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Frederick M Burkle
The development of autocratic leaders in history reveals that many share severe character disorders that are consistently similar across borders and cultures. Diplomats and humanitarians negotiating for access to populations in-need and security of their programs, especially in health, must understand the limitations placed on the traditional negotiation process. These shared character traits stem from a cognitive and emotional developmental arrest in both childhood and adolescence resulting in fixed, life-long, concrete thinking patterns...
January 15, 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Manuel Canal-Rivero, Javier-David Lopez-Moriñigo, Maria-Luisa Barrigón, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Jordi E Obiols-Llandrich
BACKGROUND: Disability encompasses impairments, activity limitations, and restrictions on participation. Improvement in functioning has therefore become a crucial outcome of treatment in psychosis. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to analyze the potential relationship between suicidal behavior after first episode of psychosis (FEP) and family disability. The second aim was to find out whether personality traits are associated with disability dimensions...
May 16, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
April 2018: CNS Spectrums
M Lorr, A Suziedelis
Aims were to identify the profile types present in MMPI scale scores using Ward's hierarchical procedure and a nonhierarchical average linkage method. One data set consisted of the 35 code types developed by Gilberstadt-Duker and Marks-Seeman-Haller. Another data set consisted of Lanyon's group profiles of 210 diagnostic classes. These profiles were subdivided into odd-even samples of 105. Analysis of the 35 code types disclosed four clusters by either procedure: neurotics, depressed psychotics, excited psychotics, and sociopaths...
July 1, 1982: Multivariate Behavioral Research
I Fish
The electroencephalogram represents an electrical summary of the organizational patterns and the total physical-chemical processes taking place in the brain at the time of the recording. Itis affected by (1) artifacts secondary to head movements, muscle potentials, and eye movements, (2) physiological factors, such as state of consciousness, hyperventilation, and maturity of the brain, (3) metabolic factors such as temperature, thyroid function, electrolyte changes, and numerous other metabolic factors, and (4) drugs...
February 1971: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Samuel Pombo, Nuno Félix da Costa, Maria Luísa Figueira, Fátima Ismail, Otto Michael Lesch
OBJECTIVE: The current nosological classifications may describe a syndrome of "alcoholism" that is too heterogeneous to produce prognostic models for clinical management. Multidimensional alcoholism typologies (ATs) could represent a valuable paradigm in the search for targeted treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of 3 empirically-validated ATs, focusing on various measures of clinical performance. METHOD: This was a 3-month naturalistic study in which drinking status, and participation in the clinical protocol and group psychotherapy were recorded and used as indicators of treatment performance...
June 2015: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Hanako Suzuki, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Although exposure to early life stress is known to affect mental health, the underlying mechanisms of its impacts on depressive symptoms among institutionalized children and adolescents have been little studied. METHODS: To investigate the role of attachment and self-esteem in association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and depressive symptoms, 342 children (149 boys, 193 girls; age range 9-18 years old, mean age = 13.5 ± 2.4) living in residential foster care facilities in Japan completed questionnaires related to internal working models, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Andreas Mokros, Robert D Hare, Craig S Neumann, Pekka Santtila, Elmar Habermeyer, Joachim Nitschke
As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27)...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Wendy Wen, Shi Wu Wen
On average, males have a stronger preference for physical systems and machines over interpersonal interactions; they have lower average levels of cognitive empathy or social cognition than females; and they have higher rates of 'extreme' intelligence when it comes to abstract concepts such as those found in mathematics and sciences. All three traits are also commonly associated with individuals with an autism spectrum disorder or ASD; clearly, it is not coincidental that incidence rates of autism are reportedly four times higher in males than in females...
May 2014: Medical Hypotheses
B H Shulman
From a teleological point of view, most sexual behavior can be assessed in terms of the private purpose of the person employed in it. This permits a psychological point of view that yet takes full account of an ethical system of values. Sexual behavior can be classified as useful or useless, depending upon whether the purpose is socially useful or socially useless. The latter is either openly destructive in consequences or fails to lead to satisfactory and meaningful sexual activity. Neurotic and sociopathic sexual symptoms all seem to be examples ofabuses ratheruses of sex...
October 1967: Journal of Religion and Health
Nancy D Campbell
This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri...
August 2014: International Journal of Epidemiology
Gary Ludwig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
Karina Borja, Feggy Ostrosky
The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score...
July 2013: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Gabriele Cipriani, Gemma Borin, Marcella Vedovello, Andrea Di Fiorino, Angelo Nuti
The maintenance of appropriate social behavior is a very complex process with many contributing factors. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. Damage to these systems may lead to distinct social behavior abnormalities. When patients present with dysmoral behavior for the first time, as a change from a prior pervasive pattern of behavior, clinicians need to consider a possible, causative brain disorder. The aim is to explore sociopathy as a manifestation of dementia...
June 2013: Acta Neurologica Belgica
John F Edens, Jennifer Cox
Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently...
May 2012: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Melody S Sadler, Elizabeth L Meagor, Kimberly E Kaye
Theoretical models of public stigma toward mental illness have focused on factors that perpetuate stigma toward the general label of "mental illness" or toward a handful of specific illnesses, used more or less interchangeably. The current work used the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) to examine how one facet of public stigma--stereotype content--differs as a function of specific mental illnesses. Participants were recruited online from across the U.S. Study 1 demonstrated that the overarching category of people with mental illness was perceived as relatively incompetent, but not very hostile (i...
March 2012: Social Science & Medicine
Mona Sobhani, Antoine Bechara
Individuals who engage in corrupt and immoral behavior are in some ways similar to individuals with psychopathy. Normal people refrain from engaging in such behaviors because they tie together the moral value of society and the risk of punishment when they violate social rules. What is it, then, that allows these immoral individuals to behave in this manner, and in some situations even to prosper? When there is a dysfunction of somatic markers, specific disadvantageous impairments in decision-making arise, as in moral judgment, but, paradoxically, under some circumstances, the damage can cause the patient to make optimal financial investment decisions...
2011: Social Neuroscience
Mario F Mendez, Jill S Shapira, Ronald E Saul
Although well-known from head trauma and acute strokes, sociopathic behavior from dementia is less known and understood. This study reviewed 33 dementia patients who had been in trouble with the law. They were divided into two groups: 22 who committed impulsive sociopathic acts and 11 who committed non-impulsive acts. The impulsive patients demonstrated nonviolent acts, such as disinhibited sexual behavior or pathological stealing, and had disproportionate frontal-caudate atrophy on neuroimaging. The majority of non-impulsive patients demonstrated agitation-paranoia, sometimes with reactive aggression, delusional beliefs, or aphasic paranoia, and had advanced memory and other cognitive impairment...
2011: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Manuel J Cuesta, Victor Peralta, Maria S Campos, Elena Garcia-Jalon
Poor insight is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychosis with great repercussions on clinical practise and the outcomes of patients. Poor insight comprises "state" and "trait" components. This paper targeted predictors of global insight and insight dimensions at baseline in the drug-naïve status of first-episode psychosis patients and during a 6-month follow up after episode remission. Seventy-seven consecutive and previously unmedicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FESSD) completed baseline and 6-month insight, premorbid, symptomatological and neuropsychological assessments...
August 2011: Schizophrenia Research
W N East
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1942: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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