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Behaviour safety

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775074/an-alternative-approach-to-gtv-margin-determination-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#1
José Bea-Gilabert, M Carmen Baños-Capilla, M Ángeles García-Martínez, Enrique López-Muñoz, Luis M Larrea-Rabassa
Purpose: This study aims to estimate a realistic margin in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) through examining the determination uncertainties of gross tumour volume (GTV). Methods: Three computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on each patient in different sessions as a treatment simulation. Registration of the different CT image sets was based on the fiducial marks from two stereotactic guides. GTV was defined in each one of them, as well as both the encompassing (UNI) and overlapping (INT) volumes...
2019: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774069/ten-year-follow-up-of-a-randomised-trial-of-drainage-irrigation-and-fibrinolytic-therapy-drift-in-infants-with-post-haemorrhagic-ventricular-dilatation
#2
Karen Luyt, Sally Jary, Charlotte Lea, Grace J Young, David Odd, Helen Miller, Grazyna Kmita, Cathy Williams, Peter S Blair, Aída Moure Fernández, William Hollingworth, Michelle Morgan, Adam Smith-Collins, N Jade Thai, Steven Walker-Cox, Kristian Aquilina, Ian Pople, Andrew Whitelaw
BACKGROUND: The drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT) trial, conducted in 2003-6, showed a reduced rate of death or severe disability at 2 years in the DRIFT compared with the standard treatment group, among preterm infants with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. OBJECTIVES: To compare cognitive function, visual and sensorimotor ability, emotional well-being, use of specialist health/rehabilitative and educational services, neuroimaging, and economic costs and benefits at school age...
February 2019: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772047/primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-preterm-birth-a-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-ongoing-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
Anca Matei, Gabriele Saccone, Joshua P Vogel, Anthony B Armson
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions aimed at preventing PTB can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of systematic reviews on the effectiveness and safety of primary and secondary preterm birth prevention interventions. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic literature search of the Cochrane, PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases was conducted on 2 September 2015, and updated on 21 November 2016...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767190/animated-stories-of-medical-error-as-a-means-of-teaching-undergraduates-patient-safety-an-evaluation-study
#4
Kerri Cooper, Emma Hatfield, James Yeomans
BACKGROUND: Storytelling is a powerful form of communication which can improve attention and lead to lasting behavioural changes. Addressing the need to incorporate patient safety teaching into undergraduate medical curricula, it was hypothesized that medical students could benefit from hearing clinician stories of medical error. The medium of animation was considered to be a potentially engaging means of presenting stories of error to a large audience. METHODS: Three animated videos were developed to accompany audio recordings of junior doctors describing their experiences of a serious incident or near-miss event...
February 14, 2019: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766427/exploring-healthcare-professionals-perceptions-of-medication-errors-in-an-adult-oncology-department-in-saudi-arabia-a-qualitative-study
#5
Waleed Alharbi, Jennifer Cleland, Zoe Morrison
Objective: Adverse events which result from medication errors are considered to be one of the most frequently encountered patient safety issues in clinical settings. We undertook a qualitative investigation to identify and explore factors relating to medication error in an adult oncology department in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of healthcare professionals. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in an adult oncology department in Saudi Arabia. After obtaining required ethical approvals and written consents from the participants, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were carried out for data collection...
