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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771352/g-protein-coupled-receptors-are-dynamic-regulators-of-digestion-and-targets-for-digestive-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Meritxell Canals, Daniel P Poole, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Brian L Schmidt, Nigel W Bunnett
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins. Within the gastrointestinal tract, GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells sense contents of the lumen, and GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells, myocytes, neurons, and immune cells participate in communication amongst cells. GPCRs control digestion, mediate digestive diseases, and coordinate repair and growth. GPCRs are the target of over one third of therapeutic drugs, including many drugs used to treat digestive diseases...
February 13, 2019: Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770409/the-early-proximal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tcr-signalosome-specifies-thymic-selection-outcome-through-a-quantitative-protein-interaction-network
#2
Steven C Neier, Alejandro Ferrer, Katelynn M Wilton, Stephen E P Smith, April M H Kelcher, Kevin D Pavelko, Jenna M Canfield, Tessa R Davis, Robert J Stiles, Zhenjun Chen, James McCluskey, Scott R Burrows, Jamie Rossjohn, Deanne M Hebrink, Eva M Carmona, Andrew H Limper, Dietmar J Kappes, Peter J Wettstein, Aaron J Johnson, Larry R Pease, Mark A Daniels, Claudia Neuhauser, Diana Gil, Adam G Schrum
During αβ T cell development, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement transduces biochemical signals through a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network that dictates dichotomous cell fate decisions. It remains unclear how signal specificity is communicated, instructing either positive selection to advance cell differentiation or death by negative selection. Early signal discrimination might occur by PPI signatures differing qualitatively (customized, unique PPI combinations for each signal), quantitatively (graded amounts of a single PPI series), or kinetically (speed of PPI pathway progression)...
February 15, 2019: Science Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768581/retained-foreign-objects-in-casts-in-children
#3
Gloria Hui Min Cheng, Claris Jia-Yi Shi, Beatrice Jia Ying Lee, Kevin Boon Leong Lim
Cast immobilization is a noninvasive and effective option in the treatment of fractures in children. However, its use can be associated with complications, such as pressure sores, skin infections, thermal injuries, and joint stiffness. In clinical practice, retained foreign objects in casts are not uncommon. This study aims to ascertain reasons for foreign objects being retained in casts and their effects on the skin. Eighteen children with retained foreign objects in their casts were identified and interviewed...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766744/evaluation-of-an-ad-hoc-paper-based-syndromic-surveillance-system-in-ibaraki-evacuation-centres-following-the-2011-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#4
Matthew M Griffith, Yuichiro Yahata, Fujiko Irie, Hajime Kamiya, Aika Watanabe, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tamano Matsui, Nobuhiko Okabe, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Kazunori Oishi
Outbreaks of infectious diseases can occur after natural disasters as vital services are disrupted and populations move into evacuation centres. National notifiable disease surveillance may be inadequate in these situations because of resource-consuming disease confirmation or system interruptions. Although syndromic surveillance has been used as an alternative in post-disaster situations, no systematic evaluations of it have been published. We evaluated the ad hoc paper-based syndromic surveillance system implemented in evacuation centres in Ibaraki prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761933/prevalence-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-childhood-cancer-survivors-in-stockholm-sweden
#5
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Anna-Theresia Ekman, Stefan Söderhäll, Charlotta Millbourn, Karin Lindahl, Arja Harila-Saari, Björn Fischler
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors treated before 1992, when blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was introduced, are at risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection. A national HCV screening campaign targeting blood transfusion recipients was launched in Sweden in 2007-2010. The aims of this study were to, among adult childhood cancer survivors in Stockholm County, investigate the prevalence of HCV infection, the natural course of infection, treatment outcome and anti-HCV testing frequency before, during and after the screening campaign and finally to actively screen the untested ones...
February 14, 2019: Acta Oncologica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761818/association-between-feeding-mealtime-behavior-problems-and-internalizing-externalizing-problems-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders-ndds-and-typically-developing-children
#6
Francesco Craig, Andrea De Giacomo, Francesca F Operto, Mariella Margari, Antonio Trabacca, Lucia Margari
BACKGROUND: The aim of current study was to examine the nature and prevalence of feeding problems and mealtime behavior problems in children with ASD comparing to children with other neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDs) and TD children. We also investigated the impact of intelligence quotient (IQ) and/or emotional and behavioral problems on feeding and mealtime behavior problems. METHODS: Participants completed the following tests: Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory (BAMBI) and Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS)...
