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Mohammad Vatanparast, Shabbir Ahmed, Seyedeh Minoo Sajjadian, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) hydrolyses phospholipids at sn-2 position to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Secretory type of PLA2 (sPLA2 ) has been found in many different animals including insects. Insect sPLA2 s have been divided into venomous and nonvenomous PLA2 s. A non-venomous sPLA2 (Se-sPLA2 ) has been identified in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Its high enzyme activity is detected in hemolymph of naïve larvae. However, the physiological role of high sPLA2 activity in hemolymph remains unclear...
February 15, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Marjolein van Reeven, Jacques Pirenne, Paolo Muiesan, Constantino Fondevila, Jan N M IJzermans, Wojciech G Polak
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) using grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) is evolving to standard of care in many countries. Various transplant centers have developed a protocol for DCD-LT. The existence of numerous protocols may cause inconsistencies. Knowledge of these differences may help improve the outcome of DCD-LT. METHODS: An internet-based survey was sent to 119 transplant surgeons among four countries: Belgium (BE), the Netherlands (NL), Spain (ES) and the United Kingdom (UK)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
Longfei Yu, Jan Mulder, Jing Zhu, Xiaoshan Zhang, Zhangwei Wang, Peter Dörsch
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition in subtropical forests in south China causes N saturation, associated with significant nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching. Strong N attenuation may occur in groundwater discharge zones hydrologically connected to well-drained hillslopes, as has been shown for the subtropical headwater catchment "TieShanPing", where dual NO3 - isotopes indicated that groundwater discharge zones act as an important N sink and hotspot for denitrification. Here, we present a regional study reporting inorganic N fluxes over two years together with dual NO3 - isotope signatures obtained in two summer campaigns from seven forested catchments in China, representing a gradient in climate and atmospheric N input...
February 18, 2019: Global Change Biology
Liang Sun, Upinder S Gill, Raja Sekhar Nandety, Soonil Kwon, Perdeep Mehta, Rebecca Dickstein, Michael K Udvardi, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen
From a single transgenic line harboring five Tnt1 transposon insertions, we generated a near-saturated insertion population in Medicago truncatula. Using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR followed by sequencing, we recovered 388,888 flanking sequence tags (FSTs) from 21,741 insertion lines in this population. FST recovery from 14 Tnt1 lines using the whole genome sequencing and/or Tnt1-capture sequencing approaches suggests an average of 80 insertions per line, which is more than previous estimation of 25 insertions...
February 18, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nozomi Nakahara, Masaru K Nobu, Yoshihiro Takaki, Masayuki Miyazaki, Eiji Tasumi, Sanae Sakai, Miyuki Ogawara, Naoko Yoshida, Hideyuki Tamaki, Yuko Yamanaka, Arata Katayama, Takashi Yamaguchi, Ken Takai, Hiroyuki Imachi
A novel slow-growing, facultatively anaerobic, filamentous bacterium, strain MO-CFX2T , was isolated from a methanogenic microbial community in a continuous-flow bioreactor that was established from subseafloor sediment collected off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan. Cells were multicellular filamentous, non-motile and Gram-stain-negative. The filaments were generally more than 20 µm (up to approximately 200 µm) long and 0.5-0.6 µm wide. Cells possessed pili-like structures on the cell surface and a multilayer structure in the cytoplasm...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yinxiang Xu, Yujia Zhang, Steven Wang, Junbo Xu, Chao Yang
Achieving ultrahigh selectivity for separating paraffin/olefin mixtures with physical and chemical similarity, especially for halohydrocarbons, is a long-standing challenge in high-purity polymer production. We explored three H-saturated nanoporous graphene (NG) membranes with appropriate pore geometries that can achieve the complete exclusion of 1-chloropropane (C3H7Cl) from C3H5Cl during molecular dynamics simulations. Inferred from thermodynamics calculations, C3H5Cl has a lower energy barrier of penetration than C3H7Cl and the NG membranes show preferential adsorption to C3H5Cl, which facilitate the penetration of C3H5Cl through the pores...
February 18, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Charles M Llewellyn, Michael W Noller, Macario Camacho
Objective: To systematically review outcomes for cautery-assisted palatal stiffening operation (CAPSO) as a treatment for adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Five databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were searched through July 12, 2017. Results: Eight studies (307 patients) met criteria. Overall, CAPSO alone (80 patients) improved AHI from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of (16.8 ± 11.9) to (9.9 ± 10.9) events/h (41...
March 2019: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Banjo A Akinyemi, Adeola Bamidele, Adeoye Oluwanifemi
This article is focussed on evaluating the effects of water repellent admixture and different curing regimes on characteristics of clay from termite hills used for production of earth bricks. Water absorption, thickness swelling and compressive strength characteristics of the specimens with different compositions of cement, hydrated lime and water repellent additive subjected to different curing regimes were measured. The samples were characterised by SEM and FTIR. The least water absorption was at 3.3% while thickness swelling ranged from 0...
January 2019: Heliyon
M C Gryka, T J Comi, R A Forsyth, P M Hadley, S Deb, R Bhargava
Freeform 3D printing combined with sacrificial molding promises to lead advances in production of highly complex tubular systems for biomedical applications. Here we leverage a purpose-built isomalt 3D printer to generate complex channel geometries in hydrogels which would be inaccessible with other techniques. To control the dissolution of the scaffold, we propose an enabling technology consisting of an automated nebulizer coating system which applies octadecane to isomalt scaffolds. Octadecane, a saturated hydrocarbon, protects the rigid mold from dissolution and provides ample time for gels to set around the sacrificial structure...
