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Seung-Seop Yeom, In Ja Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, Chan Wook Kim, Seok-Byung Lim, Sung Ho Park, Hwa Jung Kim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
PURPOSE: Although the height of a rectal tumor above the anal verge (tumor height) partly determines the treatment strategy, no practical standard exists for reporting this. We aimed to demonstrate the differences in tumor height according to the diagnostic modality used for its measurement. METHODS: We identified 100 patients with rectal cancers located within 15 cm of the anal verge who had recorded tumor heights measured by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), colonoscopy, and digital rectal examination (DRE)...
February 2019: Annals of Coloproctology
P Guru Vishnu, T K Bhattacharya, Bharat Bhushan, Pushpendra Kumar, R N Chatterjee, Chandan Paswan, K Dushyanth, D Divya, A Rajendra Prasad
Gene silencing by RNA interference is extensively used reverse genetic approach to analyse the implications of any gene in mammalian systems. The silencing of the Activin type IIB receptor belonging to transforming growth factor beta superfamily has demonstrated increase in muscle growth in many species. We designed five short hairpin RNA constructs targeting coding region of chicken ACTRIIB. All the shRNAs were transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast cells and evaluated their silencing efficiency by real time PCR and western blotting...
March 16, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Mary García-Acero, Mónica Molina, Olga Moreno, Andrea Ramirez, Catalina Forero, Camila Céspedes, Juan Carlos Prieto, Jaime Pérez, Fernando Suárez-Obando, Adriana Rojas
Two sisters phenotypically normal females, presenting with tumor abdominal mass with histopathological findings of teratoma and gonadoblastoma associated to 46,XY male-to-female sex reversal syndrome, secondary to a duplication in DAX-1, possibly inherited of maternal gonadal mosaicism. Copy number variation and functional effects of the duplication were done by MLPA multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and real time PCR. DAX-1, also known as dosage sensitive sex reversal gene (DSS), is considered the most likely candidate gene involved in XY gonadal dysgenesis when overexpressed...
March 16, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Germain Honvo, Olivier Bruyère, Anton Geerinck, Nicola Veronese, Jean-Yves Reginster
INTRODUCTION: There are some controversies about treatment modalities in osteoarthritis (OA), including chondroitin sulfate (CS). The objective of this study was to determine whether CS is effective at alleviating pain and improving function in patients with knee OA and to identify the factors that explain inconsistencies in clinical trial results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, searching the databases Medline, Cochrane central register for controlled trials and Scopus...
March 16, 2019: Advances in Therapy
Krystal Khoo, Ryan E K Man, Gwyn Rees, Preeti Gupta, Ecosse L Lamoureux, Eva K Fenwick
IMPORTANCE: Previous work has reported a link between diabetic retinopathy/diabetic macular edema (DR/DME) and psychosocial functioning, although the extent and direction of the association remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between DR/DME and psychosocial functioning, the latter an umbrella term used to capture the emotional and social aspects of functioning which may include, for example, depression; depressive disorder; anxiety; vision-specific distress; diabetes-specific distress and emotional and social well-being...
March 16, 2019: Quality of Life Research
Lei Ma, Bingzi Zhao, Zhibin Guo, Daozhong Wang, Dandan Li, Jisheng Xu, Zengqiang Li, Jiabao Zhang
Unbalanced fertilization lacking nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or potassium (K) is a worldwide phenomenon; however, whether they affect bacterial community composition and intraspecific interactions in a similar pattern and how they affect bacterial activity are not systematically compared. Soils under different kinds of unbalanced fertilization in a 21-year field experiment were collected to investigate the variation in dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial community diversity, structure, composition, and possible interactions...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Jinzhong Yang, Qingqi Die, Jie He, Hongjin Yu, Qi Zhou, Qifei Huang
Secondary aluminum smelting industry, as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) in environment, has been concerned in recent years. To figure out the emission characteristics of PCNs and the potential influence on surrounding environment, two typical secondary aluminum smelting plants were selected and PCNs were determined in flue gas, fly ash, aluminum slag, soil, and air samples collected at and around the plants by GC-MS coupled with DFS. PCN emission factors from the flue gas of the two plants (mean 0...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanying Wang, Yan Yang, Wei Liu, Fang Ding, Ping Zou, Xianxiang Wang, Qingbiao Zhao, Hanbing Rao
A dual-mode method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and of ascorbic acid oxidase (AA-Ox) activity. It combines the advantages of ratiometric fluorometry and colorimetry. The assay is based on the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) by permanganate (KMnO4 ). A yellow substance (referred to as oxOPDA) with an absorption peak at 425 nm is rapidly produced in the presence of the oxidant. oxOPDA reduces the blue fluorescence of carbon dots (C-dots) peaking at 450 nm (upon 380-nm excitation), and a new emission peak is found at 565 nm...
March 16, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Massimo Cencini, Guido Boffetta, Matteo Borgnino, Filippo De Lillo
Gyrotactic algae are bottom heavy, motile cells whose swimming direction is determined by a balance between a buoyancy torque directing them upwards and fluid velocity gradients. Gyrotaxis has, in recent years, become a paradigmatic model for phytoplankton motility in flows. The essential attractiveness of this peculiar form of motility is the availability of a mechanistic description which, despite its simplicity, revealed predictive, rich in phenomenology, easily complemented to include the effects of shape, feedback on the fluid and stochasticity (e...