February 13, 2019: Minerva Pediatrica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761715/increased-algicidal-activity-of-aeromonas-veronii-in-response-to-microcystis-aeruginosa-inter-species-crosstalk-and-secondary-metabolites-synergism
#7
Gad Weiss, Dimitry Kovalerchick, Judy Lieman-Hurwitz, Omer Murik, Roberto De Philippis, Shmuel Carmeli, Assaf Sukenik, Aaron Kaplan
Toxic Microcystis spp. blooms constitute a serious threat to water quality worldwide. Aeromonas veronii was isolated from Microcystis sp. colonies collected in Lake Kinneret. Spent Aeromonas media inhibits the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa MGK isolated from Lake Kinneret. The inhibition was much stronger when Aeromonas growth medium contained spent media from MGK suggesting that Aeromonas recognized its presence and produced secondary metabolites that inhibit Microcystis growth. Fractionations of the crude extract and analyses of the active fractions identified several secondary metabolites including lumichrome in Aeromonas media...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760764/towards-functional-restoration-for-persons-with-limb-amputation-a-dual-stage-implementation-of-regenerative-agonist-antagonist-myoneural-interfaces
#8
Shriya S Srinivasan, Maurizio Diaz, Matthew Carty, Hugh M Herr
While amputation has traditionally been viewed as a failure of therapy, recent developments in amputation surgery and neural interfacing demonstrate improved functionality and bidirectional communication with prosthetic devices. The agonist antagonist myoneural interface (AMI) is one such bi-directional neural communication model comprised of two muscles, an agonist and an antagonist, surgically connected in series within the amputated residuum such that contraction of one muscle stretches the other. By preserving agonist-antagonist muscle dynamics, the AMI allows proprioceptive signals from mechanoreceptors within both muscles to be communicated to the central nervous system...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760398/measuring-social-communication-in-the-community-novel-tools-for-advancing-family-participation
#9
Dwight W Irvin, Anna Bard, Anna Wallisch, Lauren M Little
Natural contexts and family involvement are key features of effective intervention approaches. However, the measurement of community participation and parent engagement with children remains complex. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of combining use of the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA® ) system and a global positioning system (GPS; i.e., Qstarz® BT-Q1000XT). The LENA is a small speech recognition device that captures and quantifies full-day recordings of the natural language environment. The Qstarz BT-Q1000XT is a wearable GPS data logger that allows identification of the locations a person visits...
November 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760172/effects-of-psychoeducation-and-stress-coping-techniques-on-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#10
Fadwa Al Mughairbi, Ahmed Abdulaziz Alnajjar, Abdalla Hamid
This study examined the effects of psychoeducation and stress management techniques on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Libya. The 41 Libyan patients who volunteered to take part in the study were first assessed using the PTSD Checklist. They attended workshops on PTSD symptoms, stress management techniques, and communication skills on three successive days after which they were asked to answer the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations two weeks after they completed the workshops. Among the 39% of the participants who were diagnosed with PTSD prior to the intervention, 15% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after the intervention...
February 13, 2019: Psychological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760092/geopolitical-factors-and-mental-health-i
#11
Albert Persaud, Geraint Day, Susham Gupta, Antonio Ventriglio, Roxanna Ruiz, Egor Chumakov, Geetha Desai, Joao Castaldelli-Maia, Julio Torales, Edgardo Juan Tolentino, Kamaldeep Bhui, Dinesh Bhugra
Natural and man-made disasters carry with them major burden and very often the focus is on immediate survival and management of resulting infectious diseases. The impact of disasters directly and indirectly on the well-being and mental health of those affected often gets ignored. The reasons are often stigma and lack of attention to mental health consequences. In addition, often the focus is on preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as waterborne or airborne diseases. This is further complicated by the fact that often aid agencies in offering aid tend to focus on communicable diseases and not on mental health of populations...
December 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759111/social-media-usage-patterns-during-natural-hazards
#12
Meredith T Niles, Benjamin F Emery, Andrew J Reagan, Peter Sheridan Dodds, Christopher M Danforth
Natural hazards are becoming increasingly expensive as climate change and development are exposing communities to greater risks. Preparation and recovery are critical for climate change resilience, and social media are being used more and more to communicate before, during, and after disasters. While there is a growing body of research aimed at understanding how people use social media surrounding disaster events, most existing work has focused on a single disaster case study. In the present study, we analyze five of the costliest disasters in the last decade in the United States (Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, two sets of tornado outbreaks, and flooding in Louisiana) through the lens of Twitter...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746678/public-health-issues-in-the-21st-century-national-challenges-and-shared-challenges-for-the-maghreb-countries
#13
Joël Ladner, Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz
In the 21st century, public health is not only about fighting infectious diseases, but also contributing to a "multidimensional" well-being of people (health promotion, non-communicable diseases, the role of citizens and people in the health system etc.). Six themes of public health, issues of the 21st century will be addressed. Climate change is already aggravating already existing health risks, heat waves, natural disasters, recrudescence of infectious diseases. Big data is the collection and management of databases characterized by a large volume, a wide variety of data types from various sources and a high speed of generation...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744641/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-health-related-literature-on-natural-disasters-from-1900-to-2017
#14
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, natural disasters have caused a large number of deaths and considerable morbidity. Nevertheless, limited information is available on how the health-related literature on natural disasters has evolved. The current study aims to assess the growth and pattern of health-related literature on natural disasters. METHOD: A bibliometric method was implemented using Scopus database for the period from 1900 to 2017. Keywords used in the search strategy were obtained from the classifications of natural disasters presented by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters...
