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nutrition in germ line cells

Isabel Cordero-Herrera, Mikael Kozyra, Zhengbing Zhuge, Sarah McCann Haworth, Chiara Moretti, Maria Peleli, Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Arghavan Jahandideh, Han Huirong, Josiane de Campos Cruz, Andrei L Kleschyov, Marcelo F Montenegro, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg, Mattias Carlstrom
Advanced age and unhealthy dietary habits contribute to the increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. These metabolic disorders, which are often accompanied by oxidative stress and compromised nitric oxide (NO) signaling, increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular complications and development of fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of dietary nitrate, which is found in high levels in green leafy vegetables, on liver steatosis associated with metabolic syndrome. Dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling pathway, which prevented many features of metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis that developed in mice fed a high-fat diet, with or without combination with an inhibitor of NOS (l-NAME)...
January 2, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eucario Leon-Rodriguez, Monica M Rivera-Franco, Dennis Lacayo-Leñero, Andrea Campos-Castro, Monica I Meneses-Medina
PURPOSE: The current first - line treatment for non - seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) consists of four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP), which results in 5 - year overall survival < 60% in patients with poor - risk features. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto - HSCT) as a method for overcoming high toxicity after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) has been explored in different solid tumors, but has remained standard practice only for NSGCT. Our objective was to describe outcomes of patients with poor - risk NSGCT who underwent first - line autologous HSCT in a tertiary center in Mexico...
September 15, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Francesca Tuorto, Carine Legrand, Cansu Cirzi, Giuseppina Federico, Reinhard Liebers, Martin Müller, Ann E Ehrenhofer-Murray, Gunnar Dittmar, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Frank Lyko
Global protein translation as well as translation at the codon level can be regulated by tRNA modifications. In eukaryotes, levels of tRNA queuosinylation reflect the bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which is salvaged from the diet and gut microbiota. We show here that nutritionally determined Q-tRNA levels promote Dnmt2-mediated methylation of tRNA Asp and control translational speed of Q-decoded codons as well as at near-cognate codons. Deregulation of translation upon queuine depletion results in unfolded proteins that trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the unfolded protein response, both in cultured human cell lines and in germ-free mice fed with a queuosine-deficient diet...
September 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Gunan Li, Kangwen Cheng, Zhenguo Zhao, Jian Wang, Weiming Zhu, Jieshou Li
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application of staged ileostomy and closure operation combined with nutritional support therapy in the treatment of chronic radiation intestinal injury(CRII). METHODS: Clinical data of patients with definite radiation history and pathological diagnosis of CRII receiving treatment at Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who were diagnosed with tumor recurrence during operation or by postoperative pathology were excluded...
July 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Michael Davis, Andrea Montalbano, Megan P Wood, Jennifer A Schisa
Cells respond to environmental stress in multiple ways. In the germ line, heat shock and nutritive stress trigger the assembly of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). The RNP granules are hypothesized to maintain the quality of oocytes during stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular response to glucose in the germ line and determine if it is an osmotic stress response. We found that exposure to 500 mM glucose induces the assembly of RNP granules in the germ line within 1 h...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Johannes Gottanka, Jürgen Büning
Germ line cell cluster formation in ovarioles of three different stages, each from a different mayfly species, was studied using ultra-thin serial sectioning. In the analysed ovariole of Cloeön sp., only one linear, zigzag germ line cell cluster was found, consisting of sibling cells connected by intercellular bridges which represent remnants of preceding synchronized mitotic cycles followed by incomplete cytokinesis. A polyfusome stretched through all sibling cells. At the tip of the ovariole, cytokinesis occurred without preceding division of nuclei; thus, intercellular bridges were lined up but the remaining cytoplasm between the bridges had no nuclei...
January 1993: Roux's Archives of Developmental Biology: the Official Organ of the EDBO
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
Tracey Yeend, Kai Robinson, Craig Lockwood, Alexa McArthur
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to synthesise the best available evidence on effectiveness of fermented wheatgerm extract (Avemar) as an adjunct therapy to conventional cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapies, in the treatment of haematological and non-haematological cancers. BACKGROUND: Cancer is a public health issue with an incidence rate and prevalence that has wide societal implications and impacts...
2012: JBI Library of Systematic Reviews
Maria Kupper, Christian Stigloher, Heike Feldhaar, Roy Gross
The bacterial endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus contributes to its hosts' ontogeny via nutritional upgrading during metamorphosis. This primary endosymbiosis is essential for both partners and vertical transmission of the endosymbionts is guaranteed by bacterial infestation of oocytes. Here we present a detailed analysis of the presence and localisation of B. floridanus in the ants' ovaries obtained by FISH and TEM analyses. The most apical part of the germarium harbouring germ-line stem cells (GSCs) is not infected by the bacteria...
September 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Vanesa Zazueta-Novoa, Thomas M Onorato, Gerardo Reyes, Nathalie Oulhen, Gary M Wessel
Oviparous animals store yolk proteins within the developing oocyte. These proteins are used in gametogenesis and as a nutritional source for embryogenesis. Vitellogenin and the major yolk protein are two of the most important yolk proteins among diverse species of invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the echinoderms, members of the subphyla Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers) express the major yolk protein (MYP) but not vitellogenin (Vtg), while an initial report has documented that two Asterozoa (sea stars) express a vitellogenin...