March 2019: Additive Manufacturing
Christopher W Meaden, John S Kashani, Stephen Vetrano
Nitric acid (HNO3 ) is a strong acid and oxidizing agent used for various applications including production of ammonium nitrate in the fertilizer industry. Nitrogen oxides formed when nitric acid interacts with the environment have been implicated in inhalation injuries. This describes a case of a 49-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of an acute onset of shortness of breath approximately 12 hours after being exposed to nitric acid fumes. He presented with a room air oxygen saturation of 80 percent with moderate to severe respiratory distress...
2019: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Behrooz Farzanegan, Majid Golestani Eraghi, Samira Abdollahi, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Khalili, Reza Moshari, Alireza Jahangirifard
Background and Aims: Controlled hypotensive anesthesia in endoscopic sinus surgery would provide a clean surgical field. Cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2 ) is important in endoscopic sinus surgery patients and it may be low during controlled hypotension. The aim of the present study was to assess ScO2 in these patients. Material and Methods: In this observational study, 41 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery with hypotensive anesthesia were enrolled for the study and all of the patients received the same anesthetic medication, nitroglycerin for controlled hypotension...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Julian Arevalo Ludeña, Jose Juan Arcas Bellas, Rafael Alvarez Rementeria, Luis Enrique Muñoz Alameda
Background and Aims: Orotracheal intubation (OTI) with fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) in spontaneous ventilation is one of the main techniques for patients with predicted difficult airway. Latest generation supraglottic airway devices have been designed to allow OTI through them. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of FOB-guided OTI through i-gel™ device which was inserted in spontaneously breathing patients with predicted difficult airway. Material and Methods: Eighty-five patients with difficult airway predictors were included...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoko Handa-Kirihara, Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
We investigated combined effects of ambient temperature (23°C or 13°C) and fraction of inspired oxygen (21%O2 or 13%O2 ) on energy cost of walking (Cw : J·kg-1 ·km-1 ) and economical speed (ES). Eighteen healthy young adults (11 males, seven females) walked at seven speeds from 0.67 to 1.67 m s-1 (four min per stage). Environmental conditions were set; thermoneutral (N: 23°C) with normoxia (N: 21%O2 ) = NN; 23°C (N) with hypoxia (H: 13%O2 ) = NH; cool (C: 13°C) with 21%O2 (N) = CN, and 13°C (C) with 13%O2 (H) = CH...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Julia Elisa Cabezas Arteaga, Fatima Mendonça Jorge Vieira, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos Reis
BACKGROUND: Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common porphyria worldwide. The known acquired precipitating factors that induce PCT include alcoholism, hepatitis C virus infection, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and estrogen intake. Hereditary hemochromatosis is considered an inherited risk factor. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze precipitating factors and family history, with emphasis on PCT management. METHODS: A retrospective study of 87 patients with PCT was conducted between January 2002 and December 2017...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Dermatology
Kate J Bowen, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Sheila G West, Jennifer A Fleming, Philip W Connelly, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture, David J A Jenkins, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Shatha S Hammad, Jyoti Sihag, Xiang Chen, Valérie Guay, Julie Maltais-Giguère, Danielle Perera, Angela Wilson, Sandra Castillo San Juan, Julia Rempel, Peter J H Jones
BACKGROUND: Novel oils high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are an alternative to partially hydrogenated oils high in trans-unsaturated fatty acids. There is widespread use of high-MUFA oils across the food industry; however, limited knowledge of their cardiovascular impact exists. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of diets containing canola oil, high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO), and a control oil blend (diet formulated to emulate a Western fat profile) on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins (apos), as secondary outcomes of the trial...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Henar Ortega-Senovilla, Manuel de Oya, Carmen Garcés
BACKGROUND: The regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in early childhood obesity is not well understood. Insulin levels are higher and insulin resistance seems to be present in prepubertal children with obesity but, differing from their behavior in adults with obesity, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations are not increased. Retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4 concentration is associated with obesity and insulin resistance conditions, but the means of this relationship remain unclear, and few studies have taken retinol values into account to evaluate it...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
E Pulido, M Fernández, N Prieto, R L Baldwin, S Andrés, S López, F J Giráldez
The aim of this research was to study the effect of milking frequency [once-daily milking (ODM) vs. twice-daily milking (TDM)] and antioxidant (AOX) supplementation on fatty acid (FA) profile and oxidative stability in sheep milk. Sixteen Assaf ewes were used; 8 did not receive any vitamin-mineral supplement (control), and the other 8 received an oral dose of 1,000 IU of α-tocopherol and 0.4 mg of Se daily. The experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods; the first was 3 wk with TDM of both mammary glands...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Andrea Ianni, Denise Innosa, Camillo Martino, Lisa Grotta, Francesca Bennato, Giuseppe Martino
Zinc represents an essential microelement for several biochemical mechanisms. The body's inability to store zinc necessarily requires a constant dietary supply to avoid alteration of physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary enrichment with zinc on chemical-nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and cheese. Thirty commercial dairy cows, balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The control group was fed with a conventional complete diet (22 kg of dry matter/animal per day), whereas the experimental group received a daily zinc supplementation of 60 mg per kg of dry complete feed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Seonki Lee, Stanislaus Raditya Suwarno, Bryan Wei Hong Quek, Lanhee Kim, Bing Wu, Tzyy Haur Chong
In this study, permeate quality, membrane performance, and microbial community in a gravity-driven microfiltration (GDM) reactor and a biofiltration (BF) + GDM reactor for seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination pretreatment were compared at both lab-scale and pilot-scale. The presence of BF column was more efficient in removing soluble organic substances by biosorption/biodegradation, leading to superior permeate quality from BF + GDM and subsequently lower RO fouling than GDM. Compared to the biofilm-saturated anthracite media, the granular activated carbon media in BF improved the assimilable organic substances removal in BF + GDM...
February 4, 2019: Water Research
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