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adipocyte tissue

Menno Hoekstra, Joya E Nahon, Laura M de Jong, Mara J Kröner, Lidewij R de Leeuw, Miranda Van Eck
The nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) impacts on cholesterol metabolism as well as hepatic lipogenesis via transcriptional regulation. It is proposed that inhibition of the protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) uncouples these two transcriptional pathways in vivo by acting as a specific lipogenic coactivator of LXR. Here we validated the hypothesis that treatment with the allosteric PRMT3 inhibitor SGC707 will diminish the hepatic steatosis extent, while leaving global cholesterol metabolism, important in cholesterol-driven pathologies like atherosclerosis, untouched...
February 15, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Carina Nicu, Jonathan Hardman, Jennifer Pople, Ralf Paus
In murine skin dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT) undergoes fluctuations in size across the hair cycle, whereas changes in size, function and metabolism of dermal adipocytes (DAs) during the human scalp hair cycle remain unexplored. Transmission electron microscopy results suggest that, during anagen-catagen transition, human DAs co-opt the autophagy machinery to undergo lipophagy within their lipid droplets. Wholemount staining of hair follicles (HFs) and surrounding DWAT for the autophagy marker LC3B confirms the increased presence of LC3B+ lipid droplets adjacent to catagen HFs; moreover, DWAT around catagen HFs engages in greater glycerol release compared to DWAT surrounding anagen HFs...
February 18, 2019: Experimental Dermatology
Zhe Wu, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Yang Song, Ling Liu, Feng Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Xia Li, Yujing Chi, Yulan Liu
Mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and immune cells play pivotal roles in the inflammation of adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of MAT B lymphocytes in NAFLD. Mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet (ND) were killed in time gradients (4, 8 and 12 weeks). Compared with ND-fed mice, intra-hepatic CD45+ CD19+ B lymphocytes increased after 4 weeks (P < 0.01) of HFD feeding, and lasted until the 12th week, infiltrated earlier than CD45+ CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD45+ F4/80+ macrophages...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Eileen Thompson, Kyan Thelen, G Andres Contreras
Reductionist studies of adipose tissue biology require reliable in vitro adipocyte culturing models. Current protocols for adipogenesis induction in stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes require extended culturing periods and have low adipogenic rates. We compared the adipogenic efficiency of a 7-d co-culture model of visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SC) stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes with mature adipocytes with a 14-d standard adipocyte differentiation protocol. We obtained preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from SC and VIS adipose tissue of nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows (n = 6)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues, Tiago Ferreira Leal, Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas Costa, Franciany de Jesus Silva, Leôncio Lopes Soares, Patrícia Chakur Brum, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes, Antônio José Natali
AIM: Investigate the effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise (MCAE) on the inflammatory cytokine profile and expression of lipolytic and thermogenic genes in β1 -AR-/- mice adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS: Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1 -AR-/- mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1 -AR-/- control (β1 -AR-/- c) and trained (β1 -AR-/- t). Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week) on a treadmill, for 8 weeks...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Rong Fan, Yibo Xian, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung
OBJECTIVE: Urolithin A (UroA) is a major metabolite of ellagic acid produced following microbial catabolism in the gut. Emerging evidence has suggested that UroA modulates energy metabolism in various cells. However, UroA's physiological functions related to obesity and insulin resistance remain unclear. METHODS: Male mice were intraperitoneally administrated either UroA or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) along with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated via glucose and insulin tolerance tests and acute insulin signaling...
February 15, 2019: Obesity
Guihong Qi, Yue Zhou, Xiaopo Zhang, Jiaqi Yu, Xin Li, Xiaoxue Cao, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Promoting browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to increased energy expenditure and hence counteracts obesity. Here we show that cordycepin (Cpn), a natural derivative of adenosine, increases energy expenditure, inhibits weight gain, improves metabolic profile and glucose tolerance, decreases WAT mass and adipocyte size, and enhances cold tolerance in normal and high-fat diet-fed mice. Cpn markedly increases the surface temperature around the inguinal WAT and turns the inguinal fat browner...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Quan Zhuang, Ruoyu Ma, Yanshuang Yin, Tianhao Lan, Meng Yu, Yingzi Ming
Renal fibrosis, as the fundamental pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a pathologic extension of the normal wound healing process characterized by endothelium injury, myofibroblast activation, macrophage migration, inflammatory signaling stimulation, matrix deposition, and remodelling. Yet, the current method of treating renal fibrosis is fairly limited, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, angiotensin receptor blockade, optimal blood pressure control, and sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis...
