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Cytology AND molecular

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772062/-the-age-of-artificial-intelligence-in-lung-cancer-pathology-between-hope-gloom-and-perspectives
#1
Simon Heeke, Hervé Delingette, Youta Fanjat, Elodie Long-Mira, Sandra Lassalle, Véronique Hofman, Jonathan Benzaquen, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Paul Hofman, Marius Ilié
Histopathology is the fundamental tool of pathology used for more than a century to establish the final diagnosis of lung cancer. In addition, the phenotypic data contained in the histological images reflects the overall effect of molecular alterations on the behavior of cancer cells and provides a practical visual reading of the aggressiveness of the disease. However, the human evaluation of the histological images is sometimes subjective and may lack reproducibility. Therefore, computational analysis of histological imaging using so-called "artificial intelligence" (AI) approaches has recently received considerable attention to improve this diagnostic accuracy...
February 13, 2019: Annales de Pathologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767239/lipid-droplet-biogenesis-regulated-by-the-fgnem1-spo7-fgpah1-phosphatase-cascade-plays-critical-roles-in-fungal-development-and-virulence-in-fusarium-graminearum
#2
Na Liu, Yingzi Yun, Yanni Yin, Matthias Hahn, Zhonghua Ma, Yun Chen
●Lipid droplets (LDs) control lipid metabolism in eukaryotic cells in general. However, the biogenesis regulation and biological functions of LDs are largely unknown in pathogenic fungi. ● Rapamycin treatment results in a significant increase of LD biogenesis in Fusarium graminearum. Molecular mechanisms of the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway in regulating LD biogenesis and the functions of LD in virulence of F. graminearum were investigated in depth by combining genetic, cytological and phenotypic strategies...
February 14, 2019: New Phytologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761628/growth-performance-biochemical-cytological-and-molecular-aspects-of-rabbits-exposed-to-lead-toxicity
#3
Heba S A Taha, Sameh A Abdelnour, Mahmoud Alagawany
Heavy metals have enormous variety of deleterious effects on many organs in the body. This study demonstrated the toxic influences of lead on the growth, biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of developing rabbits. Seventy-five rabbits (New Zealand NZW) were divided into five equal groups as follows; control (C) and four treatment groups (T1-4) orally administered lead acetate solution as follow T1: 20, T2: 30, T3: 50 and T4: 70 mg/kg body weight. Lead resulted in a significant decrease in live body weight, daily body weight gain and feed intake in T3 and T4 compared to those in other groups...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759433/circulating-tumour-cells-in-predictive-molecular-pathology-focus-on-drug-sensitive-assays-and-3d-culture
#4
REVIEW
Pierlorenzo Pallante, Pasquale Pisapia, Claudio Bellevicine, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone
Molecular cytopathology is a rapidly evolving field of cytopathology that provides biological information about the response to personalised therapy and about the prognosis of neoplasms diagnosed on cytological samples. Biomarkers such as circulating tumour cells and circulating tumour DNA are increasingly being evaluated in blood and in other body fluids. Such liquid biopsies are non-invasive, repeatable, and feasible also in patients with severe comorbidities. However, liquid biopsy may be challenging due to a low concentration of biomarkers...
February 13, 2019: Acta Cytologica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755567/molecular-diagnosis-of-human-papilloma-virus-by-pcr
#5
F Nahar, M A Hossain, S K Paul, M U Ahmed, S Khatun, G R Bhuiyan, S A Nasreen, N Haque, S Ahmed, N Kobayashi, S N Akter, H Begum
Cervical cancer is a major world health problem and the fourth most leading cause of death in women around the world. High risk HPV DNA has been shown to be present in 99.7% of cervical cancers worldwide. So detection of HPV DNA by PCR may help in early detection and management of cervical cancer. This cross sectional observational study was done to detect L1 antigen gene of HPV from cervical swab by nested PCR. Following universal safety precautions a total of 141 endocervical swabs were collected from Colposcopy clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of MMCH from January 2015 to December 2015...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745845/trib3-promotes-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-via-activating-mapk-signaling-pathway
#6
Baoan Hong, Jingcheng Zhou, Kaifang Ma, Jiufeng Zhang, Haibiao Xie, Kenan Zhang, Lei Li, Lin Cai, Ning Zhang, Zhongyuan Zhang, Kan Gong
Tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) is a member of the mammalian pseudokinase tribbles family and is involved in multiple biological processes. However, the role of TRIB3 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological functions of TRIB3 in RCC and explore its underlying mechanisms. TRIB3 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological features was evaluated in 123 patients with RCC. A series of cytological experiments were performed to clarify the biological functions of TRIB3, and potential molecular regulatory mechanisms were explored using transcriptome sequencing...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745733/a-comparative-study-of-cell-block-versus-biopsy-for-detection-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-and-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rearrangement-in-adenocarcinoma-lung
#7
Vani Gupta, Saumya Shukla, Nuzhat Husain, Surya Kant, Rajiv Garg
Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of deaths attributed to cancer worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement are commonly found in patients of adenocarcinoma lung against, which targeted therapy is available. In this era of personalized medicine, it is a rationale to detect these molecular alterations in cases of lung carcinomas. Aims: The objectives were to compare the diagnostic efficacy of cytological samples for the detection of EGFR and ALK protein expression using immunocytochemistry in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma...
