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Colorectal under 40

Clémentine Bouchez, Emmanuelle Kempf, Christophe Tournigand
Checkpoints inhibitors are known to induce striking tumor responses in advanced MSI colorectal cancers, which used to be related to a poor clinical outcome. The incidence of the MSI phenotype is highly heterogeneous across non-colorectal cancers. The highest incidence rates are found in endometrioid forms of uterine cancers and in gastric tumors (20 to 40 % and 10 to 33 %, respectively). The association between a "MSI" tumor phenotype and other clinical or biological tumor characteristics is still under debate...
February 5, 2019: Bulletin du Cancer
David Karsenti, Gaelle Tharsis, Pascal Burtin, Franck Venezia, Gilles Tordjman, Agnès Gillet, Joelle Samama, Karine Nahon-Uzan, Philippe Cattan, Maryan Cavicchi
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is considered a valid primary screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC). The decreasing risk of CRC observed in patients undergoing colonoscopy is correlated with the adenoma detection rate (ADR). Due to the fact that screening programs usually start from the age of 50, very few data are available on the risk of adenoma between 40 and 49 years. However, the incidence of CRC is increasing in young populations and it is not uncommon in routine practice to detect adenomas or even advanced neoplasia during colonoscopy in patients under 50 years...
January 28, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Benjamin A Weinberg, John L Marshall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent rise of young individuals under age 50 with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a startling trend in need of greater focus and research. The etiology of young-onset CRC is unexplained as efforts to blame obesity or diabetes as causative factors are simplistic and inadequate. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe the epidemiologic shifts of CRC incidence and mortality across age groups as well as the differences in clinicopathologic, molecular, treatment, and survival characteristics between young and older patients...
January 18, 2019: Current Oncology Reports
Joanna Chrobak-Bień, Anna Gawor, Małgorzata Paplaczyk, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Anita Gąsiorowska
INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) belongs to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases of previously unknown etiology. Although UC may occur at any age, the peak of incidence falls between the ages of 20 and 40 and over 65. It is characterized by alternating periods of remission and exacerbations that hinder the daily functioning of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of acceptance of the disease among WZJG patients, depending on selected socio-demographic and clinical variables...
August 6, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
Prateush Singh, Krashna Patel, Pallavi Arya, Esha Singh, Amitabh Mishra
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second commonest malignancy related death in Western Europe with incidence increasing in young adults. 31% of UK patients with CRC present as emergencies. We compare the incidence, characteristics, management and outcomes in two cohorts presenting as CRC emergencies; under-50 and over-50 years old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 322 patients with emergency presentations of CRC over a 9-year period (January 2005-December 2013, West Suffolk Hospital, UK)...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Gianluca Mauri, Elio Gregory Pizzutilo, Alessio Amatu, Katia Bencardino, Laura Palmeri, Erica Francesca Bonazzina, Federica Tosi, Giulia Carlo Stella, Giovanni Burrafato, Francesco Scaglione, Silvia Marsoni, Giulia Siravegna, Alberto Bardelli, Salvatore Siena, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in precision oncology and immunotherapy of tumors, little progress has been made in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in recent years. Therefore, making the most of available therapies is a necessity. Several studies, based on the pulsatile behavior of RAS clones under EGFR blockade, investigated whether readministration of EGFR-targeted agents is effective beyond second line. METHODS: A systematic review of studies of retreatment with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies has been performed from January 2005 to December 2018 according to PRISMA criteria from PubMed, ESMO and ASCO meetings libraries and Clinicaltrial...
December 27, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Ran Xu, Chen Xu, Chuntong Liu, Can Cui, Jing Zhu
Aim: The use of bevacizumab in combination therapy is an emerging trend in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. However, the clinical value of different combination types remains under debate. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bevacizumab-based combination therapy with monotherapy (therapy that uses one type of treatment, such as chemotherapy or surgery alone, to treat metastatic colorectal cancer) was performed, aiming to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-based combination therapy and to find a more beneficial combination...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Xiaomei Wang, Qin Qi, Yuanyuan Wang, Huangan Wu, Xiaoming Jin, Huan Yao, Duiyin Jin, Yanan Liu, Cun Wang
Background: The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is closely related to intestinal dysbacteriosis and can be controlled by moxibustion treatment. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic value of moxibustion in IBS treatment remains unknown. Methods: An IBS rat model was established by colorectal distention (CRD) stimulus and mustard oil clyster. Sixty-five male rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal, IBS model, moxibustion, electroacupuncture (EA), Bifid-triple Viable Capsule (BTVC) and Pinaverium Bromide (PB) groups...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Alisa Olkinuora, Taina T Nieminen, Emma Mårtensson, Anna Rohlin, Ari Ristimäki, Laura Koskenvuo, Anna Lepistö, Samuel Gebre-Medhin, Margareta Nordling, Päivi Peltomäki
PURPOSE: Some 10% of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and 80% of attenuated polyposis (AFAP) cases remain molecularly unexplained. We scrutinized such cases by exome-wide and targeted methods to search for novel susceptibility genes. METHODS: Exome sequencing was conducted on 40 unexplained (mainly sporadic) cases with FAP or AFAP from Finland. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH3 (MutL Homolog 3) was pinpointed and prompted a subsequent screen of ~1000 Swedish patients referred to clinical panel sequencing for colon tumor susceptibility...
