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low cholesterol high cancer

Nabeela A Khan, Konrad H Stopsack, Emma H Allott, Travis Gerke, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Philip W Kantoff
BACKGROUND: Higher intratumoral cholesterol synthesis is associated with a worse prognosis in prostate cancer. The vitamin D-regulated enzyme sterol-27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, potentially lowering intracellular cholesterol levels. We hypothesized that low CYP27A1 expression is associated with high cholesterol synthesis, low vitamin D signaling, and higher risk of lethal prostate cancer. METHODS: In 404 patients from the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS), we assessed intratumoral CYP27A1 expression and proxies of cholesterol synthesis using transcriptome profiling, prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, n = 132) and intratumoral vitamin D receptor protein expression (VDR, n = 300)...
March 13, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ruoyi Liu, Lixin Shi, Nianchun Peng, Qiao Zhang, Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Irisin, a newly discovered myokine, exerts beneficial effects on energy metabolism. However, published results from studies examining the relationship between irisin concentration and obesity have been conflicting. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between serum irisin level and obese individuals with different body mass index (BMI) values and to explore the question of whether serum irisin can predict the risk of increases in the BMI. METHODS: This study based on the data collected in the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION)...
February 27, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Javier Garcia-Bermudez, Lou Baudrier, Erol Can Bayraktar, Yihui Shen, Konnor La, Rohiverth Guarecuco, Burcu Yucel, Danilo Fiore, Bernardo Tavora, Elizaveta Freinkman, Sze Ham Chan, Caroline Lewis, Wei Min, Giorgio Inghirami, David M Sabatini, Kıvanç Birsoy
Cholesterol is essential for cells to grow and proliferate. Normal mammalian cells meet their need for cholesterol through its uptake or de novo synthesis1 , but the extent to which cancer cells rely on each of these pathways remains poorly understood. Here, using a competitive proliferation assay on a pooled collection of DNA-barcoded cell lines, we identify a subset of cancer cells that is auxotrophic for cholesterol and thus highly dependent on its uptake. Through metabolic gene expression analysis, we pinpoint the loss of squalene monooxygenase expression as a cause of cholesterol auxotrophy, particularly in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines and primary tumours...
February 13, 2019: Nature
Sepideh Arabzadeh, Zeinab Amiri Tehranizadeh, Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mohammad Ramezani, Fatemeh Soltani
Development of efficient non-viral carriers is one of the major challenges of gene delivery. In the current study, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated the in vitro gene delivery efficiency of novel amphiphilic constructs composed of cholesterol and low molecular weight protamine (LMWP: VSRRRRRRGGRRRR) peptide. Vectors having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties were evaluated in terms of particle size and charge, DNA condensation ability, cytotoxicity, and gene transfection efficiency. The prepared vectors spontaneity self-assembled into the liposome-like particles with a high local positive density...
February 12, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Biqian Fu, Xiangyang Zhai, Shengyan Xi, Lifeng Yue, Yanan Wang, Yingkun Qiu, Yuewen Gong, Yangxinzi Xu, Linchao Qian, Jingru Huang, Dawei Lu, Shuqiong Huang, Jing Wang, Jing Zhou, Di Wu, Yanhui Wang
Background: Ciji-Hua'ai-Baosheng II Formula (CHB-II-F) is a new traditional Chinese medical formula that has been shown to reduce toxicity and side effects of chemotherapy and increase the probability of cancer patient survival. Whether CHB-II-F is safe as an adjunctive therapy for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy has yet to be determined. Purpose: To evaluate the acute and subchronic toxic effects of CHB-II-F in rodent models. Methods: In acute toxicity test, 24 Kunming mice were divided into 2 groups: untreated control and CHB-II-F 1...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ming Wu, Lingjie Wu, Jiong Li, Da Zhang, Shanyou Lan, Xiaolong Zhang, Xinyi Lin, Gang Liu, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
The low tissue penetration depth of external excitation light severely hinders the sensitivity of fluorescence imaging (FL) and the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo ; thus, rational theranostic platforms that overcome the light penetration depth limit are urgently needed. To overcome this crucial problem, we designed a self-luminescing nanosystem (denoted POCL) with near-infrared (NIR) light emission and singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) generation abilities utilizing an intraparticle relayed resonance energy transfer strategy...
2019: Theranostics
Sangjun Yoo, Sohee Oh, Juhyun Park, Sung Yong Cho, Min Chul Cho, Hwancheol Son, Hyeon Jeong
PURPOSE: To estimate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the prevalence of prostate cancer using a large retrospective cohort with a 5-year follow-up duration. METHODS: National Health Insurance Service health checkup cohort was used for the study. In total, 130,342 men included in the health checkup cohort in 2009 were divided into two groups according to the presence of prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer from 2009 to 2013 was cumulatively calculated from 2003...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Hongbin Deng, Tao Zhou, Xinkai Mo, Chengxin Liu, Yong Yin
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the prognostic role of preoperative serum lipid levels in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to preliminarily explore the mechanism of serum lipids in this disease. Preoperative lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, were assessed in 242 patients with ESCC. To eliminate the influence of nutritional status, all patients had previously undergone esophagectomy...
