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Blessing E Osaghae, Sarah Arrowsmith, Susan Wray
Magnesium sulfate is used as a tocolytic, but clinical efficacy has been seriously questioned. Our objective was to use controlled ex vivo conditions and known pregnancy stages, to investigate how 2 key factors, hormones and gestation, affect magnesium's tocolytic ability. We hypothesized that these factors could underlie the varying clinical findings around magnesium's efficacy. Myometrial strips were obtained from nonpregnant (n = 10), mid-pregnant (n = 12), and term-pregnant (n = 11) mouse uterus. The strips were mounted in organ baths superfused with oxygenated physiological saline at pH 7...
February 17, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Nikolas Löw, Jürgen Hesser, Manuel Blessing
The performance of case-based reasoning (CBR) depends on an accurate ranking of similar cases in the retrieval phase that affects all subsequent phases and profits from the potential of large databases. Unfortunately, growing databases come along with a rising amount of missing data that reduces the stability of the ranking since incomplete cases cannot be ranked as reliable as complete ones. In context of CBR hardly any work was done so far to rigorously analyze the impact of missing data and solutions to tackle this issue...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
M J Borchert, P E Blessing, J A Devlin, J A Harrington, T Higuchi, J Morgner, C Smorra, E Wursten, M Bohman, M Wiesinger, A Mooser, K Blaum, Y Matsuda, C Ospelkaus, W Quint, J Walz, Y Yamazaki, S Ulmer
We report on the first detailed study of motional heating in a cryogenic Penning trap using a single antiproton. Employing the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect we observe cyclotron quantum transition rates of 6(1)  quanta/h and an electric-field noise spectral density below 7.5(3.4)×10^{-20}  V^{2} m^{-2} Hz^{-1}, which corresponds to a scaled noise spectral density below 8.8(4.0)×10^{-12}  V^{2} m^{-2}, results which are more than 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those reported by other ion-trap experiments...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Casey A Schofield, Monica Abdul-Chani, Brandon A Gaudiano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence to suggest that biogenetic explanations for symptoms of mental disorders have become increasingly popular. Research suggests that such explanations provokes mixed blessings: biological explanations may reduce blame but also encourage prognostic pessimism and promote perceptions of pharmacological treatment over psychotherapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of different causal explanations on social anxiety disorder. METHOD: About 205 adults completed an experiment where they read a vignette describing an individual with social anxiety disorder and were randomly assigned to a symptom explanation that was: (1) biological, (2) biopsychosocial, (3) psychosocial, or (4) no explanation...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Mental Health
Samuel C Forster, Nitin Kumar, Blessing O Anonye, Alexandre Almeida, Elisa Viciani, Mark D Stares, Matthew Dunn, Tapoka T Mkandawire, Ana Zhu, Yan Shao, Lindsay J Pike, Thomas Louie, Hilary P Browne, Alex L Mitchell, B Anne Neville, Robert D Finn, Trevor D Lawley
Understanding gut microbiome functions requires cultivated bacteria for experimental validation and reference bacterial genome sequences to interpret metagenome datasets and guide functional analyses. We present the Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Culture Collection (HBC), a comprehensive set of 737 whole-genome-sequenced bacterial isolates, representing 273 species (105 novel species) from 31 families found in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. The HBC increases the number of bacterial genomes derived from human gastrointestinal microbiota by 37%...
February 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Richard B Weinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Simon Lüderwald, Vera Dackermann, Frank Seitz, Elena Adams, Alexander Feckler, Carsten Schilde, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Besides their economic value, engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINPs) may pose a risk for the integrity of ecosystems. Among EINPs, titanium dioxide (nTiO2 ) is frequently used and released into surface waters in the μg range. There, nTiO2 interacts with environmental factors, influencing its potential to cause adverse effects on aquatic life. Although factors like ultra violet (UV) light and natural organic matter (NOM) are considered as ubiquitous, their joint impact on nTiO2 -induced toxicity is poorly understood...