December 21, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Katie E Rollins, Hannah Javanmard-Emamghissi, Austin G Acheson, Dileep N Lobo
OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of the use of oral antibiotics (OAB) with or without mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on outcome in elective colorectal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Meta-analyses have demonstrated that MBP does not impact upon postoperative morbidity or mortality, and as such it should not be prescribed routinely. However, recent evidence from large retrospective cohort and database studies has suggested that there may be a role for combined OAB and MBP, or OAB alone in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI)...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jinping Lu, Yuejin Li, Yuanzhong Wu, Shan Zhou, Chaojun Duan, Zigang Dong, Tiebang Kang, Faqing Tang
Molecule interacting with CasL2 (MICAL2), a microtubule-associated monooxygenase, is highly expressed in various cancers and is involved in cancer pathogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation in carcinogenesis are unclear. In this study, we aim to clarify the mechanism by which MICAL2 participates in colorectal cancer (CRC) and identify novel markers for predicting prognosis of CRC patients. Methods: The value of MICAL2 in CRC prognosis was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of a CRC biopsy array...
2018: Theranostics
Yang-Ping Ding, Zi-Li Gao, Bing-Can Chen, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Hua-Yi Suo, Hua-Rong Tong, Hang Xiao
Backgroud: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, is well documented to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer by targeting multiple signal transduction pathways. However, EGCG is extremely unstable in general culture conditions and rapidly degraded. So, to what extent EGCG or which degradation products of EGCG play a role in anti-tumor is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different treatments of EGCG on HCT116 cells. DESIGN: MTT assay was applied to evaluated the inhibitory effect of different treatments of EGCG on HCT116 cells...
December 4, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Jeroen R Huyghe, Stephanie A Bien, Tabitha A Harrison, Hyun Min Kang, Sai Chen, Stephanie L Schmit, David V Conti, Conghui Qu, Jihyoun Jeon, Christopher K Edlund, Peyton Greenside, Michael Wainberg, Fredrick R Schumacher, Joshua D Smith, David M Levine, Sarah C Nelson, Nasa A Sinnott-Armstrong, Demetrius Albanes, M Henar Alonso, Kristin Anderson, Coral Arnau-Collell, Volker Arndt, Christina Bamia, Barbara L Banbury, John A Baron, Sonja I Berndt, Stéphane Bézieau, D Timothy Bishop, Juergen Boehm, Heiner Boeing, Hermann Brenner, Stefanie Brezina, Stephan Buch, Daniel D Buchanan, Andrea Burnett-Hartman, Katja Butterbach, Bette J Caan, Peter T Campbell, Christopher S Carlson, Sergi Castellví-Bel, Andrew T Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Sang Hee Cho, Charles M Connolly, Amanda J Cross, Katarina Cuk, Keith R Curtis, Albert de la Chapelle, Kimberly F Doheny, David Duggan, Douglas F Easton, Sjoerd G Elias, Faye Elliott, Dallas R English, Edith J M Feskens, Jane C Figueiredo, Rocky Fischer, Liesel M FitzGerald, David Forman, Manish Gala, Steven Gallinger, W James Gauderman, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth Gillanders, Jian Gong, Phyllis J Goodman, William M Grady, John S Grove, Andrea Gsur, Marc J Gunter, Robert W Haile, Jochen Hampe, Heather Hampel, Sophia Harlid, Richard B Hayes, Philipp Hofer, Michael Hoffmeister, John L Hopper, Wan-Ling Hsu, Wen-Yi Huang, Thomas J Hudson, David J Hunter, Gemma Ibañez-Sanz, Gregory E Idos, Roxann Ingersoll, Rebecca D Jackson, Eric J Jacobs, Mark A Jenkins, Amit D Joshi, Corinne E Joshu, Temitope O Keku, Timothy J Key, Hyeong Rok Kim, Emiko Kobayashi, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Tilman Kühn, Sébastien Küry, Sun-Seog Kweon, Susanna C Larsson, Cecelia A Laurie, Loic Le Marchand, Suzanne M Leal, Soo Chin Lee, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Mathieu Lemire, Christopher I Li, Li Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Yi Lin, Annika Lindblom, Noralane M Lindor, Hua Ling, Tin L Louie, Satu Männistö, Sanford D Markowitz, Vicente Martín, Giovanna Masala, Caroline E McNeil, Marilena Melas, Roger L Milne, Lorena Moreno, Neil Murphy, Robin Myte, Alessio Naccarati, Polly A Newcomb, Kenneth Offit, Shuji Ogino, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Barbara Pardini, Patrick S Parfrey, Rachel Pearlman, Vittorio Perduca, Paul D P Pharoah, Mila Pinchev, Elizabeth A Platz, Ross L Prentice, Elizabeth Pugh, Leon Raskin, Gad Rennert, Hedy S Rennert, Elio Riboli, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Jane Romm, Lori C Sakoda, Clemens Schafmayer, Robert E Schoen, Daniela Seminara, Mitul Shah, Tameka Shelford, Min-Ho Shin, Katerina Shulman, Sabina Sieri, Martha L Slattery, Melissa C Southey, Zsofia K Stadler, Christa Stegmaier, Yu-Ru Su, Catherine M Tangen, Stephen N Thibodeau, Duncan C Thomas, Sushma S Thomas, Amanda E Toland, Antonia Trichopoulou, Cornelia M Ulrich, David J Van Den Berg, Franzel J B van Duijnhoven, Bethany Van Guelpen, Henk van Kranen, Joseph Vijai, Kala Visvanathan, Pavel Vodicka, Ludmila Vodickova, Veronika Vymetalkova, Korbinian Weigl, Stephanie J Weinstein, Emily White, Aung Ko Win, C Roland Wolf, Alicja Wolk, Michael O Woods, Anna H Wu, Syed H Zaidi, Brent W Zanke, Qing Zhang, Wei Zheng, Peter C Scacheri, John D Potter, Michael C Bassik, Anshul Kundaje, Graham Casey, Victor Moreno, Goncalo R Abecasis, Deborah A Nickerson, Stephen B Gruber, Li Hsu, Ulrike Peters
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8 , bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100...