January 2019: Journal of Cytology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745382/bacterial-cytological-profiling-bcp-as-a-tool-to-study-mechanism-of-action-of-antibiotics-that-are-active-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Htut Htut Htoo, Lauren Brumage, Vorrapon Chaikeeratisak, Hannah Tsunemoto, Joseph Sugie, Chanwit Tribuddharat, Joe Pogliano, Poochit Nonejuie
An increasing number of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR- AB ) infections have been reported worldwide, posing a threat to public health. The establishment of methods to elucidate the mechanism of action (MOA) of A. baumannii -specific antibiotics is needed to develop novel antimicrobial therapeutics with activity against MDR- AB We previously developed bacterial cytological profiling (BCP) to understand the MOA of compounds in E. coli and B. subtilis Given how distantly related A. baumannii is to these species, it was unclear to what extent it could be applied...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741488/genotyping-and-cytomorphological-subtyping-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-based-on-liquid-based-cytology
#9
Ryota Tanaka, Norihiko Sakamoto, Hitomi Suzuki, Keisei Tachibana, Kouki Ohtsuka, Koji Kishimoto, Masachika Fujiwara, Hiroshi Kamma, Junji Shibahara, Haruhiko Kondo
BACKGROUND: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples allow immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular testing of nucleic acids to be performed in the remaining fixed cells. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between gene mutational status and cytomorphological features in primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) using LBC materials. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients with primary lung ADC underwent surgical resection in our hospital...
February 11, 2019: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738693/molecular-characterization-of-sessile-serrated-adenoma-to-carcinoma-transition-in-six-early-colorectal-cancers
#10
Rocco Cappellesso, Marcello Lo Mele, Giada Munari, Erik Rosa-Rizzotto, Ennio Guido, Franca De Lazzari, Pierluigi Pilati, Marco Tonello, Fabio Farinati, Stefano Realdon, Matteo Fassan, Massimo Rugge
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous group of diseases both from the morphological and molecular point of view. The sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) has been proposed as the precursor lesion of CRCs characterized by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system deficiency, and BRAF gene mutations. However, no study so far investigated the molecular landscape of "sessile serrated" adenoma to carcinoma transition in early CRCs. Six formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRCs developed within SSA/P were profiled for the immunohistochemical expression of MMR proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and Ep-CAM), p16, and β-catenin...
February 3, 2019: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738016/bifocal-germinoma-in-a-patient-with-16p11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#11
Mara Ventura, Leonor Gomes, Joana Rosmaninho-Salgado, Luísa Barros, Isabel Paiva, Miguel Melo, Diana Oliveira, Francisco Carrilho
Intracranial germinomas are rare tumors affecting mostly patients at young age. Therefore, molecular data on its etiopathogenesis are scarce. We present a clinical case of a male patient of 25 years with an intracranial germinoma and a 16p11.2 microdeletion. His initial complaints were related to obesity, loss of facial hair and polydipsia. He also had a history of social-interaction difficulties during childhood. His blood tests were consistent with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency, and he had been previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism...