January 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tanya Marie Luhrmann, Ben Alderson-Day, Vaughan Bell, Josef J Bless, Philip Corlett, Kenneth Hugdahl, Nev Jones, Frank Larøi, Peter Moseley, Ramachandran Padmavati, Emmanuelle Peters, Albert R Powers, Flavie Waters
That trauma can play a significant role in the onset and maintenance of voice-hearing is one of the most striking and important developments in the recent study of psychosis. Yet the finding that trauma increases the risk for hallucination and for psychosis is quite different from the claim that trauma is necessary for either to occur. Trauma is often but not always associated with voice-hearing in populations with psychosis; voice-hearing is sometimes associated with willful training and cultivation in nonclinical populations...
February 1, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Neil Thomas, Josef J Bless, Ben Alderson-Day, Imogen H Bell, Matteo Cella, Tom Craig, Philippe Delespaul, Kenneth Hugdahl, Julien Laloyaux, Frank Larøi, Tania M Lincoln, Björn Schlier, Prabitha Urwyler, David van den Berg, Renaud Jardri
The field of digital mental health is rapidly expanding with digital tools being used in assessment, intervention, and supporting self-help. The application of digital mental health to hallucinations is, however, at a very early stage. This report from a working group of the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers particular synergies between the phenomenon of hallucinations and digital tools that are being developed. Highlighted uses include monitoring and managing intermittently occurring hallucinations in daily life; therapeutic applications of audio and video media including virtual and augmented reality; targeting verbal aspects of hallucinations; and using avatars to represent hallucinatory voices...
February 1, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Blessing Silaigwana, Douglas Wassenaar
In South Africa, biomedical research cannot commence until it has been reviewed and approved by a local research ethics committee (REC). There remains a dearth of empirical data on the nature and frequency of ethical issues raised by such committees. This study sought to identify ethical concerns typically raised by two South African RECs. Meeting minutes for 180 protocols reviewed between 2009 and 2014 were coded and analyzed using a preexisting framework. Results showed that the most frequent queries involved informed consent, respect for participants, and scientific validity...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
Thomas Rademacher, Markus Sack, Daniel Blessing, Rainer Fischer, Tanja Holland, Johannes Buyel
Industrial plant biotechnology applications include the production of sustainable fuels, complex metabolites and recombinant proteins, but process development can be impaired by a lack of reliable and scalable screening methods. Here we describe a rapid and versatile expression system which involves the infusion of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into three-dimensional, porous plant cell aggregates deprived of cultivation medium, which we have termed plant cell packs (PCPs). This approach is compatible with different plant species such as Nicotiana tabacum BY2, Nicotiana benthamiana or Daucus carota and 10-times more effective than transient expression in liquid plant cell culture...
January 22, 2019: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Joseph N F Siewe, Chinyere N Ukaga, Ernest O Nwazor, Murphy O Nwoke, Modebelu C Nwokeji, Blessing C Onuoha, Simon O Nwanjor, Joel Okeke, Kate Osahor, Lilian Chimechefulam, Ann I Ogomaka, Augustine A Amaechi, Chika I Ezenwa, Monika N Ezike, Chidimma Ikpeama, Ogechi Nwachukwu, Austine I Eriama-Joseph, Berthram E B Nwoke, Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND: High epilepsy prevalence and incidence have been reported in areas with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent findings suggest that proper community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is potentially able to prevent onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). We assessed the epilepsy prevalence and onchocerciasis transmission in two Nigerian villages following more than 20 years of CDTI. METHODS: A cross-sectional door-to-door survey was performed in two villages in the Imo River Basin reported to be mesoendomic for onchocerciasis (Umuoparaodu and Umuezeala)...
January 23, 2019: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
J A O'Hare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
B A Ardekani, S A Hadid, E Blessing, A H Bachman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Asymmetric atrophy of the hippocampus is an important clinical finding in normal aging and Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigate the associations between the magnitude and asymmetry of hippocampal volumetric integrity and age, sex, and dementia severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have recently developed a rapid fully automatic algorithm to measure the hippocampal parenchymal fraction, an index of hippocampal volumetric integrity on structural MR imaging of the brain...
January 17, 2019: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
John Barton Jemmott, Ann O'Leary, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Zolani Philemon Ngwane, Anne Marie Teitelman, Monde Blessing Makiwane, Scarlett L Bellamy
Importance: Scant research has investigated interventions to reduce forced sexual intercourse among adolescents. The need for such interventions is especially great in South Africa, which has some of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world. Objectives: To determine whether an HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction intervention that reduced sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted disease prevalence also reduced the perpetration and experience of forced sex among South African adolescents...
