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Th1 And Th2 And Vaccine Effects

Thomas Ebensen, Simon Delandre, Blair Prochnow, Carlos A Guzmán, Kai Schulze
The development of new effective vaccines strongly depends on adjuvants and formulations able to stimulate not only strong humoral responses against a certain pathogen but also effector as well as memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (Dubensky et al., 2013). However, the majority of vaccines licensed for human use or currently under clinical investigation fail to stimulate efficient cellular responses. For example, vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), diphtheria, tetanus and influenza are usually administered by intramuscular (i...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Maryam Nemati, Hossain Khorramdelazad, Zuhair Mohammad Hassan
Histamine exerts potent modulatory impacts on the cells of innate- [including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells] and adaptive immunity (such as Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, regulatory T-, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, and B cells) through binding to histamine receptor 2 (H2R). Cimetidine, as an H2R antagonist, reverses the histamine-mediated immunosuppression, as it has powerful stimulatory effects on the effector functions of neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, DCs, NK cells, NKT cells, Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells...
February 22, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Nicolas Goncalves-Mendes, Jérémie Talvas, Christian Dualé, Aline Guttmann, Violaine Corbin, Geoffroy Marceau, Vincent Sapin, Patrick Brachet, Bertrand Evrard, Henri Laurichesse, Marie-Paule Vasson
Background: Immunosenescence contributes to reduced vaccine response in elderly persons, and is worsened by deficiencies in nutrients such as Vitamin (Vit-D). The immune system is a well-known target of Vit-D, which can both potentiate the innate immune response and inhibit the adaptive system, and so modulate vaccination response. Objective: This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial investigated whether Vit-D supplementation in deficient elderly persons could improve influenza seroprotection and immune response...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Li-Jun Xue, Xiao-Bei Mao, Xiao-Bei Liu, Han Gao, Ya-Nan Chen, Ting-Ting Dai, Sheng-Wen Shao, Hong-Min Chen, Xiao-Yuan Chu
Most of gastric carcinoma (GC) is attributed to infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) but there is increasing evidence that the positive H. pylori status correlates with better prognosis in GC. The H. pylori-induced cellular immune response may suppress cancer and in this work, recombinant pcDNA3 plasmids encoding various fragments of H. pylori virulence genes of cagA, vacA and babA are constructed and combined into groups to immunize BALB/c mice. The activated splenic CD3+ T cells are purified and the anticancer effects are investigated in vitro and in vivo...
February 20, 2019: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Mohsen Keshavarz, Haideh Namdari, Yaser Arjeini, Hamed Mirzaei, Vahid Salimi, Ahmadreza Sadeghi, Talat Mokhtari-Azad, Farhad Rezaei
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remains a nonignorable serious concern for public health worldwide. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Here, we design a new vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLPs) and show how intranasal administration of this vaccine triggers protective immunity, which can be exploited for the development of new therapies. H1N1 VLPs were produced in baculovirus vectors and were injected into BALB/c mice by the intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) route...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rebecca Heß, Michael Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Dennis Lapuente, Andre Maaske, Carsten Kirschning, Jürgen Ruland, Bernd Lepenies, Drew Hannaman, Matthias Tenbusch, Klaus Überla
The envelope protein (Env) is the only surface protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as such the exclusive target for protective antibody responses. Experimental evidences from mouse models suggest a modulating property of Env to steer antibody class switching towards the less effective antibody subclass IgG1 accompanied with strong TH2 helper responses. By simple physical linkage we were able to imprint this bias, exemplified by a low IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of antigen-specific antibodies, onto an unrelated antigen, namely the HIV capsid protein p24...
February 13, 2019: Viruses
Zrinka Oreskovic, Katerina Nechvatalova, Josef Krejci, Vladimir Kummer, Martin Faldyna
Intradermal (i.d.) application of vaccine is promising way how to induce specific immune response against particular pathogens. Adjuvants, substances added into vaccination dose with the aim to increase immunogenicity, play important role in activation of dendritic cells with subsequent activation of lymphocytes. They can, however, induce unwanted local reactions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of i.d. administration of model antigen keyhole limped hemocyanine alone or with different adjuvants-aluminium hydroxide and oil-based adjuvants-on local histopathological reaction as well as dendritic cell activation at the site of administration and local cytokine and chemokine response...
