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Functional impairment of adult adhd

Juri D Kropotov, Marina V Pronina, Valery A Ponomarev, Yury I Poliakov, Irina V Plotnikova, Andreas Mueller
OBJECTIVE: The main goal was to assess common and specific deficits of cognitive control in (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) ADHD and schizophrenia (SZ) using event-related potentials (ERPs). METHOD: Behavioral and EEG data in cued GO/NOGO task were recorded in 132 healthy controls (HC) and age, gender and education matched 63 ADHD adults, and 68 SZ patients. RESULTS: N2d wave in NOGO-GO contrast of ERPs did not differ between the groups while the P3d wave discriminated SZ group from two other groups...
February 10, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jayant Mahadevan, Arun Kandasamy, Vivek Benegal
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a population prevalence of 5%. However, its prevalence is much higher in mental health and substance use treatment settings. It is associated with significant physical and psychiatric morbidity, as well as social, occupational, and legal consequences. Adult ADHD is considered to be a part of the externalizing spectrum with which it shares both homotypic comorbidity and heterotypic continuity across the lifespan. This is attributable to a shared genetic basis, which interacts with environmental risk factors such as nutritional deficiencies and psychosocial adversity to bring about epigenetic changes...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Julian Tillmann, Antonia San José Cáceres, Chris H Chatham, Daisy Crawley, Rosemary Holt, Bethany Oakley, Tobias Banaschewski, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sven Bölte, Jan K Buitelaar, Sarah Durston, Lindsay Ham, Eva Loth, Emily Simonoff, Will Spooren, Declan G Murphy, Tony Charman
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit significant impairments in adaptive functioning that impact on their ability to meet the demands of everyday life. A recurrent finding is that there is a pronounced discrepancy between level of cognitive ability and adaptive functioning, and this is particularly prominent among higher-ability individuals. However, the key clinical and demographic associations of these discrepancies remain unclear. This study included a sample of 417 children, adolescents, and adults with ASD as part of the EU-AIMS LEAP cohort...
February 11, 2019: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Ashlee R Loughan, Sarah E Braun, Autumn Lanoye
Adult primary brain tumor (PBT) survivors report persistent cognitive difficulties before, during, and after treatment, which are problematic for everyday functioning. Cognitive domains often affected by cancer treatment appear to be attention and executive functioning (EF). One validated measure developed to assess an individual's EF within daily living is the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A). To date, no published research has investigated the EF profile of PBT patients using the BRIEF-A...
February 4, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Brittany M Merrill, Brooke S G Molina, Stefany Coxe, Elizabeth M Gnagy, Amy R Altszuler, Fiona L Macphee, Anne S Morrow, Elisa M Trucco, William E Pelham
Adults with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience impairment in core functional domains (e.g., educational attainment, occupational status, social relationships, substance abuse, and criminal behavior), but it is currently unclear which impairments co-occur and whether subgroups experience differentiable patterns, none, or all aforementioned functional domains. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to characterize patterns of impairment. Data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study were used...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Alexandra R D'Agostino, Michael J Wesley, Jaime Brown, Mark T Fillmore
Multisensory environments facilitate behavioral functioning in humans. The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly to stimuli when information is presented as multisensory, redundant stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually) rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. RSE appears to be because of specialized multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus and association cortex that allow intersensory coactivation between the visual and auditory channels...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ylva Holst, Lisa B Thorell
The aim of the present study was to investigate daily life functioning in adults with ADHD and adults with other psychiatric disorders and to compare ADHD subgroups with or without executive deficits. Daily life functioning was assessed using self-ratings covering the following domains: academic/occupational functioning, social relations, daily life problems, and criminality. Executive deficits were assessed using self-ratings and laboratory tests of working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results showed that adults with ADHD were more impaired with regard to academic functioning, current occupational status, daily life functioning, criminality, and some aspects of social functioning...
January 9, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Sandro M Sodano, Jessica P Tamulonis, Gregory A Fabiano, Abigail M Caserta, Kevin F Hulme, Karen L Hulme, Gina R Stephan, Federica Tronci
OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal functioning is a core area of impairment for young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet the assessment of their interpersonal problems has not been approached using a comprehensive model of interpersonal behaviors. METHOD: Interpersonal problems of young adults with ADHD ( n = 24) were compared to non-ADHD peers ( n = 26) by self- and collateral-report using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex-Item Response Theory (IIP-C-IRT)...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Attention Disorders
Steve D Lukito, Owen G O'Daly, David J Lythgoe, Susannah Whitwell, Amanda Debnam, Clodagh M Murphy, Karen Ashwood, Vladimira Stoencheva, Emily Simonoff, Katya Rubia
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur and share neurocognitive deficits. One such shared impairment is in duration discrimination. However, no studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have investigated whether these duration discrimination deficits are underpinned by the same or different underlying neurofunctional processes. In this study, we used fMRI to compare the neurofunctional correlates of duration discrimination between young adult males with ASD ( n = 23), ADHD ( n = 25), the comorbid condition of ASD+ADHD ( n = 24), and typical development (TD, n = 26) using both region of interest (ROI) and whole brain analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yunhye Oh, Hee Joon Yoon, Ji-Hae Kim, Yoo Sook Joung
Objective: Anxiety has been shown to influence functional impairment in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to compare functional impairment in subjects with and without adult ADHD and to investigate the associations among trait anxiety, functional impairment, and ADHD symptom severity. Moreover, the effects of ADHD symptom subtypes on trait anxiety and functional impairment were also examined. Methods: The sample included 209 adults between the ages of 20 and 31 years...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dongren Yao, Xiaojie Guo, Qihua Zhao, Lu Liu, Qingjiu Cao, Yufeng Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Li Sun, Jing Sui
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists into adulthood, resulting in adverse effects on work performance and social function. The current diagnosis of ADHD primarily depends on the judgment of clinical symptoms, which highlights the need for objective imaging biomarkers. In this study, we aim to classify ADHD (both children and adults [34/112]) from age-matched healthy controls (HCs [28/77]) with functional connectivity (FCs) pattern derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yuyang Luo, Kurt P Schulz, Tara L Alvarez, Jeffrey M Halperin, Xiaobo Li
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood in a sizeable portion of afflicted children. The persistence of ADHD elevates the risk for adverse outcomes that result in substantial individual and societal burden. The objective of this study is to assess neurobiological substrates associated with variability of clinical outcomes in childhood ADHD, which has considerable value for the development of novel interventions that target mechanisms associated with recovery...