2019: Stem Cells International
Ferran Comas, Cristina Martínez, Mònica Sabater, Francisco Ortega, Jessica Latorre, Francisco Díaz-Sáez, Julian Aragonés, Marta Camps, Anna Gumà, Wifredo Ricart, José Manuel Fernández-Real, José María Moreno-Navarrete
Background: Nrg4 expression has been linked to brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipocytes in mice. Here, we aimed to investigate whether these observations could be translated to humans by investigating NRG4 mRNA and markers of brown/beige adipocytes in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We also studied the possible association of NRG4 with insulin action. Methods: SAT and VAT NRG4 and markers of brown/beige ( UCP1, UCP3, and TMEM26 )-related gene expression were analyzed in two independent cohorts ( n = 331 and n = 59)...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Tobias A Mattei, Carlos R Goulart, Shawn S Rai, Azeem A Rehman, Michelle Williams, Ehud Mendel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer which has been increasingly employed in the past few years...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Ko Fujimori, Kosuke Aritake, Yo Oishi, Nanae Nagata, Toko Maehara, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
Mikael Rydén, Paul Petrus, Daniel P Andersson, Gema Medina-Gómez, Elia Escasany, Patricia Corrales Cordón, Ingrid Dahlman, Agné Kulyté, Peter Arner
OBJECTIVE: Many overweight/obese subjects appear metabolically healthy with normal in vivo insulin sensitivity. Still, they have increased long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that adipose tissue dysfunction involving decreased insulin action in adipocytes is present in apparently healthy overweight/obese subjects. DESIGN/METHODS: Subjects with normal metabolic health according to Adult Treatment Panel-III or Framingham risk score criteria were subdivided into 67 lean, 32 overweight and 37 obese according to body mass index...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Arthe Raajendiran, Matthew J Watt, Mark Hargreaves
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Do circulating factors mediate exercise-induced effects on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression? What is the main finding and its importance? Serum (10%) obtained from human volunteers immediately after a single exercise bout increased GLUT4 protein levels in human adipocytes in culture. This result suggests that circulating factors may mediate exercise effects on adipose tissue GLUT4 and prompt further effort to identify the specific factor(s) and tissue(s) of origin...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Yingdi Yuan, Xin Guo Cao, Jiaojiao Hu, Jingyun Li, Dan Shen, Lianghui You, Xianwei Cui, Xing Wang, Yahui Zhou, Yao Gao, Lijun Zhu, Pengfei Xu, Chen-Bo Ji, Xirong Guo, Juan Wen
Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic diseases, while adipocyte differentiation is closely related to obesity occurrence. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a unique class of transcripts in regulation of various biological processes. Using lncRNA microarray, we found lncRNA AC092159.2 was highly expressed in differentiated HPA-v and located ~247bp upstream of the TMEM18, which was associated with BMI and obesity. We aimed to explore the role of AC092159.2 in adipogenesis and the underlying mechanisms...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Jose Cesar Rosa Neto, Karsten Krüger
Many lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary diseases, are associated with chronic systemic inflammation, which has been shown to contribute to the disease initiation and progression, and also for co-morbidities of these diseases. While the source of inflammation in obese subjects is suggested to be mainly the visceral adipose tissue, smoke-induced inflammation originates in the pulmonary system. Here, chronic cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, resulting in severe cellular damage...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Sophie N Saxton, Sarah B Withers, Anthony M Heagerty
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is no longer recognised as simply a structural support for the vasculature, and we now know that PVAT releases vasoactive factors which modulate vascular function. Since the discovery of this function in 1991, PVAT research is rapidly growing and the importance of PVAT function in disease is becoming increasingly clear. Obesity is associated with a plethora of vascular conditions; therefore, the study of adipocytes and their effects on the vasculature is vital. PVAT contains an adrenergic system including nerves, adrenoceptors and transporters...
February 12, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Simone Ortiz Moura Fideles, Adriana Cassia Ortiz, Amanda Freire Assis, Max Jordan Duarte, Fabiola Singaretti Oliveira, Geraldo Aleixo Passos, Márcio Mateus Beloti, Adalberto Luiz Rosa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in therapies for bone tissue healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cell source and osteoblast differentiation on gene expression profiles of MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) to contribute for selecting a suitable cell population to be used in cell-based strategies for bone regeneration. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were cultured in growth medium to keep MSCs characteristics or in osteogenic medium to induce osteoblast differentiation (BM-OBs and AT-OBs)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Adriana Mika, Filippo Macaluso, Rosario Barone, Valentina Di Felice, Tomasz Sledzinski
Increased physical activity is an optimal way to maintain a good health. During exercise, triacylglycerols, an energy reservoir in adipose tissue, are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FAs) which are then released to the circulation, providing a fuel for working muscles. Thus, regular physical activity leads to a reduction of adipose tissue mass and improves metabolism. However, the reduction of lipid reservoir is also associated with many other interesting changes in adipose tissue FA metabolism. For example, a prolonged exercise contributes to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity and resultant reduction of FA uptake...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
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