February 7, 2019: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737415/the-molecular-characterization-of-fixed-inversions-breakpoints-unveils-the-ancestral-character-of-the-drosophila-guanche-chromosomal-arrangements
#12
Dorcas J Orengo, Eva Puerma, Montserrat Aguadé
Cytological studies revealed that the number of chromosomes and their organization varies across species. The increasing availability of whole genome sequences of multiple species across specific phylogenies has confirmed and greatly extended these cytological observations. In the Drosophila genus, the ancestral karyotype consists of five rod-like acrocentric chromosomes (Muller elements A to E) and one dot-like chromosome (element F), each exhibiting a generally conserved gene content. Chromosomal fusions and paracentric inversions are thus the major contributors, respectively, to chromosome number variation among species and to gene order variation within chromosomal element...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735198/a-stainless-protocol-for-high-quality-rna-isolation-from-laser-capture-microdissected-purkinje-cells-in-the-human-post-mortem-cerebellum
#13
Regina T Martuscello, Elan D Louis, Phyllis L Faust
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is an advantageous tool that allows for the collection of cytologically and/or phenotypically relevant cells or regions from heterogenous tissues. Captured product can be used in a variety of molecular methods for protein, DNA or RNA isolation. However, preservation of RNA from postmortem human brain tissue is especially challenging. Standard visualization techniques for LCM require histologic or immunohistochemical staining procedures that can further degrade RNA. Therefore, we designed a stainless protocol for visualization in LCM with the intended purpose of preserving RNA integrity in post-mortem human brain tissue...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723885/polymorphous-adenocarcinoma-an-overview-of-immunohistochemical-features-and-insights-on-molecular-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Jason Tasoulas, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Jerzy Klijanienko, Stamatios Theocharis
Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC), represents a common minor salivary gland tumor (SGT) characterized by local growth, low metastatic potential and non-aggressive biologic behavior. Due to the clinical aggressiveness noted in a subset of such tumors, the former term polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) was recently revised. PAC's clinical features and histological diversity result in clinical overlap of this entity with several other SGTs including mainly adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). Differential diagnosis among the entities is crucial, in terms of tumor management and patients' prognosis...
February 6, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717912/molecular-diagnostic-evaluation-of-thyroid-nodules
#15
REVIEW
Sarah E Mayson, Bryan R Haugen
The historical management approach for many patients with indeterminate thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration cytology is a diagnostic lobectomy or thyroidectomy. However, the majority of patients undergo surgery unnecessarily, because most are proven to have benign disease on histology. Molecular testing is a diagnostic tool that can be used to help guide the clinical management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology results. Testing has evolved substantially over the last decade with significant advances in testing methodology and improvements in our understanding of the genetic basis of thyroid cancer...
March 2019: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30713559/effect-of-imatinib-on-bone-marrow-morphology-and-angiogenesis-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Neetu Pandey, Geeta Yadav, Rashmi Kushwaha, Shailendra Prasad Verma, Uma Shankar Singh, Ashutosh Kumar, Prabhaker Mishra
Background and Objectives: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by hyperproliferation of myeloid precursors, increased fibrosis, and neoangiogenesis in the bone marrow. Imatinib inhibits BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase produced due to reciprocal translocation t(9;22) in neoplastic CML cells. It reduces hyperproliferation of myeloid precursors and has been found to affect bone marrow fibrosis and angiogenesis. This study was done to assess the effect of imatinib on bone marrow morphology and angiogenesis in CML...
2019: Advances in Hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709446/practical-application-of-cytology-and-core-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-mesenchymal-tumors
#17
REVIEW
David J Papke, Vickie Y Jo
Soft tissue neoplasms are increasingly being sampled by core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration (FNA), and these small biopsy specimens pose unique diagnostic challenges. Many advances in ancillary testing enable detection of characteristic immunophenotypes and molecular alterations, allowing accurate classification of soft tissue tumors in these small biopsy samples. This review outlines pattern-based diagnostic approaches to core biopsies and FNAs of soft tissue neoplasms, including formulation of practical differential diagnoses and relevant application of ancillary tests...
March 2019: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707506/sustainable-cytopathology-in-the-precision-medicine-era-exploring-new-sources-for-molecular-testing-in-thyroid-cytology-specimens
#18
EDITORIAL
Michiya Nishino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Cancer Cytopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704174/-preoperative-molecular-testing-on-fine-needle-aspiration-in-precision-management-of-thyroid-cancer
#19
Y T Song, B Zhang
This article focuses on the controversial issues in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. Several commonly used molecular tests, especially gene mutation and fusion detection, in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules and the prognosis evaluation of thyroid cancer are introduced. For the thyroid nodules with uncertain indeterminate cytology, different molecular screening methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Among them, DNA detection, especially multi-gene molecular testing based on next-generation sequencing has better sensitivity and specificity...
January 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704164/-value-of-the-detection-of-braf-v600e-gene-mutation-and-protein-expression-in-auxiliary-cytological-diagnosis-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#20
H Zhao, H Q Guo, Z H Zhang, J Cao, L L Zhao, Y Sun, C Wang, T Xiao
Objective: To evaluate the utility of the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection in different cytoloy categories and to determine if the VE1 antibody can serve as a screening tool for the detection of BRAF (V)600E mutation in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. Methods: A total of 273 FNA residual specimens were collected. BRAF (V600E) testing was performed on these liquid-based specimens. And also 78 specimens with enough residual cells were stained with VE1 antibody. Comparisons of molecular and immunocytochemistry results with clinicopathological outcomes were performed...
January 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
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