March 20, 2019: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Laura E Davis, Courtney Fulton, Lev D Bubis, Jonathan Sussman, Lesley Moody, Lisa Barbera, Qing Li, Alyson L Mahar, Natalie G Coburn, Claire M B Holloway
PURPOSE: Studies examining symptom differences between surgeries for breast cancer patients rarely incorporate the effects of adjuvant treatment choice. We sought to understand differences in patient-reported symptoms between lumpectomy plus radiation and mastectomy in the year following surgery. METHODS: This cohort study used linked administrative datasets. The exposure was defined as lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy. The outcomes of moderate-to-severe (score ≥ 4) patient-reported symptoms were obtained using the Edmonton symptom assessment system (ESAS)...
March 16, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tom Knauf, Benjamin Bücking, Mathias Bargello, Sebastian Ploch, Christopher Bliemel, Matthias Knobe, Steffen Ruchholtz, Daphne Eschbach
The incidence of hip fractures is increasing due to demographic transition. Data on long-term survival and influencing factors are sparse. Our prospective observational study with 395 patients shows a survival of 38% after 5 years. Significant risk factors were male gender, higher age, lower Barthel Index, lower Charlson Comorbidity Score, lower Mini-Mental State Examination, and delirium during hospitalization. PURPOSE: The incidence of hip fractures is increasing due to demographic transition...
March 16, 2019: Archives of Osteoporosis
Vivian L Towe, Ellen Weiss Wiewel, Yaoyu Zhong, Sebastian Linnemayr, Rachel Johnson, John Rojas
We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether, for homeless persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), rapid re-housing can improve housing and HIV viral suppression more than standard housing assistance. We recruited 236 PLWHA from HIV emergency housing in New York City (NYC) and randomized them to: (1) Enhanced Housing Placement Assistance (EHPA), i.e., immediate assignment to a case manager to rapidly re-house the client and provide 12 months of case management or (2) usual services, i.e., referral to an NYC housing placement program for which all HIV emergency housing residents were eligible...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Ahnalee M Brincks, Karen Shiu-Yee, Lisa R Metsch, Carlos Del Rio, Robert P Schwartz, Petra Jacobs, Georgina Osorio, James L Sorensen, Daniel J Feaster
Medical mistrust is an important risk factor for many health outcomes. For individuals with HIV and substance use co-morbidities, mistrust may influence engagement with health care, and affect overall health and transmission risk. Medical mistrust can be measured by an individual's mistrust of his/her physician, or mistrust of the medical system. This study examined both types of mistrust among 801 substance-using individuals with uncontrolled HIV infection. The aims were to determine how physician mistrust, medical system mistrust, and discrimination experiences were associated with engagement in HIV primary care...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Yoriko Sugiyama, Masao Murata, Seiichi Kanetani, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is essential for the survival of both host trees and associated ECM fungi. However, during conservation activities of endangered tree species, their ECM symbionts are largely ignored. Here, we investigated ECM fungi in ex situ populations established for the conservation of Pinus amamiana, an endangered species distributed on Yakushima Island, Japan. Our objective was to determine whether ECM fungi in natural forests are conserved in ex situ populations on the same island. In particular, we focused on the existence of Rhizopogon yakushimensis, which is specific to P...
March 16, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Marcelo Henrique Matias da Silva, Raiza Nara Cunha Moises, Brenda Elen Bizerra Alves, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Anne Aline Pereira de Paiva, Ingryd Câmara Morais, Yasmim Mesquita Nascimento, Joelma Dantas Monteiro, Janeusa Trindade de Souto, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Paulo Marcos Matta da Guedes, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Yann Le Mansec, Sylvain Dorel, Antoine Nordez, Marc Jubeau
PURPOSE: Reaction time, classically divided into premotor time and electromechanical delay (EMD), can be determinant in daily life or sport situations. While some previous studies reported a negative impact of both muscle and mental fatigue on reaction time, the respective contributions of premotor time and EMD to the changes of reaction time remains unclear. The aim of the study was, therefore, to assess the effects of both muscle and mental effort on reaction time and its components...
March 16, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
N Lemeunier, S da Silva-Oolup, K Olesen, H Shearer, L J Carroll, O Brady, E Côté, P Stern, T Tuff, M Suri-Chilana, P Torres, J J Wong, D Sutton, K Murnaghan, P Côté
PURPOSE: To determine the reliability and validity of self-reported questionnaires to measure pain and disability in adults with grades I-IV neck pain and its associated disorders (NAD). METHODS: We updated the systematic review of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders and systematically searched databases from 2005 to 2017. Independent reviewers screened and critically appraised studies using standardized tools...
March 16, 2019: European Spine Journal
Jeongsik Kim
Senescence in plants is an active and acquired developmental process that occurs at the last developmental stage during the life cycle of a plant. Leaf senescence is a relatively slow process, which is characterized by loss of photosynthetic activity and breakdown of macromolecules, to compensate for reduced energy production. Sugars, major photosynthetic assimilates, are key substrates required for cellular respiration to produce intermediate sources of energy and reducing power, which are known to be essential for the maintenance of cellular processes during senescence...
March 16, 2019: Genes & Genomics
Seungil Paik, Rishi K Somvanshi, Ujendra Kumar
Somatostatin (SST) is a growth hormone inhibitory peptide involved in regulation of several physiological responses of cells including neurotransmission, cell migration, maturation, and neurite formation. In the present study, we examined the role of SST in all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced progression of neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. We also determined the morphological and developmental changes in prominent intracellular markers of neurite growth including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neuron-specific III β-tubulin (TUJ1), and Tau...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
J-W Feng, X-H Yang, B-Q Wu, D-L Sun, Y Jiang, Z Qu
BACKGROUND: Central lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common. But the association between primary tumor characteristics and specific features of metastatic lymph nodes in PTC has not been fully identified. Determining risk factors for LNM may help surgeons determine rational extent of lymph node dissection. METHODS: Data from 432 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection for PTC were retrospectively analyzed...
March 16, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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