February 11, 2019: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744625/building-health-system-capacity-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-care-a-pilot-leadership-program-for-frontline-staff-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#15
Erin Pfeiffer, Medge Owen, Christie Pettitt-Schieber, Romeck Van Zeijl, Emmanuel Srofenyoh, Adeyemi Olufolabi, Rohit Ramaswamy
BACKGROUND: Frontline healthcare workers are critical to meeting the maternal, newborn and child health Sustainable Development Goals in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has identified leadership development as integral to achieving successful health outcomes, but few programs exist for frontline healthcare workers in low-resource settings. METHODS: An 18-month pilot leadership development program was designed and implemented at Greater Accra Regional Hospital, a tertiary care facility in Ghana...
February 11, 2019: BMC Medical Education
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742466/interactive-contexts-increase-informativeness-in-children-s-referential-communication
#16
Myrto Grigoroglou, Anna Papafragou
Adults adjust the informativeness of their utterances to the needs of their addressee. For children, however, relevant evidence is mixed. In this article we explore the communicative circumstances under which children offer informative descriptions. In Experiment 1, 4- and 5-year-old children and adults described a target event from a pair of almost identical events to a passive confederate listener who could either see or not see the referents. Adults provided disambiguating information that picked out the target event but children massively failed to do so (even though 5-year-olds were more informative than 4-year-olds)...
February 11, 2019: Developmental Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739151/climate-change-communication-in-the-midwestern-united-states-perceptions-of-state-park-interpreters
#17
Vidya Balasubramanyam, Sonja Wilhelm Stanis, Mark Morgan, Ojetunde Ojewola
Parks and protected areas can be ideal settings for climate change communication since many visitors have an affinity for natural and cultural settings, and an interest in resource protection. However, climate-based education efforts in the Midwestern United States may need a slightly different approach since this region lacks obvious indicators, such as sea level rise and melting glaciers. Interpretation, an informal communication process designed to transmit scientific information to visitors in leisure-based settings, could be a useful strategy for engaging visitors in climate change discussions...
February 9, 2019: Environmental Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736865/congenital-aneurysmal-right-coronary-artery-with-a-fistula-to-the-left-atrium-in-an-adult
#18
Neerod Kumar Jha, Laszlo Kiraly, Nishant Shah, Arif Al Mulla, Bassem Mora
BACKGROUND: Congenital coronary artery fistula in association with aneurysm of the involved coronary artery in adults is rare. Moreover, the right coronary artery- left atrial fistula is also uncommon. Most of the cases are asymptomatic. However, symptomatic patients need therapeutic interventions. The potential complications associated with this anomaly are life-threatening, therefore, there is a need to explore more on differential diagnosis, investigations, management strategies and prevention of complications...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736861/regulatory-strategies-for-rare-diseases-under-current-global-regulatory-statutes-a-discussion-with-stakeholders
#19
Andrew E Mulberg, Christina Bucci-Rechtweg, Joseph Giuliano, David Jacoby, Franklin K Johnson, Qing Liu, Deborah Marsden, Scott McGoohan, Robert Nelson, Nita Patel, Klaus Romero, Vikram Sinha, Sheela Sitaraman, John Spaltro, Vivian Kessler
Rare or orphan diseases often are inherited and overwhelmingly affect children. Many of these diseases have no treatments, are incurable, and have a devastating impact on patients and their families. Regulatory standards for drug approval for rare diseases must ensure that patients receive safe and efficacious treatments. However, regulatory bodies have shown flexibility in applying these standards to drug development in rare diseases, given the unique challenges that hinder efficient and effective traditional clinical trials, including low patient numbers, limited understanding of disease pathology and progression, variability in disease presentation, and a lack of established endpoints...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736792/women-s-perspectives-on-health-facility-and-system-levels-factors-influencing-mode-of-delivery-in-tehran-a-qualitative-study
#20
Mahboube Shirzad, Elham Shakibazadeh, Ana Pilar Betran, Meghan A Bohren, Mehrandokht Abedini
BACKGROUND: Iran has one of the highest national caesarean section rates worldwide. Few studies explored in-depth the health-facility and health-system level factors that affect women's choices on mode of delivery in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore the health-facility and health-system level factors affecting women's preferences on mode of delivery in Tehran. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth face-to-face interviews with women between October 2017 and May 2018...
February 8, 2019: Reproductive Health
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