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Emilie Legué, Karel F Liem
The primary cilium is an organelle essential for cell signaling pathways. One of the most common human genetic diseases is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes that encode Polycystin 1 and 2 (PC1/2), transmembrane proteins that translocate to the cilium. Mutations in genes that disrupt ciliogenesis also cause kidney cysts as part of a "ciliopathic" disease spectrum. The molecular mechanisms that link cilia function with renal cystic diseases are not well understood, and the mechanistic relationship between ADPKD and ciliopathic PKD is not known...
February 7, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Sun-Hee Hwang, Bandarigoda N Somatilaka, Hemant Badgandi, Vivek Reddy Palicharla, Rebecca Walker, John M Shelton, Feng Qian, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
Polycystic kidney disease proteins, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, localize to primary cilia. Polycystin knockouts have severe cystogenesis compared to ciliary disruption, whereas simultaneous ciliary loss suppresses excessive cyst growth. These data suggest the presence of a cystogenic activator that is inhibited by polycystins and an independent but relatively minor cystogenic inhibitor, either of which are cilia dependent. However, current genetic models targeting cilia completely ablate the compartment, making it difficult to uncouple cystoprotein function from ciliary localization...
February 6, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Meng Wang, Zongchang Xu, Rana Imtiaz Ahmed, Yiping Wang, Ruibo Hu, Gongke Zhou, Yingzhen Kong
A possible transcription factor TLP2 was identified to be involved in the regulation of HG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seed mucilage. TLP2 can translocate into nucleus from plasma membrane by interacting with NF-YC3. The discovery of TLP2 gene function can further fulfill the regulatory network of pectin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage is an excellent model system to study the biosynthesis, function and regulation of pectin. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and homogalacturonan (HG) are the major polysaccharides constituent of the Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage...
February 1, 2019: Plant Molecular Biology
Michael G Leitner, Veronika Thallmair, Bettina U Wilke, Valentin Neubert, Yannick Kronimus, Christian R Halaszovich, Dominik Oliver
Phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ)-induced depletion of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 ) transduces a plethora of signals into cellular responses. Importance and diversity of PI(4,5)P2 -dependent processes led to strong need for biosensors of physiological PI(4,5)P2 dynamics applicable in live-cell experiments. Membrane PI(4,5)P2 can be monitored with fluorescently-labelled phosphoinositide (PI) binding domains that associate to the membrane depending on PI(4,5)P2 levels. The pleckstrin homology domain of PLCδ1 (PLCδ1-PH) and the C-terminus of tubby protein (tubbyCT ) are two such sensors widely used to study PI(4,5)P2 signaling...
March 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Sarina Han, Ko Miyoshi, Sho Shikada, Genki Amano, Yinshengzhuoma Wang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Taiichi Katayama
The primary cilia are known as biosensors that transduce signals through the ciliary membrane proteins in vertebrate cells. The ciliary membrane contains transmembrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins. Tubby-like protein 3 (TULP3), a member of the tubby family, has been shown to interact with the intraflagellar transport-A complex (IFT-A) and to be involved in the ciliary localization of transmembrane proteins, although its role in the ciliary entry of membrane-associated proteins has remained unclear...
December 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zohrah Sulaiman, Tan Heok Hui, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim
The freshwater fish diversity of Brunei Darussalam is reviewed. At present, a total of 104 species of freshwater fishes from 59 genera, 24 families and 10 orders is recorded. Eight species including one introduced species and two from brackish waters present new records for Brunei. The family Cyprinidae has the highest diversity with 40 species. Forty-six species are believed to be endemic to Borneo including six species known only from Brunei Darussalam namely Barbodes xouthos, Rasbora tubbi, Gastromyzon cranbrookii, Gastromyzon venustus, Neogastromyzon brunei and Ompok platyrhynchus and three are exotics...
February 13, 2018: Zootaxa
R-X Wang, X-L Tong, T-T Gai, C-L Li, L Qiao, H Hu, M-J Han, Z-H Xiang, C Lu, F-Y Dai
Body shape is one of the most prominent and basic characteristics of any organism. In insects, abundant variations in body shape can be observed both within and amongst species. However, the molecular mechanism underlying body shape fine-tuning is very complex and has been largely unknown until now. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, the tubby (tub) mutant has an abnormal short fat body shape and the abdomen of tub larvae expands to form a fusiform body shape. Morphological investigation revealed that the body length was shorter and the body width was wider than that of the Dazao strain...
June 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Meng Wang, Zongchang Xu, Yingzhen Kong
Each gene of the tubby-like family is characterized by a signature of C-terminal tubby domain. The wide spread of this family in plants and animals implies they have an important function in various organisms. Even though the tubby-like genes are suggested to be putative transcription factors (TFs), how they execute the function as TFs is not yet clear. The biological functions of most animal tubby-like genes have been well studied, especially for vertebrate TUB, TULP1 and TULP3, but not with TULP2 and TULP4...