June 2016: Biological Bulletin
Bryan P Hurley, Waheed Pirzai, Alex D Eaton, Marc Harper, Jason Roper, Cindi Zimmermann, Gregory S Ladics, Raymond J Layton, Bryan Delaney
Human intestinal epithelial cell lines (T84, Caco-2, and HCT-8) grown on permeable Transwell™ filters serve as models of the gastrointestinal barrier. In this study, this in vitro model system was evaluated for effectiveness at distinguishing between hazardous and non-hazardous proteins. Indicators of cytotoxicity (LDH release, MTT conversion), monolayer barrier integrity ([(3)H]-inulin flux, horseradish peroxidase flux, trans-epithelial electrical resistance [TEER]), and inflammation (IL-8, IL-6 release) were monitored following exposure to hazardous or non-hazardous proteins...
June 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Daniele Avitabile, Alessandra Magenta, Andrea Lauri, Elisa Gambini, Gabriella Spaltro, Maria Cristina Vinci
Epigenetics harbours all regulatory information that, beyond nucleotide sequences, allows cells to "make decisions" throughout their lifetime in response to the external environment. The information can be transitory or relatively stable, and is even transmittable either to daughter cells or to the next generations through the germ line. Recent discoveries shed light on numerous connections between metabolites and epigenetic chromatin-modifying enzymes, providing a link between the metabolic state of the cell and epigenetics, and ultimately between metabolism, gene expression and cell fate...
2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Debasmita Roy, David Michaelson, Tsivia Hochman, Anthony Santella, Zhirong Bao, Judith D Goldberg, E Jane Albert Hubbard
Many organisms accumulate a pool of germline stem cells during development that is maintained in later life. The dynamics of establishment, expansion and homeostatic maintenance of this pool are subject to both developmental and physiological influences including the availability of a suitable niche microenvironment, nutritional status, and age. Here, we investigated the dynamics of germline proliferation during stages of expansion and homeostasis, using the C. elegans germ line as a model. The vast majority of germ cells in the proliferative zone are in interphase stages of mitosis (G1, S, G2) rather than in the active mitotic (M) phase...
January 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Ruigao Song, Xiaolei Yao, Lei Shi, Youshe Ren, Hui Zhao
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on apoptosis of germ cells in the testis during spermatogenesis in roosters. Eighty 12-week-old Hy-Line Variety white roosters with an averaged body weight of 1.38 ± 0.2 kg were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups. They were fed the basal diet (0.044 mg/kg Se dry matter) supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of Se dry matter (from sodium selenite). After the 45-day feeding experiment, testis samples were collected from the roosters of each treatment group to detect the population of apoptotic germ cells using the terminal deoxynucleotidy1 transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay...
September 1, 2015: Theriogenology
Rachel S van der Post, Ingrid P Vogelaar, Fátima Carneiro, Parry Guilford, David Huntsman, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Carlos Caldas, Karen E Chelcun Schreiber, Richard H Hardwick, Margreet G E M Ausems, Linda Bardram, Patrick R Benusiglio, Tanya M Bisseling, Vanessa Blair, Eveline Bleiker, Alex Boussioutas, Annemieke Cats, Daniel Coit, Lynn DeGregorio, Joana Figueiredo, James M Ford, Esther Heijkoop, Rosella Hermens, Bostjan Humar, Pardeep Kaurah, Gisella Keller, Jennifer Lai, Marjolijn J L Ligtenberg, Maria O'Donovan, Carla Oliveira, Hugo Pinheiro, Krish Ragunath, Esther Rasenberg, Susan Richardson, Franco Roviello, Hans Schackert, Raquel Seruca, Amy Taylor, Anouk Ter Huurne, Marc Tischkowitz, Sheena Tjon A Joe, Benjamin van Dijck, Nicole C T van Grieken, Richard van Hillegersberg, Johanna W van Sandick, Rianne Vehof, J Han van Krieken, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50)...
June 2015: Journal of Medical Genetics
M Desai, J K Jellyman, M G Ross
Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic)...
April 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jennifer A Schisa
In a variety of cell types, ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes play critical roles in regulating RNA metabolism. The germ line contains RNPs found also in somatic cells, such as processing (P) bodies and stress granules, as well as several RNPs unique to the germ line, including germ granules, nuage, Balbiani bodies, P granules, U bodies, and sponge bodies. Recent advances have identified a conserved response of germ line RNPs to environmental stresses such as nutritional stress and heat shock. The RNPs increase significantly in size based on cytology; their morphology and subcellular localization changes, and their composition changes...
March 2014: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Adelheid Soubry, Cathrine Hoyo, Randy L Jirtle, Susan K Murphy
Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components...
April 2014: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Thomas Mueller, Rossana Coda, Franziska Reipsch, Luana Nionelli, José Antonio Curiel, Marco Gobbetti
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, several studies described the promising cytotoxic activity of fermented wheat germ towards cancer cell lines and during in vivo clinical trials. Recent data suggested that the antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects of this preparation are mainly attributed to quinones. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation to release 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, which are naturally present in wheat germ as glycosylated and non-physiologically active form...
November 11, 2013: Microbial Cell Factories
Catherine E Aiken, Jane L Tarry-Adkins, Susan E Ozanne
Early life exposure to adverse environments can lead to a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in offspring. We hypothesize that female reproductive function may also be affected, with subsequent implications for fertility. We used an established maternal low-protein model where animals are born small but undergo rapid postnatal catch-up growth by suckling a control-fed dam (recuperated offspring). Markers of oxidative stress and cellular aging in reproductive tract tissues were assessed at 3 and 6 mo of age...
October 2013: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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