2019: PloS One
Ellen K Wasan, Jaweria Syeda, Stacy Strom, Jacqueline Cawthray, Robert E Hancock, Kishor M Wasan, Volker Gerdts
We previously developed an highly efficacious combination adjuvant comprised of innate defense regulator (IDR)-1002 peptide, poly(I:C) and polyphosphazene (TriAdj). Here we aimed to design and test the in vivo efficacy of a mucoadhesive nasal formulation of this adjuvant. To determine the physical properties of the formulation, the effect of addition of each individual component was characterised by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence quenching using rhodamine-poly(I:C). Cationic liposomes comprised of didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) (50:50 or 75:25 mol:mol) and DDAB, L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) and DOPE (40:50:10 mol:mol:mol) were prepared by the thin-film extrusion method...
February 7, 2019: Vaccine
B E W El-Aswad, N M Harba, I M Moharm, S F Mahmoud
The tegument of schistosomes is a source of many potential anti-Schistosoma vaccine molecules. This work aimed to assess the protective effects of the adult Schistosoma mansoni tegument treated (TT) with sub-curative praziquantel (PZQ), whether in vivo (in vivo TT) or in vitro (in vitro TT), in murine schistosomiasis. In vitro TT and in vivo TT showed great similarity, and they differed from untreated tegument antigen (Teg) in terms of quantity and quality of protein bands on SDS-PAGE. Two immunization trials were performed, each with 50 mice, divided randomly into five groups of 10 mice each: (1) uninfected control mice (UC), (2) infected mice given phosphate buffer saline + adjuvant (PBS + adjuvant), (3) infected, Teg vaccinated, (4) infected, in vivo TT vaccinated, and (5) infected, in vitro TT vaccinated...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Helminthology
John C Rowe, Zayed Attia, Eunsoo Kim, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Prosper N Boyaka
Sublingual immunization is emerging as an alternative to nasal immunization and induction of mucosal IgA responses. Using Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (EdTx) as an adjuvant, we previously showed that innate responses triggered after sublingual immunization could limit generation of IgA responses. We tested whether co-administration of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor (NEI) could rescue the ability of EdTx to induce broad antibody responses, including mucosal IgA. NEI supplementation of sublingual vaccines containing EdTx promoted antigen-specific serum IgA responses but also enhanced serum IgG1, and IgG2b responses...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Chang Liu, Jiao Luo, Ruo-Yi Xue, Ling Guo, Li Nie, Sun Li, Lu Ji, Cong-Jia Ma, Da-Qun Chen, Kuan Miao, Quan-Ming Zou, Hai-Bo Li
Some plant polysaccharides (PPSs) had been used as the adjuvants for systemic vaccination. In this study, we investigated whether PPSs could exhibit adjuvant effect at the mucosa. Groups of mice were intranasally immunized with Epimedium Polysaccharide (EPS), Trollius chinensis polysaccharide (TCPS), Siberian solomonseal rhizome polysaccharide (SSRPS) and Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) together with ovalbumin (OVA). Significantly higher levels of OVA-specific IgG in serum and secretory IgA in saliva, vaginal wash and intestinal lavage fluid were induced after immunization with OVA plus one of the four PPSs compared to OVA alone...
January 18, 2019: Vaccine
Katie O'Grady, Claire C H Hearnden, Dulce Bento, Ewa Oleszycka, Peter Andersen, Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Ed C Lavelle
The cytokine IL-33 is a well-established inducer of Th2 responses. However, roles for IL-33 in promoting CD8, Th1, and T regulatory cell responses have also emerged. In this study, the role of IL-33 as a regulator of particulate vaccine adjuvant-induced Ag-specific cellular immunity was investigated. We found that polymeric nanoparticles surpassed alum in their ability to enhance Ag-specific CD8 and Th1 responses. IL-33 was a potent negative regulator of both CD8+ T cell and Th1 responses following i.m. vaccination with Ag and nanoparticles, whereas the cytokine was required for the nanoparticle enhancement in Ag-specific IL-10...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yan Liang, Yajing Zhao, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Yourong Yang, Junxian Zhang, Lan Wang, Lei Cui, Tong Wang, Yingchang Shi, Weiguo Zhao, Xueqiong Wu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. Latent TB infection (LTBI) is a major source of active TB. New vaccines to treat LTBI are urgently demanded. In this study, the gene encoding latency-associated antigen Rv3407 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv3407 DNA vaccine was used to prepare and the immunogenicity and therapeutic effects were evaluated. Normal mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at two-week intervals with sterile water for injection, plasmid vector pVAX1, M. vaccae vaccine, ag85a DNA or rv3407 DNA...
