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Appetite Inflammation

Stefanie Hardt, Caroline Fischer, Alexandra Vogel, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder
Inflammation or injuries of the trigeminal nerve are often associated with persistent facial pain and its sequelae. A number of models have been described to study trigeminal pain in rodents, but the long-lasting behavioral consequences are unknown. The present study characterizes the impact of a distal infraorbital nerve injury, called DIONI, which consists of ligature and transection of distal fibers of the infraorbital nerve. We assessed nociception using a conflict paradigm and optogenetics, and a set of reward, aversion, spatial, temporal and competition tasks in the IntelliCage to study multiple aspects of cognition, circadian rhythms and social interactions in groups of mice in home cage environments...
February 8, 2019: Pain
Amanda Cuevas-Sierra, Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, J Alfredo Martinez
Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Presheet P Patkar, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Andrew C Shin
OBJECTIVES: Dieting often fails because weight loss triggers strong counter-regulatory biological responses such as increased hunger and hypometabolism that are thought to be critically dependent on the master fuel sensor in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Because prolonged starvation has been shown to increase AgRP and NPY, the expression level of these two orexigenic genes has been taken as an experimental readout for the presence or absence of hunger. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to a significant weight loss without inducing the associated hunger, indicating possible changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides and/or signaling...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
I G Colditz, D R Paull, J B Lloyd, L Johnston, A H Small
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, meloxicam, in alleviating pain and inflammation and on production-related variables in a model of sterile acute inflammation in sheep. METHODS: Groups of 12 mature Merino ewes received 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously 90 min before injection of 0.1 mL turpentine subcutaneously on the anterior aspect of the proximal phalanx of a forelimb. Pain- and inflammation-related variables were assessed at -18, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to meloxicam administration...
January 2019: Australian Veterinary Journal
David Yurui Lim, Lionel Tim-Ee Cheng, Damien Meng Yew Tan, Issam Al Jajeh
An 81-year-old male presented with loss of appetite, early satiety and iron deficiency anaemia. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis during initial work-up revealed diffuse gastric mural thickening associated with a large ulcer and adjacent gastro-hepatic lymphadenopathy. The CT appearances, together with the clinical features, were highly suspicious for an infiltrative type of gastric malignancy. Endoscopic biopsy however showed erosive inflammation, IgG4 plasmacytosis and fibrosis, raising the possibility of IgG4-related disease...
September 2018: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Sanja Kovacevic, Jelena Nestorov, Gordana Matic, Ivana Elakovic
<br>Background: Increased fructose consumption and chronic exposure to stress have been associated with development of obesity and insulin resistance. In the hypothalamus, a crossroad of stress response and energy balance, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate expression of orexigenic neuropeptides - neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) and anorexigenic neuropeptides - proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether chronic stress and fructose diet disrupt these hormones' signaling pathways and appetite control in the hypothalamus, contributing to development of insulin resistance and obesity...
December 20, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Cintia B Dias, Xiangqian Zhu, Abby K Thompson, Harjinder Singh, Manohar L Garg
As the food matrix is a determinant of the rate of fat digestion and absorption, it is important for the modulation of postprandial triglyceridaemia. High postprandial triglyceride levels are associated with an increase in inflammation, oxidative stress, an imbalance in the lipoprotein profile and an increase in the risk of developing chronic diseases. This study was designed to assess the in vitro digestion patterns and the postprandial lipaemic responses to test foods with the same nutrient composition but differing in the form and structure...
December 19, 2018: Food & Function
Celestine N Wanjalla, Wyatt J McDonnell, John R Koethe
Adipose tissue comprises one of the largest organs in the body and performs diverse functions including energy storage and release, regulation of appetite and other neuroendocrine signaling, and modulation of immuity, among others. Adipocytes reside in a complex compartment where antigen, antigen presenting cells, innate immune cells, and adaptive immune cells interact locally and exert systemic effects on inflammation, circulating immune cell profiles, and metabolic homeostasis. T lymphocytes are a major component of the adipose tissue milieu which are altered in disease states such as obesity and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Sung-Joon Lee, Inge Depoortere, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory and taste receptors are expressed primarily in the nasal olfactory epithelium and gustatory taste bud cells, where they transmit real-time sensory signals to the brain. However, they are also expressed in multiple extra-nasal and extra-oral tissues, being implicated in diverse biological processes including sperm chemotaxis, muscle regeneration, bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation, inflammation, appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Elucidation of the physiological roles of these ectopic receptors is revealing potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in conditions including wounds, hair loss, asthma, obesity and cancers...