February 2019: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762509/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-suicide-prevention-therapy-on-acute-psychiatric-wards-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Gillian Haddock, Daniel Pratt, Patricia A Gooding, Sarah Peters, Richard Emsley, Emma Evans, James Kelly, Charlotte Huggett, Ailsa Munro, Kamelia Harris, Linda Davies, Yvonne Awenat
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviour is common in acute psychiatric wards resulting in distress, and burden for patients, carers and society. Although psychological therapies for suicidal behaviour are effective in out-patient settings, there is little research on their effectiveness for in-patients who are suicidal.AimsOur primary objective was to determine whether cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention therapy (CBSP) was feasible and acceptable, compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for in-patients who are suicidal...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760108/the-effects-of-safety-behavior-availability-versus-utilization-on-inhibitory-learning-during-exposure
#7
Joshua J Kemp, Shannon M Blakey, Kate B Wolitzky-Taylor, Jennifer T Sy, Brett J Deacon
This study re-analyzes data from Sy and colleagues (2011; Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 305-314) comparing safety behavior availability (SBA) to safety behavior utilization (SBU) during exposure therapy for claustrophobic concerns. The present investigation assessed differential rates of inhibitory learning (i.e. change in danger expectancy and coping self-efficacy) between SBA and SBU before, during, and after a single-session treatment. Thirty-nine participants with marked claustrophobic fear completed six consecutive 5-minute exposure trials in a claustrophobia chamber...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759307/potential-harms-from-legalization-of-recreational-cannabis-use-in-canada
#8
Sarah B Windle, Kristina Wade, Kristian B Filion, Jonathan Kimmelman, Brett D Thombs, Mark J Eisenberg
With the recent legalization of recreational cannabis use in Canada, questions remain concerning optimal regulation to minimize harms and ensure public health and safety. Patterns of use are subject to change following legalization, and it is important to consider the potential adverse effects that this may have on public health. Important areas of consideration are methods of consumption (e.g., vaping, edibles) and product proliferation; acute and long-term health and behavioural effects (including impaired driving); and use in vulnerable groups, such as children and youth, pregnant women, individuals with mental illness, individuals with low socio-economic status, and Indigenous populations...
February 13, 2019: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756179/consideration-of-psychosocial-factors-in-workplace-risk-assessments-findings-from-a-company-survey-in-germany
#9
David Beck, Uwe Lenhardt
PURPOSE: Work-related psychosocial risks are an increasingly important issue in occupational safety and health (OSH) policy. In Germany, as in many other European countries, employers are legally required to carry out workplace risk assessments (WRAs) and to account for psychosocial factors when doing this. The aim of this study was to expand the still scarce and sketchy empirical evidence on the extent to which employers comply with these obligations, as well as on possible determinants of compliance behaviour...
February 13, 2019: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740756/seat-belts-related-behaviours-in-car-drivers-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices
#10
Piotr Niewinski, Dariusz Jagielski, Krystian Josiak, Krzysztof Nowak, Bartosz Biel, Stanislaw Tubek, Tomasz Walczak, Iwona Szemplinska, Agnieszka Siennicka, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski
BACKGROUND: Seat belt use is the single most effective means of reducing fatal injuries in road traffic accidents. The presence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) might influence seat belt-related behaviours due to the physical proximity of the seat belt and left subclavian area in which the device is usually implanted. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of improper seat belt use may improve safety of these patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study using a structured questionnaire with 120 CIED recipients (age 63...
February 10, 2019: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735881/not-a-level-playing-field-a-qualitative-study-exploring-structural-community-and-individual-determinants-of-greenspace-use-amongst-low-income-multi-ethnic-families
#11
Anna Cronin-de-Chavez, Shahid Islam, Rosemary R C McEachan
Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0-3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups...
February 5, 2019: Health & Place
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735858/review-and-ranking-of-crash-risk-factors-related-to-the-road-infrastructure
#12
Eleonora Papadimitriou, Ashleigh Filtness, Athanasios Theofilatos, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Claire Quigley, George Yannis
The objective of this paper is the review and comparative assessment of infrastructure related crash risk factors, with the explicit purpose of ranking them based on how detrimental they are towards road safety (i.e. crash risk, frequency and severity). This analysis was carried out within the SafetyCube project, which aimed to identify and quantify the effects of risk factors and measures related to behaviour, infrastructure or vehicles, and integrate the results in an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS)...
February 5, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732568/overcoming-challenges-to-treating-tobacco-use-during-pregnancy-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-general-practitioners-barriers
#13
Yael Bar-Zeev, Eliza Skelton, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Gillian S Gould
BACKGROUND: General practitioners can play an important role in addressing smoking among pregnant women but studies suggest they rarely do so. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners perceptions about the management of smoking in pregnancy, and what would enable them to provide better care. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted (Feb-July 2017), with 19 Australian general practitioners recruited from a sample that participated in a national survey on managing smoking during pregnancy; and through a national conference...
February 7, 2019: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721526/inhaled-loxapine-for-the-management-of-acute-agitation-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-expert-review-and-commentary-in-an-era-of-change
#14
REVIEW
Bruno Pacciardi, Alfredo Calcedo, Thomas Messer
Agitation is a common and costly phenomenon associated with a number of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Early identification and prompt intervention to relieve the symptoms of agitation are essential to avoid symptomatic escalation and emergence of aggressive behaviour. Recent consensus guidelines emphasise the need for non-coercive management strategies to protect the therapeutic alliance between patients and their healthcare providers-an alliance that is critical for the effective management of chronic psychiatric conditions...