January 2019: Nature Genetics
Clasine M de Klerk, Els Wieten, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Patrick M Bossuyt, Manon Cw Spaander, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are recommended for colorectal cancer screening. Two frequently used FIT methods (FOB-Gold, Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy and OC-Sensor, Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) perform similarly in detecting advanced neoplasia (ie, colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma) at a fixed positivity cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. It is unclear whether the performance of the two methods is also comparable at other thresholds. We compared the accuracy of the two assays in detecting advanced neoplasia across various thresholds...
February 2019: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yvette Hm Claassen, Maxime Jm van der Valk, Anne J Breugom, Martine A Frouws, Esther Bastiaannet, Gerrit-Jan Liefers, Cornelis Jh van de Velde, Ellen Kapiteijn
BACKGROUND: For patients with asymptomatic, incurable, metastatic colorectal cancer, palliative, systemic treatment can be started immediately, or can be delayed until disease-related symptoms occur. How the potential survival benefit of starting palliative, systemic treatment immediately after diagnosis weighs up against the potential side effects is currently under debate, and was investigated in this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immediate versus delayed chemotherapy, with or without targeted therapy, on overall survival, toxicity, quality of life, progression-free survival, and compliance with chemotherapy for individuals with asymptomatic, metastatic, incurable colorectal cancer...
November 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lara F Nhola, Sahar S Abdelmoneim, Hector R Villarraga, Manish Kohli, Axel Grothey, Kimberly-Ann Bordun, Matthew Cheung, Ryan Best, David Cheung, Runqing Huang, Sergio Barros-Gomes, Marshall Pitz, Pawan K Singal, Davinder S Jassal, Sharon L Mulvagh
BACKGROUND: Cardio-oncology is a recently established discipline that focuses on the management of patients with cancer who are at risk for developing cardiovascular complications as a result of their underlying oncologic treatment. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (VEGF-i) therapy is commonly used to improve overall survival. Although these novel anticancer drugs may lead to the development of cardiotoxicity, whether early detection of cardiac dysfunction using serial echocardiography could potentially prevent the development of heart failure in this patient population requires further study...
November 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
K Evert, C Stiegler, C Schäfer, K Palme, E Horndasch, S Reitinger, B M Rau, W Dietmaier, M Evert
Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASqC) is an exceedingly rare subtype of colorectal cancer without any known special guidelines for treatment. The biological behaviour and molecular background are widely unknown, although a few case studies report a worse prognosis compared to ordinary colorectal adenocarcinoma. We herein report for the first time the successful immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in a 40-year-old patient suffering from metastasized right-sided colonic ASqC with unique molecular features, after having previously progressed under standard chemotherapy...
October 22, 2018: Der Pathologe
Po-Hong Liu, Kana Wu, Kimmie Ng, Ann G Zauber, Long H Nguyen, Mingyang Song, Xiaosheng He, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989)...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Leila Family, Yanli Li, Lie Hong Chen, John H Page, Zandra K Klippel, Chun Chao
Background: Previously identified patient-level risk factors for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) indicate several potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms, including bone marrow suppression, impaired neutrophil function, or disturbances of barrier function. This study evaluated whether additional clinical characteristics related to these pathogenic mechanisms were risk factors for FN. Patients and Methods: The study population included patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, or gastric cancer between 2000 and 2009 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California and treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy...
October 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Muriel Larauche, Nabila Moussaoui, Mandy Biraud, Won Ki Bae, Henri Duboc, Mulugeta Million, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Water avoidance stress (WAS) induces a naloxone-independent visceral analgesia in male rats under non-invasive conditions of monitoring. The objective of the study was to examine the role of brain CRF signaling in acute stress-induced visceral analgesia (SIVA). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula. The visceromotor response (VMR) to graded phasic colorectal distension (CRD: 10, 20, 40, 60 mm Hg, 20 seconds, 4 minutes intervals) was monitored using manometry...
October 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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