February 5, 2018: Gene
V J M Nies, D Struik, M G M Wolfs, S S Rensen, E Szalowska, U A Unmehopa, K Fluiter, T P van der Meer, G Hajmousa, W A Buurman, J W Greve, F Rezaee, R Shiri-Sverdlov, R J Vonk, D F Swaab, B H R Wolffenbuttel, J W Jonker, J V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and adiposity. Aside from the function in central nervous system, TUB has also been implicated in energy metabolism in adipose tissue in rodents. We aimed to determine the expression and distribution patterns of TUB in man as well as its potential association with obesity...
March 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ben Short
Study reveals that Tubby family proteins help deliver GPCRs and other integral membrane proteins into cilia.
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Hemant B Badgandi, Sun-Hee Hwang, Issei S Shimada, Evan Loriot, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
The primary cilium is a paradigmatic organelle for studying compartmentalized signaling; however, unlike soluble protein trafficking, processes targeting integral membrane proteins to cilia are poorly understood. In this study, we determine that the tubby family protein TULP3 functions as a general adapter for ciliary trafficking of structurally diverse integral membrane cargo, including multiple reported and novel rhodopsin family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the polycystic kidney disease-causing polycystin 1/2 complex...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Vijay Wardhan, Aarti Pandey, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), in mammals, play critical roles in neural development, while its function in plants is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that the chickpea TLP, CaTLP1, participates in osmotic stress response and might be associated with ABA-dependent network. However, how CaTLP1 is connected to ABA signaling remains unclear. The CaTLP1 was found to be engaged in ABA-mediated gene expression and stomatal closure. Complementation of the yeast yap1 mutant with CaTLP1 revealed its role in ROS scavenging...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jia-Ning Xu, Shan-Shan Xing, Zheng-Rong Zhang, Xue-Sen Chen, Xiao-Yun Wang
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), which have a highly conserved β barrel tubby domain, have been found to be associated with some animal-specific characteristics. In the plant kingdom, more than 10 TLP family members were identified in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, and they were found to be involved in responses to stress. The publication of the apple genome makes it feasible to systematically study the TLP family in apple. In this investigation, nine TLP encoding genes (TLPs for short) were identified. When combined with the TLPs from other plant species, the TLPs were divided into three groups (group A, B, and C)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chung-Hung Liu, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Sue-Ping Lee, Ru-Chi Shieh
Inward rectifier K+ channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ). Stimulation of the Ca2+ -sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both Gq/11 , which decreases PIP2 , and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP2 . How membrane PIP2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and whether these changes modulate inward rectifier K+ are unknown...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Newnham David
The news that people in the UK are living longer despite the fact that many of us are getting decidedly tubby should have been greeted with street parties.
March 30, 2011: Nursing Standard
Carolyn Tubby, Ola H Negm, Timothy Harrison, Patrick J Tighe, Ian Todd, Lucy C Fairclough
OBJECTIVE: The three main types of killer cells - CD8(+) T cells, NK cells and NKT cells - have been linked to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their role in a small subset of asthma patients displaying fixed airway obstruction (FAO), similar to that seen in COPD, has not been explored. The objective of the present study was to investigate killer cell numbers, phenotype and function in peripheral blood from asthma patients with FAO, asthma patients without FAO, and healthy individuals...
June 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Sunshin Kim, Ho Jin Sung, Ji Won Lee, Yun Hee Kim, Yong-Seok Oh, Kyong-Ah Yoon, Kyun Heo, Pann-Ghill Suh
The tubby protein (Tub), a putative transcription factor, plays important roles in the maintenance and function of neuronal cells. A splicing defect-causing mutation in the 3'-end of the tubby gene, which is predicted to disrupt the carboxy-terminal region of the Tub protein, causes maturity-onset obesity, blindness, and deafness in mice. Although this pathological Tub mutation leads to a loss of function, the precise mechanism has not yet been investigated. Here, we found that the mutant Tub proteins were mostly localized to puncta found in the perinuclear region and that the C-terminus was important for its solubility...
January 2017: BMB Reports
Quancai Sun, Yiren Yue, Peiyi Shen, Jeremy J Yang, Yeonhwa Park
Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase α) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) mutant strains...
April 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Min Jeong Hong, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
Tubby proteins are highly conserved in a wide range of multicellular organisms. The Tubby gene family was first verified in obese mice. In plants, 11 Tubby genes have been identified in Arabidopsis, 14 in rice, and 11 in poplar. However, there is very little information about Tubby-like proteins in wheat. In this study, we identified four Tubby-like protein genes (TaTULP1-TaTULP4) in wheat. A comparison of the gene structure showed a conserved exon number pattern in TaTULPs, although the length of the introns differed...
2015: Genes & Genetic Systems
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