January 2019: Oncology Letters
Zhibo Zhao, Li Zhong, Kun He, Chan Qiu, Zhi Li, Lei Zhao, Jianping Gong
Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a top instigator of cancer mortality. Previous clinical studies have revealed that low serum cholesterol predicts a poor outcome in HCC patients, but the potential role of cholesterol in the progression of HCC remains controversial. In the present study,we tested the influence of cholesterol on the progression of DEN-induced HCC by feeding mice with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) and by depriving cholesterol with atorvastatin, a widely used inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway...
January 10, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew Reynolds, Jim Mann, John Cummings, Nicola Winter, Evelyn Mete, Lisa Te Morenga
BACKGROUND: Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses explaining the relationship between carbohydrate quality and health have usually examined a single marker and a limited number of clinical outcomes. We aimed to more precisely quantify the predictive potential of several markers, to determine which markers are most useful, and to establish an evidence base for quantitative recommendations for intakes of dietary fibre. METHODS: We did a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies published from database inception to April 30, 2017, and randomised controlled trials published from database inception to Feb 28, 2018, which reported on indicators of carbohydrate quality and non-communicable disease incidence, mortality, and risk factors...
January 10, 2019: Lancet
M Terra Branco, D de Araujo Brito Buttros, E Carvalho-Pessoa, M Lima Sobreira, C Yukie Nakano Schincariol, J Nahas-Neto, E Aguiar Petri Nahas
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer (BC) therapies and the longevity that the women achieve imply a higher cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of atherosclerotic disease and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCS) compared to postmenopausal women without BC. METHODS: In this study, 96 women with BC (case group) were compared to 192 women without BC (control group), age range 45-75 years...
January 9, 2019: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Connie B Newman, David Preiss, Jonathan A Tobert, Terry A Jacobson, Robert L Page, Larry B Goldstein, Clifford Chin, Lisa R Tannock, Michael Miller, Geetha Raghuveer, P Barton Duell, Eliot A Brinton, Amy Pollak, Lynne T Braun, Francine K Welty
One in 4 Americans >40 years of age takes a statin to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and other complications of atherosclerotic disease. The most effective statins produce a mean reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 55% to 60% at the maximum dosage, and 6 of the 7 marketed statins are available in generic form, which makes them affordable for most patients. Primarily using data from randomized controlled trials, supplemented with observational data where necessary, this scientific statement provides a comprehensive review of statin safety and tolerability...
December 10, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yu-Jin Kwon, Na-Young You, Jae-Woo Lee, Joungyoun Kim, Hee-Taik Kang
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality of lung cancer have risen steadily with the increasing popularity of tobacco smoking. Observational studies suggest that statins, which are widely used to lower cholesterol, may prevent lung cancer; however, other studies have produced conflicting results. We investigated the effect of statin receipt on lung cancer risk in Korean men according to smoking status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data from the 2002-2015 National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS)...
November 29, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Peter Penson, D Leann Long, George Howard, Virginia J Howard, Steven R Jones, Seth S Martin, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Paul Muntner, Manfredi Rizzo, Daniel J Rader, Monika M Safford, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Peter P Toth, Maciej Banach
Aims: Relatively little is known about the health outcomes associated with very low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) mainly because of the small numbers of individuals with such extreme values included in clinical trials. We, therefore, investigated the association between low and very low HDL-C concentration at baseline and incident all-cause-mortality, death from malignant disease (i.e. cancer), and with fatal or non-fatal incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals from the Reasons for Geographical And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study...
January 1, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Leticia Gomes Lira, Rute Mattos Dourado Esteves Justa, Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Sara Maria Moreira Lima Verde, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index...
August 21, 2018: Nutrition
Pi-Kai Chang, Wei-Liang Chen, Li-Wei Wu
Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an inflammatory maker, and high PLR is associated with mortality in several diseases. The predictors of mortality in individuals with high PLR is still lacking. Our aims were to assess if mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) can predict all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with high PLR. Adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) were included. All participants were divided into low PLR and high PLR groups with the cut-off point being the median PLR level, and each group was evaluated for risk factors of mortality...
2018: PloS One
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdi Najafi
AIMS: Recently, the clinical importance of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its protective role against several chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and several types of cancers has been reported. However, its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. CABG is associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals; so, the current study was aimed to evaluate the potential association of TAC with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG...
2018: PloS One
Zhangyan Lyu, Ni Li, Gang Wang, Xiaoshuang Feng, Shuohua Chen, Kai Su, Fang Li, Luopei Wei, Xin Li, Shuanghua Xie, Lanwei Guo, Yuheng Chen, Fengwei Tan, Jian Yin, Hong Cui, Hongda Chen, Jiang Li, Jiansong Ren, Jufang Shi, Shouling Wu, Min Dai, Jie He
To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed from 2006 to 2015 for cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Soochi Kim, Maria Lee, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of malignant ascites tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance. METHODS: A total of 45 patients with ovarian cancer and three benign ascites were collected at the time of clinical intervention. Ascites cholesterol levels were quantitated using cholesterol quantitation kit and recurrence free survival (RFS) of ovarian cancer patients were collected. The sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PAC) were assessed by viability assay, flow cytometry and protein expression...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
Bo Hao, Miaomei Yu, Chen Sang, Baochen Bi, Jiajun Chen
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies reported that dyslipidemia was associated with cancer risk. However, few studies investigated the associations between dyslipidemia and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Four hundred twenty-four histologically confirmed NSCLC cases and 414 controls, matched for age and sex, were enrolled to examine the relationship between dyslipidemia and NSCLC. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patients' medical records and telephone interviews...
December 6, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
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