November 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Ilia Beberashvili, Olga Baskin, Ada Azar, Anna Katkov, Leonid Feldman, Oleg Gorelik, Kobi Stav, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential side effects of common phosphate binders are gastrointestinal in practice. We hypothesized that regular use of phosphate binders may be associated with decreased appetite, dietary intake and consequently, poor nutritional status. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was cross-sectional study of 78 patients (mean age 67.5±13.0, 34.6% women) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment. Participants were divided into three equal groups - sevelamer (n=25), lanthanum (n=24) and the control group (n=29)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Scott B Ickes, Muttaquina Hossain, Gaelen Ritter, Monica Lazarus, Katie Reynolds, Baitun Nahar, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson, Donna M Denno
Child undernutrition has multifactorial causes, ranging from food insecurity to etiologies refractory to conventional nutritional approaches, such as infections, environmental enteric dysfunction, and other conditions that lead to systemic inflammation. Poor appetite may be an important symptom of these causes and may be a useful marker of an undernourished child's ability to recover. We conducted a systematic review to characterize the methods and tools to measure appetite among children <5 y old in low- and middle-income countries...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Marta Seghieri, Alexander S Christensen, Andreas Andersen, Anna Solini, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Along the obesity pandemic, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often regarded as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, increases worldwide representing now the prevalent liver disease in western countries. No pharmacotherapy is approved for the treatment of NAFLD and, currently, the cornerstone treatment is lifestyle modifications focusing on bodyweight loss, notoriously difficult to obtain and even more difficult to maintain. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are highly demanded...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Tal Pecht, Steffen Jung, Assaf Rudich
The involvement of macrophages in the pathogenesis of obesity has been recognized since 2003. Early studies mostly focused on the role of macrophages in adipose tissue (AT) and in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation. Lately, AT macrophages were shown to undergo intrinsic metabolic changes that affect their immune function (i.e., immunometabolism), corresponding to their unique properties along the range of pro- versus anti-inflammatory activity. In parallel, recent studies in mice revealed critical neuronal-macrophage interactions, both in the CNS and in peripheral tissues, including in white and brown AT...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jason W Boland, Victoria Allgar, Elaine G Boland, Stein Kaasa, Marianne J Hjermstad, Miriam J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Performance status, a predictor of cancer survival, and ability to maintain independent living deteriorate in advanced disease. Understanding predictors of performance status trajectory could help identify those at risk of functional deterioration, target support for independent living and reduce service costs. The relationship between symptoms, analgesics and performance status is poorly delineated. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine whether demographics, analgesics, disease characteristics, quality-of-life domains and C-reactive protein predict the trajectory of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with advanced cancer...
November 8, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Chuo Fang, Hang Xu, Shaodong Guo, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott, Yuxiang Sun
Intracellular changes in immune cells lead to metabolic dysfunction, which is termed immunometabolism. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of aging; this phenomenon is described as inflamm-aging. Immunometabolism and inflamm-aging are closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, and cancers, which consequently reduce life span and health span of the elderly. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates appetite and food intake. Ghrelin's functions are mediated through its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sophie C Payne, John B Furness, Martin J Stebbing
The gastrointestinal tract has extensive, surgically accessible nerve connections with the central nervous system. This provides the opportunity to exploit rapidly advancing methods of nerve stimulation to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Bioelectric neuromodulation technology has considerably advanced in the past decade, but sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence currently remains the only neuromodulation protocol in general use for a gastrointestinal disorder. Treatment of other conditions, such as IBD, obesity, nausea and gastroparesis, has had variable success...
November 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yong-Jun Dai, Guang-Zhen Jiang, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Wen-Bin Liu
The aim of this article was to investigate the mechanism of appetite suppression induced by high-fat diets (HFD) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (average initial weight 40·0 (sem 0·35) g) were fed diets with two fat levels (6 and 11 %) with four replicates. HFD feeding for 30 d could significantly increase the weight gain rate, but feeding for 60 d cannot. Food intake of M. amblycephala began to decline significantly in fish fed the HFD for 48 d. HFD feeding for 60 d significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y and elevated the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), actions both in favour of suppression of appetite...
December 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni
Ghrelin is a gastric hormone circulating in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UnAG) forms. This narrative review aims at presenting current emerging knowledge on the impact of ghrelin forms on energy balance and metabolism. AG represents ~ 10% of total plasma ghrelin, has an appetite-stimulating effect and is the only form for which a receptor has been identified. Moreover, other metabolic AG-induced effects have been reported, including the modulation of glucose homeostasis with stimulation of liver gluconeogenesis, the increase of fat mass and the improvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function...
October 24, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Stephanie Kim, Emma McIlwraith, Jennifer Chalmers, Denise Belsham
<br>Background and Objectives: Elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) induce a state of neuroinflammation in the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that microglia sense palmitate, a prevalent circulating SFA, and act as mediators of this inflammatory process by communicating with neurons particularly those involved in appetite regulation. In this study, we examined the inflammatory response to palmitate in immortalized microglial cell lines, BV-2 and IMG, and the subsequent effects on inflammatory gene expression in a model of NPY/AgRP neurons, mHypoE-46...
October 23, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
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