, Jean-Vivien Mombouli, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox, caused by a zoonotic orthopoxvirus, is endemic in Central and West Africa. Monkeypox has been sporadically reported in the Republic of the Congo. During March 22-April 5, 2017, we investigated 43 suspected human monkeypox cases. We interviewed suspected case-patients and collected dried blood strips and vesicular and crust specimens (active lesions), which we tested for orthopoxvirus antibodies by ELISA and monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus DNA by PCR. An ecologic investigation was conducted around Manfouété, and specimens from 105 small mammals were tested for anti-orthopoxvirus antibodies or DNA...
February 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lucy van Dorp, Sara Lowes, Jonathan L Weigel, Naser Ansari-Pour, Saioa López, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, James A Robinson, Joseph Henrich, Mark G Thomas, Nathan Nunn, Garrett Hellenthal
Few phenomena have had as profound or long-lasting consequences in human history as the emergence of large-scale centralized states in the place of smaller scale and more local societies. This study examines a fundamental, and yet unexplored, consequence of state formation: its genetic legacy. We studied the genetic impact of state centralization during the formation of the eminent precolonial Kuba Kingdom of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the 17th century. We analyzed genome-wide data from over 690 individuals sampled from 27 different ethnic groups from the Kasai Central Province of the DRC...
December 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicolas Moulin
The praying mantis subgenus Syngalepsus Beier, 1954 occurs in sub-Saharan region and represents the least diverse subgenus of Galepsus in Africa (Ehrmann 2002). All species included within the subgenus Syngalepsus are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from North of Congo Basin to South Africa. Two new species of Galepsus (Syngalepsus) Beier, 1954 (Mantodea, Tarachodidae) from the Central African Republic (CAR) and Malawi are described. Among several Galepsus specimens collected during scientific expeditions of SANGHA, Biodiversité en Terre Pygmée, in CAR's Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, a specimen differed by genitalia conformation and other morphological characters...
2018: ZooKeys
Peter G Hawkes
During an environmental impact assessment survey of a proposed tailings storage facility for a platinum mine in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa, five adult and five larval specimens of a new species of Boloponera were found while excavating soil to a depth of 10-15 cm at the base of a tree in riparian woodland. These specimens represent a 3400 km range extension and the first reported record of the genus since its description in 2006, which was based on a single specimen collected in the Central African Republic in 2001...
2018: ZooKeys
Alexander A Khaustov, Andrey V Frolov
During the study of heterostigmatic mites phoretic on beetles of the subfamily Orphninae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), ten species from five families were found. One species, Premicrodispus hajiqanbari sp. nov. (Acari: Microdispidae) phoretic on Orphnus luminosus Benderitter, found in Central African Republic is described as new for science. A new monobasic genus Scarabadania gen. nov. with type species Bakerdania tenuispina Sevastianov, 1974 is created in the family Neopygmephoridae. Troxodania problematica (Mahunka, 1975) comb...
November 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Nkom Felix Ntumvi, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Ubald Tamoufe, Charles Kumakamba, Valentine Ndze, Ipos Ngay Lukusa, Matthew LeBreton, Joseph Atibu Losoma, Joseph Le Doux Diffo, Frida N'Kawa, Jean-Michel Takuo, Prime Mulembakani, Julius Nwobegahay, Maria Makuwa, Jean J Muyembe Tamfum, Amethyst Gillis, Stephen Harris, Anne W Rimoin, Nicole A Hoff, Joseph M Fair, Corina Monagin, James Ayukekbong, Edward M Rubin, Nathan D Wolfe, Christian E Lange
OBJECTIVE: Herpesviruses belong to a diverse order of large DNA viruses that can cause diseases in humans and animals. With the goal of gathering information about the distribution and diversity of herpesviruses in wild rodent and shrew species in central Africa, animals in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were sampled and tested by PCR for the presence of herpesvirus DNA. METHODS: A broad range PCRs targeting either the Polymerase or the terminase gene were used for virus detection...
November 16, 2018: Intervirology
Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Yves Roisin
Anenteotermescherubimi Scheffrahn, sp. n. is described from workers and male imagos collected in Cameroon and Republic of the Congo. This is the smallest soldierless termite known from Africa. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is a robust and essential diagnostic character for An.cherubimi . Preserved workers display pre-autothysis morphology and the effects of abdominal autothysis.
2018: ZooKeys
Chris Davis, George S Mgomella, Ana da Silva Filipe, Eric H Frost, Genevieve Giroux, Joseph Hughes, Catherine Hogan, Pontiano Kaleebu, Gershim Asiki, John McLauchlan, Marc Niebel, Ponsiano Ocama, Cristina Pomila, Oliver G Pybus, Jacques Pépin, Peter Simmonds, Josh B Singer, Vattipally B Sreenu, Clara Wekesa, Elizabeth H Young, Donald G Murphy, Manj Sandhu, Emma C Thomson
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: The global plan to eradicate hepatitis C (HCV) led by the World Health Organisation (WHO) outlines the use of highly effective direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) to achieve elimination by 2030. Identifying individuals with active disease and investigation of the breadth of diversity of the virus sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential as genotypes in this region (where very few clinical trials have been carried out) are distinct from those found in other parts of the world...
