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Sa Cai, Xiaojie Xu, Wei Yang, Jiaxin Chen, Xiaosheng Fang
Photodetectors (PDs), as an indispensable component in electronics, are highly desired to be flexible to meet the trend of next-generation wearable electronics. Unfortunately, no in-depth reviews on the design strategies, material exploration, and potential applications of wearable photodetectors are found in literature to date. Thus, this progress report first summarizes the fundamental design principles of turning "hard" photodetectors "soft," including 2D (polymer and paper substrate-based devices) and 1D PDs (fiber shaped devices)...
February 20, 2019: Advanced Materials
Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Tingting Zhu, Ping Gong, Jianjie Fu, Zhiyuan Cong
Due to their low temperatures, the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan Plateau are known as the three polar regions of the Earth. As the most remote regions of the globe, the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in these polar regions arouses global concern. In this paper, we review the literatures on POPs involving these three polar regions. Overall, concentrations of POPs in the environment (air, water, soil and biota) have been extensively reported, with higher levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) detected on the Tibetan Plateau...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Grech Victor
This WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) Best Practice Guidelines (BPG) will wrap up all of the aspects pertaining to qualitative analyses as well as some more theoretical aspects of paper writing. These include types of studies and their importance in the hierarchy of evidence base as practiced in medicine. In addition, two papers review very practical aspects of paper writing including which journals to target (and why), and realistic methods for dealing with editors. Another paper also deals with fraud and hoax in science...
February 2019: Early Human Development
Xiaodong Lai, Chao Lu, Jixian Liu
Climate change calls for worldwide public concern and effort to cut down carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and globally realize sustainable development. As one of the largest energy consumers, the construction industry plays a crucial role in achieving the national carbon emission reduction goal. This paper, by employing an improved Kaya model, explored the relationships and trends among carbon emission, energy consumption, and GDP growth rate and carbon emission intensity of the Chinese construction industry...
February 19, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E A Solovykh, V K Leont'ev, M O Zubrikhina, A I Molodchenkov
This paper presents the results of studying the effectiveness of the developed method for diagnosing the functional state of the dental system. The results indicate that the accuracy of the method is about 80%. The results of previous studies are reviewed and the prospects for diagnosis of the functional state of the dental system as a research and practical trend in dentistry are outlined. The physiological regularities of the dental system functioning and relationship between its functional status and the autonomic nervous and postural systems prompt a new trend of research, functional diagnosis in dentistry and interpretation of the findings of functional studies...
February 19, 2019: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Rita Soares, Verónica C Martins, Rita Macedo, Filipe A Cardoso, Sofia A M Martins, Diogo M Caetano, Pedro H Fonseca, Vânia Silvério, Susana Cardoso, Paulo P Freitas
The growing need for biological information at the single cell level has driven the development of improved cytometry technologies. Flow cytometry is a particularly powerful method that has evolved over the past few decades. Flow cytometers have become essential instruments in biomedical research and routine clinical tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. However, the increasing number of cellular parameters unveiled by genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data platforms demands an augmented multiplexability...
February 19, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Cecilia Orellana, Bertina Kreshpaj, Gun Johansson, Bo Burström, Katarina Kjellberg, Tomas Hemmingsson, Magnus Axén, Letitia Davis, David Wegman, Theo Bodin
INTRODUCTION: There is uncertainty regarding the trends in occupational injuries (OIs) in Sweden due to a significant and increasing problem with under-reporting to injury registers. Under-reporting, in general, is likely to be exacerbated by the rise in precarious employment (PE), a set of unfavourable employment characteristics that would benefit from formal definition and study. PE and global trends are believed also to affect companies and their commitment to health and safety. The present study attempts to bridge these knowledge gaps and presents a study protocol for planned studies, with three main objectives: first, to review the literature for definitions of PE emphasising those that are multidimensional and operationalise components in routinely collected register data; second, to estimate the under-reporting of OI in Swedish registers and third, using results from the first objective, to conduct large, register-based prospective studies, designed to measure effect sizes and interactions between PE, business performance and OI...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Natasa Koceska, Saso Koceski, Pierluigi Beomonte Zobel, Vladimir Trajkovik, Nuno Garcia
The emerging demographic trends toward an aging population, demand new ways and solutions to improve the quality of elderly life. These include, prolonged independent living, improved health care, and reduced social isolation. Recent technological advances in the field of assistive robotics bring higher sophistication and various assistive abilities that can help in achieving these goals. In this paper, we present design and validation of a low-cost telepresence robot that can assist the elderly and their professional caregivers, in everyday activities...
February 18, 2019: Sensors
Ingook Jang, Donghun Lee, Jinchul Choi, Youngsung Son
The traditional Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has evolved towards intelligent IoT applications which exploit knowledge produced by IoT devices using artificial intelligence techniques. Knowledge sharing between IoT devices is a challenging issue in this trend. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge of Things (KoT) framework which enables sharing self-taught knowledge between IoT devices which require similar or identical knowledge without help from the cloud. The proposed KoT framework allows an IoT device to effectively produce, cumulate, and share its self-taught knowledge with other devices at the edge in the vicinity...
February 18, 2019: Sensors
Gaoyuan Qin, Fengming Tao, Lixia Li
Under fierce market competition and the demand for low-carbon economy, cold chain logistics companies have to pay attention to customer satisfaction and carbon emissions for better development. In order to simultaneously consider cost, customer satisfaction, and carbon emissions in the cold chain logistics path optimization problem, based on the idea of cost⁻benefit, this paper proposes a comprehensive cold chain vehicle routing problem optimization model with the objective function of minimizing the cost of unit satisfied customer...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Norfazillah Ab Manan, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Rozita Hod
IntroductionMany epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution levels and human health in terms of hospital admissions. The aim of this paper is to gather evidence concerning air pollution effects on the risk of hospital admission. We hypothesised that increase in: particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels would be associated with the increasing trend of hospital admission.MethodsA systematic review of literature was carried out...