October 13, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Imke Jansen, Alexandra Philipsen, Daniela Dalin, Isabella Katharina Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
BACKGROUND: Apart from inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, ADHD in childhood presents with an impairment of motor coordination and balance functions. Until now, literature is scarce about sensorimotor deficits in adult ADHD. This is a pilot study that identifies and quantifies the role of sensory, motor, and central adaptation mechanisms for adult ADHD patients' sensorimotor deficits in a systematic way, using postural control. METHODS: We analyzed spontaneous and externally perturbed stance in ten adult patients suffering from ADHD...
January 2019: Gait & Posture
Bartosz Helfer, Ruth E Cooper, Natali Bozhilova, Stefanos Maltezos, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson
Mind wandering, emotional lability and sleep quality are currently mostly independently investigated but are all interlinked and play a major role is adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Emotional lability is a core feature of the disorder, excessive mind wandering has recently been linked to symptoms and impairments of ADHD and poor sleep quality is experienced by a clear majority of adults with ADHD. All three phenomena lead to functional impairment in ADHD, however their relationship to each other and to ADHD symptom severity is not well understood...
October 29, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Jane Ann Sedgwick, Andrew Merwood, Philip Asherson
The behavioural characteristics of ADHD do not exist in binary form (i.e. normal vs. abnormal); instead, they exist on a spectrum or continuum. This implies that some aspects of ADHD can be adaptive rather than impairing, or some adults may possess certain strengths or attributes that mediate and/or compensate for their ADHD-related deficits or impairments. More research is needed to clarify these observations. To explore and describe positive aspects of ADHD from the perspective of successful adults with ADHD...
October 29, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Theresa Vera Masuch, Myriam Bea, Barbara Alm, Peter Deibler, Esther Sobanski
The objective of this study is to assess internalized stigma, perceived public stigma, anticipated discrimination and their associations with demographic, psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics in adult ADHD. Stigmatization was assessed with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination and the Questionnaire on Public Stereotypes Perceived by Adults with ADHD. The sample comprised n = 104 adults with ADHD, of whom n = 24 (23.3%) reported high internalized stigma, n = 92 (88...
October 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Arthur D P Mak, Alicia K W Chan, Phyllis K L Chan, C P Tang, Kelly Lai, Sheila Wong, Patrick Leung, S F Hung, Linda C W Lam, Sing Lee
OBJECTIVE: We examined adulthood diagnostic, functioning, and social outcomes of childhood ADHD in a Hong Kong Chinese clinical sample. METHOD: We identified from the central registry 499 Chinese adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD aged 6 to 12 in 2002-2005 in four Hong Kong child psychiatric centers. Assessments included ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS)...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Chao Gu, Zhong-Xu Liu, Rosemary Tannock, Steven Woltering
Individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often characterized by deficits in working memory (WM), which manifest in academic, professional, and mental health difficulties. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these presumed WM deficits, we compared adults with ADHD to their peers on behavioral and neural indices of WM. We used a visuospatial change detection task with distractors which was designed to assess the brain's ability to effectively filter out distractors from WM, in addition to testing for effects of WM load...
2018: PeerJ
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Stéphane Potvin, Fernando Corbalan, Akram Djouini, Scot E Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Robert-Paul Juster, Edouard Kouassi
Cognitive impairments constitute a core feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), but are infrequently assessed in the clinical setting. We have previously demonstrated the ability of an objective cognitive battery, the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), to differentiate adult ADHD patients from healthy controls in five cognitive domains. Here, we further characterize these subtle cognitive deficits by conducting additional univariate analyses on our ADHD dataset to assess the contributions of various demographic characteristics on SCIP performance and to determine correlations between SCIP scores and scores on other measures evaluating illness severity, perceived cognitive deficits, and overall functioning...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Sébastien Weibel, Margaret Weiss, Marie Gachet, Kelly Guichard, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. METHOD: Patients ( N = 363) were diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria. Psychometric properties of the French version of the WFIRS-S were tested including construct validity with a confirmatory factor analysis, internal structural validity with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, external validity by correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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