February 5, 2019: Drugs in R&D
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717615/greater-empathy-in-mdma-users
#15
Molly Carlyle, Tobias Stevens, Leah Fawaz, Beth Marsh, Sophia Kosmider, Celia Ja Morgan
BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is widely known for its positive acute effects on social behaviour, such as increasing empathy, whilst also attenuating the negative impact of social exclusion. However there is a scarcity of research that investigates the long-term impact of recreational MDMA use on these fundamental social processes. METHOD: Sixty-seven individuals were split into three groups based on their drug-use history: poly-drug MDMA users ( n = 25), poly-drug users who do not use MDMA ( n = 19), alcohol-only users ( n = 23), and were tested in an independent groups design...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717416/molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-tocotrienols-in-cancer-recent-trends-and-advancements
#16
REVIEW
Vaishali Aggarwal, Dharambir Kashyap, Katrin Sak, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Aklank Jain, Ashun Chaudhary, Vivek Kumar Garg, Gautam Sethi, Mukerrem Betul Yerer
Tocotrienols, found in several natural sources such as rice bran, annatto seeds, and palm oil have been reported to exert various beneficial health promoting properties especially against chronic diseases, including cancer. The incidence of cancer is rapidly increasing around the world not only because of continual aging and growth in global population, but also due to the adaptation of Western lifestyle behaviours, including intake of high fat diets and low physical activity. Tocotrienols can suppress the growth of different malignancies, including those of breast, lung, ovary, prostate, liver, brain, colon, myeloma, and pancreas...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710763/how-to-be-a-very-safe-maternity-unit-an-ethnographic-study
#17
Elisa G Liberati, Carolyn Tarrant, Janet Willars, Tim Draycott, Cathy Winter, Sarah Chew, Mary Dixon-Woods
Maternity care continues to be associated with avoidable harm that can result in serious disability and profound anguish for women, their children, and their families, and in high costs for healthcare systems. As in other areas of healthcare, improvement efforts have typically focused either on implementing and evaluating specific interventions, or on identifying the contextual features that may be generative of safety (e.g. structures, processes, behaviour, practices, and values), but the dialogue between these two approaches has remained limited...
January 24, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710446/sex-differences-in-mouse-models-of-fear-inhibition-fear-extinction-safety-learning-and-fear-safety-discrimination
#18
Jacob W Clark, Sean P A Drummond, Daniel Hoyer, Laura Jacobson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Women are overrepresented in Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); a mental disorder characterised by ineffective inhibition of fear. The use of male animals dominates pre-clinical studies, which may contribute to a lack of understanding as to why this disparity exists. Thus, the current study explores sex differences in three mouse models of fear inhibition. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: All experiments tested male and female C57Bl/6J mice. Experiment One employed two fear conditioning protocols, in which tones were paired with footshocks of differing intensity (moderate or intense)...
February 2, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709391/activation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-inpatients-with-depression-protocol-for-a-randomised-control-trial-compared-to-treatment-as-usual
#19
Ian R E Averill, Ben Beaglehole, Katie M Douglas, Jennifer Jordan, Marie T Crowe, Maree Inder, Cameron J Lacey, Christopher M Frampton, Christopher R Bowie, Richard J Porter
BACKGROUND: Inpatients with depression have a poor long term outcome with high rates of suicide, high levels of morbidity and frequent re-admission. Current treatment often relies on pharmacological intervention and focuses on observation to maintain safety. There is significant neurocognitive deficit which is linked to poor functional outcomes. As a consequence, there is a need for novel psychotherapeutic interventions that seek to address these concerns. METHODS: We combined cognitive activation and behavioural activation to create activation therapy (AT) for the treatment of inpatient depression and conducted a small open label study which demonstrated acceptability and feasibility...
February 1, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706171/is-cannabidiol-the-ideal-drug-to-treat-non-motor-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms
#20
REVIEW
José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Antônio W Zuardi, Francisco S Guimarães, Vitor Tumas, Rafael G Dos Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in efficacy and induce significant adverse reactions, highlighting the need for better treatment options. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid devoid of the euphoriant and cognitive effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, and preclinical and preliminary clinical studies suggest that this compound has therapeutic effect in non-motor symptoms of PD...
January 31, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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