November 5, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Agatha Santos do Nascimento, Felipe Sales de Oliveira, M Lucia Bianconi
The bibliometric analysis of the Brazilian periodical "Journal of Biochemistry Education" (JBE) covered the 117 articles published in 15 volumes in the period 2001-2017. Our results showed a positive trend in JBE publications with a significant increase in the number of articles since 2014, which can be related to the increase in research groups working in this area. The Southeast region of Brazil was the most productive one mainly due to the contribution of papers from institutions located in the State of São Paulo...
February 19, 2019: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
M E McCaul, D Roach, D S Hasin, C Weisner, G Chang, R Sinha
This paper provides a brief overview of research on women and alcohol and introduces a virtual issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research devoted to this important subject. Women-focused topics include the epidemiology of alcohol use among women, health and behavioral consequences of drinking, prenatal alcohol use and interventions, and enhanced alcohol treatment services. The introduction and selected papers highlight: temporal trends that are narrowing the gender gap in alcohol use; mounting evidence of the more rapid progression and greater severity of harmful physiological and behavioral effects of alcohol in women; impact of targeted public health campaigns and public policies on prenatal drinking; and finally intervention strategies to improve detection and care of women who misuse alcohol...
February 19, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Shreeya Gyawali, Bichitra Nanda Patra
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication, social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. The concept of autism has changed since its inception, from childhood schizophrenia to neuro-variation. These changes in concept have been accompanied by changes in the diagnostic threshold through which the 'case' of autism is identified. The occurrence of multiple changes in its diagnostic criteria over last 80 odd years opens up the possibility of challenges being posed to the existence of the disorder as it is today, with a possibility of newer conceptualization of autism coming up in the future...
February 10, 2019: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Ali Zadehkafi, Majid Siavashi, Sasan Asiaei, Mostafa Rabbani Bidgoli
One of the ongoing challenges in lateral flow Immunochromatographic assays (LFIA), is lowering the limit of detection and enhancing their signal quality, i.e. the color intensity. There are a number of rather costly and complicated processes for this aim, such as the use of functionalized materials/membranes and additional spectroscopic readout units. Nonetheless, there are simple and easy to practice alternatives, to be uncovered by analyzing the essential parameters of immunological reactions. The color intensity of the test line is a function of analytes flow velocity and their reaction rate...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jack Cunliffe, David Décary-Hêtu, Thomas A Pollak
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing global health problem, with recent concern focusing on darknet cryptomarkets as sources of procurement. There is a shortage of evidence regarding comparative worldwide NMPDU trends, due in part to data collection difficulties. This problem is particularly marked for non-opioid drugs, particularly those psychiatric drugs which act on the central nervous system (CNS) and have high misuse potential and are associated with high levels of dependency and fatal overdose...
February 12, 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xiaolong Yang, Huixian Chen, Jipeng Chen, Yu Qiao, Liqiang Ma
Cancer therapy with accelerated proton or heavy ion beam is the most advanced radiotherapy technology, which is recognized by the international community at present. It is of great practical significance to study the medical proton and heavy ion accelerators and the radiotherapy technology, in order to promote the development of the advanced medical radiotherapy equipments and improve the quality of life of cancer patients in China. After a brief overview of cancer therapy with proton and heavy ion beam, this paper summarized and analyzed the application status of medical proton accelerators and medical heavy ion accelerators at home and abroad, and finally put forward the future development trends of medical proton and heavy ion accelerators and the radiotherapy technology, it can provide a reference for the progress and development strategies of the advanced radiotherapy equipments in China...
January 30, 2019: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Kishor Patwardhan, B S Prasad, Anam Aftab, Varsha Raghunath More, Shriram S Savrikar
This paper examines the scenario of research orientation in Ayurveda educational institutions of India. We demonstrate through the data obtained by searching the SCOPUS that the actual research output by these institutions is not very significant in terms of number of publications. While a lack of research expertise and infrastructure is one contributing factor to this status, a lack of questioning attitude is more crucial one. Mushrooming of new colleges, laxity in regulations, corruption, lack of atmosphere for ethical and quality research make the problem more complex...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Luoran Shang, Yunru Yu, Yuxiao Liu, Zhuoyue Chen, Tiantian Kong, Yuanjin Zhao
Natural fiber systems provide inspirations for artificial fiber spinning and applications. Through a long process of trial and error, great progress has been made in recent years. The natural fiber itself, especially silks, and the formation mechanism are better understood, and some of the essential factors are implemented in artificial spinning methods, benefiting from advanced manufacturing technologies. Besides, fiber-based materials produced via bioinspired spinning methods find an increasingly wide range of biomedical, optoelectronics, and environmental engineering applications...
February 15, 2019: ACS Nano
Matthew M Griffith, Yuichiro Yahata, Fujiko Irie, Hajime Kamiya, Aika Watanabe, Yusuke Kobayashi, Tamano Matsui, Nobuhiko Okabe, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Kazunori Oishi
Outbreaks of infectious diseases can occur after natural disasters as vital services are disrupted and populations move into evacuation centres. National notifiable disease surveillance may be inadequate in these situations because of resource-consuming disease confirmation or system interruptions. Although syndromic surveillance has been used as an alternative in post-disaster situations, no systematic evaluations of it have been published. We evaluated the ad hoc paper-based syndromic surveillance system implemented in evacuation centres in Ibaraki prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
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