January 11, 2019: Autoimmunity
Mansure Hojatizade, Mahsa Soleymani, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Ali Badiee, Omid Chavoshian, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous attempts to develop vaccines for Leishmaniasis, no vaccine can be found against Leishmania in routine use for an effective global vaccination. It seems that one of the reasons for the low efficacy of such vaccines is the lack of a suitable adjuvant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles containing whole Leishmania lysate antigen (WLL) and soluble leishmania antigens (SLA), a first generation Leishmania vaccine, on the type of immune response generated in BALB/c in a murine model of leishmaniasis...
December 2018: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Takashi Kimoto, Hyejin Kim, Satoko Sakai, Etsuhisa Takahashi, Hiroshi Kido
We reported previously that a synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10, which mimics human pulmonary surfactant, delivers antigen to mucosal dendritic cells in the nasal cavity and promotes induction of humoral and cellular immunity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral administration of antigen combined with SF-10 (antigen-SF-10) on systemic and local immunity. Oral administration of ovalbumin, a model antigen, combined with SF-10 enhanced ovalbumin uptake into intestinal antigen presenting MHC II+ CD11c+ cells and their CD11b+ CD103+ and CD11b+ CD103- subtype dendritic cells, which are the major antigen presenting subsets of the intestinal tract, more efficiently compared to without SF-10...
December 13, 2018: Vaccine
Archana Thakur, Ritesh Rathore, Sri Vidya Kondadasula, Joseph P Uberti, Voravit Ratanatharathorn, Lawrence G Lum
This proof-of-concept study investigates the immune effects in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients after "vaccination" with activated T cells (ATC) armed with anti-CD3 x anti-HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2 BATs) followed by immune consolidation with immune ATC "boost" after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplant (SCT). Approximately 2 weeks after completion of vaccination portion of the study, immune T cells were obtained by leukopheresis, activated and expanded ex vivo and re-infused after HDC and SCT to test the hypothesis that transfer of immune unarmed ATC would accelerate reconstitution of anti-tumor activity after SCT...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Inam Ullah Khan, Farooq Ahmad, Shuren Zhang, Panpan Lu, Jingbo Wang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
The induction of a dominant Th2-type response is the main cause of harmful inflammation in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines trials. A balanced Th1 versus Th2 immune response is needed for a safe and effective RSV vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a recombinant protein SBP-FG as vaccine candidate with main focus on shifting the harmful Th2 response to Th1 response. SBP-FG consists of epitopes from RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins conjugated to the N-terminal of HBsAg-binding protein (SBP)...
November 20, 2018: International Immunology
Peiyu Li, Ji Wang, Miao Cao, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Mei X Wu, Lu Lu
Skin contains a large number of antigen presenting cells, making intradermal (ID) injection one of the most effective ways for vaccine administration. However, although current adjuvants may cause severe local reactions and inflammations in the skin, no adjuvant has been approved for ID vaccination so far. Here, we report that topical application of all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative produced in the human body, augmented cutaneous influenza vaccination. The adjuvant effects were evaluated in a murine vaccination/challenge model by using A/California/07/2009 pandemic vaccine (09V) or a seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sujay Gaikwad, Yogita Pawar, Sharmila Banerjee, Savita Kulkarni
Juglone, a naphthoquinone is a known phytotoxic and cytotoxic allelochemical. Various anticancer studies suggest that pharmacological ROS insult and enzymes inhibited by juglone could be of therapeutic utility. In this study, we show that juglone induces immunomodulation in BCG-vaccinated mice. We have shown that juglone treatment leads to the generation of Th1 cytokines which develops an M1 phenotype in splenic macrophages. These findings were supported by a decrease in Treg population in BCG-vaccinated mice treated with juglone...
November 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Cheng-Jang Wu, Pin-Hsun Tseng, Cheng-Chi Chan, Sara Quon, Li-Chen Chen, Ming-Ling Kuo
Enhanced type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses to inhaled harmless allergens are strongly associated with the development of allergic diseases. Antigen formulated with an appropriate adjuvant can elicit suitable systemic immunity to protect individuals from disease. Although much has been learned about Th1-favored immunomodulation of OK-432, a streptococcal preparation with antineoplastic activity, little is known about its adjuvant effect for allergic diseases. Herein, we demonstrate that OK-432 acts as an adjuvant to favor a systemic Th1 polarization with an elevation in interferon- (IFN-) γ and ovalbumin- (OVA-) immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
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