August 3, 2018: JAMA network open
Oleksandra Shumilova, Dominik Zak, Thibault Datry, Daniel von Schiller, Roland Corti, Arnaud Foulquier, Biel Obrador, Klement Tockner, Florian Altermatt, María Isabel Arce, Shai Arnon, Damien Banas, Andy Banegas-Medina, Erin Beller, Melanie L Blanchette, Juan F Blanco-Libreros, Joanna Blessing, Iola Gonçalves Boëchat, Kate Boersma, Michael T Bogan, Núria Bonada, Nick Bond, Kate Brintrup, Andreas Bruder, Ryan Burrows, Tommaso Cancellario, Stephanie M Carlson, Sophie Cauvy-Fraunié, Núria Cid, Michael Danger, Bianca de Freitas Terra, Anna Maria De Girolamo, Ruben Del Campo, Fiona Dyer, Arturo Elosegi, Emile Faye, Catherine Febria, Ricardo Figueroa, Brian Four, Mark O Gessner, Pierre Gnohossou, Rosa Gómez Cerezo, Lluís Gómez-Gener, Manuel A S Graça, Simone Guareschi, Björn Gücker, Jason L Hwan, Skhumbuzo Kubheka, Simone Daniela Langhans, Catherine Leigh, Chelsea Little, Stefan Lorenz, Jonathan Marshall, Angus McIntosh, Clara Mendoza-Lera, Elisabeth Irmgard Meyer, Marko Miliša, Musa C Mlambo, Marcos Moleón, Peter Negus, Dev Niyogi, Athina Papatheodoulou, Isabel Pardo, Petr Paril, Vladimir Pešić, Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano, Robert J Rolls, Maria Mar Sánchez-Montoya, Ana Savić, Alisha Steward, Rachel Stubbington, Amina Taleb, Ross Vander Vorste, Nathan Waltham, Annamaria Zoppini, Christiane Zarfl
Climate change and human pressures are changing the global distribution and extent of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), which comprise half of the global river network area. IRES are characterized by periods of flow cessation, during which channel substrates accumulate and undergo physico-chemical changes (preconditioning), and periods of flow resumption, when these substrates are rewetted and release pulses of dissolved nutrients and organic matter (OM). However, there are no estimates of the amounts and quality of leached substances, nor is there information on the underlying environmental constraints operating at the global scale...
January 9, 2019: Global Change Biology
Ezra Y Koh, Blessing T Oyeniyi, Erin E Fox, Michelle Scerbo, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Most studies of trauma deaths include non-preventable deaths, potentially limiting successful intervention efforts. In this study we aimed to compare the potentially preventable trauma deaths between 2 time periods at our institution. METHODS: Trauma patients who died in our hospital in 2005-2006 or 2012-2013 were included, non-preventable deaths were excluded from analysis. The Mann-Whitney and chi square test were used to compare variables between both time periods...
December 15, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Daniel Blessing, Gabriel Vachey, Catherine Pythoud, Maria Rey, Vivianne Padrun, Florian M Wurm, Bernard L Schneider, Nicole Déglon
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently among the most commonly applied for in vivo gene therapy approaches. The evaluation of vectors during clinical development requires the production of considerable amounts of highly pure and potent vectors. Here, we set up a scalable process for AAV production, using orbitally shaken bioreactors and a fully characterized suspension-adapted cell line, HEKExpress. We conducted a proof-of-concept production of AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 vectors using HEKExpress cells. Furthermore, we compared the production of AAV2/9 vectors using this suspension cell line to classical protocols based on adherent HEK293 cells to demonstrate bioequivalence in vitro and in vivo ...
June 14, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Blessed Winston Aruldhas, Richard M Hoglund, Jaya Ranjalkar, Joel Tarning, Sumith K Mathew, Valsan Philip Verghese, Anuradha Bose, Binu Susan Mathew
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies in the past have shown inadequate antituberculosis drug levels in children with the currently available dosing regimens. This study attempted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid and rifampicin, when used in children, and to optimise their dosing regimens. METHODS: Data were collected from 41 children, aged 2 to 16 years, who were being treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least 2 months. Concentration measurements were done for a 6-hour period and analysed using a non-linear, mixed-effects model...
December 26, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
J A O'Hare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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