November 2, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Deo Ndumu, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Eugene Arinaitwe, Richard Erechu, Eugene Kidega, John Kayiwa, Edward Muwanga, Mukasa Kirumira, Gerald Kirembe, Julius Lutwama, Isabella Monne
In early January 2017, outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were reported for the first time in wild and domestic birds along the shores and on some islands of Lake Victoria, in central-southern Uganda. Our whole-genome phylogenetic analyses revealed that the H5N8 viruses recovered from the outbreak in Uganda belonged to genetic clade group-B and clustered with viruses collected in 2017 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in West Africa. Our results suggested that infected migratory wild birds might have played a crucial role in the introduction of HPAI H5N8 into this region...
October 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
Alex Gumovsky
Three new species groups and seven species of the genus Pediobius Walker are described from the Afrotropical realm: the marjoriae group, with P. marjoriae Kerrich (described from Uganda), P. rohombaya Gumovsky sp. n. (from the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, Uganda) and P. orungu Gumovsky sp. n. (from Gabon); the afroteres group with P. afroteres Gumovsky sp. n. (from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, DRC, Cameroon) and P. kafroteres Gumovsky sp...
June 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Nathalie Bouscaren, Sophie Pilleron, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-François Dartigues, Jean-Pierre Clément, Pierre-Marie Preux, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in older adults living in Central Africa and investigating its association with dementia using data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre population-based study was carried out among participants aged 73 (±7) years on average, living in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between November 2011 and December 2012...
October 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Anna-Sofie Stensgaard, Penelope Vounatsou, Mita E Sengupta, Jürg Utzinger
The exact impact of climate change on schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a blood fluke that affects more than 250 million people mainly in tropical and subtropical countries, is currently unknown, but likely to vary with the snail-parasite species' specific ecologies and the spatio-temporal scale of investigation. Here, by means of a systematic review to identify studies reporting on impacts of climate change on the agents of schistosomiasis, we provide an updated synthesis of the current knowledge about the climate change-schistosomiasis relation...
February 2019: Acta Tropica
Inès Yoro Zohoun, Philippe Nubukpo, Dismand Houinato, Pascal M'Belesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-Pierre Clément, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Pierre-Marie Preux, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at estimating the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and investigating associated factors among older adults living in two countries in Central Africa (Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC)). METHODS: The EPIDEMCA multicentre population-based study was carried out in rural and urban areas of CAR and ROC between 2011 and 2012 among people aged 65 and over. After cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, participants with low performances underwent neurological examination including the brief version of the NeuroPsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q)...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Mechtilda Byamungu, Tusevo Zacarie, Alexis Makumyaviri M'Pondi, Philémon Mansinsa Diabakana, Andrew McMullin, Thomas Kröber, Steve Mihok, Patrick M Guerin
BACKGROUND: This study focused on the savannah tsetse species Glossina swynnertoni and G. morsitans centralis, both efficient vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in, respectively, East and Central Africa. The aim was to develop long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive devices that induce the strongest landing responses in these two species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in population suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in different seasons and years in Tanzania (G...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nikola Sklenovská, Marc Van Ranst
Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease recognized as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans in the smallpox post-eradication era. The clinical presentation of monkeypox is similar to the one of smallpox. The case fatality rate of monkeypox (10%) lies between the case fatality rate of variola major (30%) and variola minor (1%). The disease is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but other countries of Central and West Africa either reported cases of monkeypox in humans or circulation in wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Samuel Wanji, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Fanny Fri Fombad, Jonas Arnaud Kengne-Ouafo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Yolande Flore Longang Tchounkeu, Benjamin Koudou, Moses Bockarie, Grace Fobi, Jean Baptiste Roungou, Peter A Enyong
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Didier Nzolo, Aline Engo Biongo, Andrea Kuemmerle, Mariano Lusakibanza, Yves Lula, Ntamabyaliro Nsengi, Celestin Nsibu Ndosimao, Gaston Tona Lutete, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: In early 2016, there was a Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak in Central Africa with several deaths reported from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Due to a shortage in vaccine supply, fractional dosing (0.1 ml) of 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine (YFV) was proposed in preventive vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in August 2016. A Pharmacovigilance surveillance at community level was implemented to track Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFIs). The objective of this study was to describe AEFIs as captured from community-based pharmacovigilance and to compare the safety profile of the fractional dosing of YFV between gender...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
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