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Red clover silage

M R F Lee, R Fychan, J K S Tweed, N Gordon, V Theobald, R Yadav, A Marshall
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in red clover (RC) has been shown to reduce both lipolysis and proteolysis in silo and implicated (in vitro) in the rumen. However, all in vivo comparisons have compared RC with other forages, typically with lower levels of PPO, which brings in other confounding factors as to the cause for the greater protection of dietary nitrogen (N) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on RC silage. This study compared two RC silages which when ensiled had contrasting PPO activities (RC+ and RC-) against a control of perennial ryegrass silage (PRG) to ascertain the effect of PPO activity on dietary N digestibility and PUFA biohydrogenation...
December 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Joaquín Castro-Montoya, Maren Witzig, Mizanur Rahman, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Uta Dickhoefer
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community composition when replacing maize silage (MS) with red clover silage (RCS) in total mixed rations (TMR) of dairy cows. Treatments included TMR containing forage (MS and RCS) and concentrates (0.75:0.25) with targeted proportions (dry matter (DM) basis) of RCS in TMR of 0.15 (RCS15 ), 0.30 (RCS30 ), 0.45 (RCS45 ), and 0.60 (RCS60 ), in substitution of MS. Samples of the TMR were incubated using the in vitro Ankom RF technique with a mixture of rumen fluid and buffer solution (1:2 v/v) for 8 and 24 hr...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Xujiao Li, Jipeng Tian, Qing Zhang, Yun Jiang, Zhe Wu, Zhu Yu
This study was conducted to study the effects of ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and red clover (Trifolium pretense) at different ratios on dynamics of fermentation parameters, N distribution, protein fractions, and protease activities during ensiling. Alfalfa and red clover were harvested and wilted to 35 and 25% dry matter, respectively, chopped to 1 cm, mixed, weighed into 1.0-L buckets at a density of 700 g/L, and ensiled for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 d at 30°C. The treatments were mixing ratio of alfalfa to red clover at 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 (R0, R30, R50, R70, and R100, respectively; fresh weight)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Franziska Schulz, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Joachim Molkentin, Karin Knappstein, Andreas Susenbeth
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing maize silage plus soybean meal with red clover silage (RCS) plus wheat on the fatty acid (FA) profile in the milk fat of cows. Forty-four lactating German Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods composed of 13 d of adaptation to diets followed by an 8-d sampling phase. Experimental diets offered as total mixed ration consisted of a constant forage-to-concentrate ratio (75:25) with target proportions of RCS to maize silage of 15:60 (RCS15 ), 30:45 (RCS30 ), 45:30 (RCS45 ), and 60:15 (RCS60 ) on a dry matter basis...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Franziska Schulz, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Karin Knappstein, Joachim Molkentin, Andreas Susenbeth
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of replacing maize silage plus soybean meal with red clover silage (RCS) plus wheat on feed intake, diet digestibility, N partitioning, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and milk production in dairy cows. Forty-four lactating German Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods composed of a 13-d adaptation phase followed by an 8-d sampling phase. Experimental diets offered as total mixed ration consisted of a constant forage-to-concentrate ratio (75:25) with targeted proportions of RCS-to-maize silage of 15:60 (RCS15 ), 30:45 (RCS30 ), 45:30 (RCS45 ), and 60:15 (RCS60 ) on a dry matter (DM) basis...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
H Gidlund, M Vaga, S Ahvenjärvi, M Rinne, M Ramin, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the relationship between utilizable crude protein (uCP) at the duodenum estimated in vitro and omasal flow of crude protein (CP; omasal flow of nonammonia N × 6.25) measured in lactating dairy cows. In vivo data were obtained from previous studies estimating omasal digesta flow using a triple-marker method and 15 N as microbial marker. A total of 34 different diets based on grass and red clover silages were incubated with buffered rumen fluid previously preincubated with carbohydrates for 3 h...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Johansen, K Søegaard, P Lund, M R Weisbjerg
This study examined how silages of different grass and clover species affect dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and eating behavior in dairy cows. The primary growth of perennial ryegrass (early and late harvested), festulolium, tall fescue, red clover, and white clover swards were cut, wilted, and ensiled without additives. Thirty-six Danish Holstein cows were fed ad libitum with total mixed rations containing 70% forage on DM basis in an incomplete Latin square design. The forage source was either 1 of the 6 pure silages or late perennial ryegrass silage mixed (50:50 on DM basis) with either red clover or white clover silage...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Anja Grosse Brinkhaus, Giuseppe Bee, Angela Schwarm, Michael Kreuzer, Frigga Dohme-Meier, Johanna O Zeitz
BACKGROUND: A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which has unfavourably high ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the Rumen Simulation Technique (n = 6)...
March 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
J Bertilsson, M Åkerlind, T Eriksson
Grass silage-based diets often result in poor nitrogen utilization when fed to dairy cows. Perennial ryegrass cultivars with high concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) have proven potential for correcting this imbalance when fed fresh, and have also been shown to increase feed intake, milk production, and N utilization. The possibility of achieving corresponding effects with silage-based diets was investigated in change-over experiments in an incomplete block design with 16 (yr 1) or 12 (yr 2) Swedish Red dairy cows in mid lactation...
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Jiri Skladanka, Vojtech Adam, Ondrej Zitka, Veronika Mlejnkova, Libor Kalhotka, Pavel Horky, Klara Konecna, Lucia Hodulikova, Daniela Knotova, Marie Balabanova, Petr Slama, Petr Skarpa
In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Grosse Brinkhaus, U Wyss, Y Arrigo, M Girard, G Bee, J O Zeitz, M Kreuzer, F Dohme-Meier
The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined...
April 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S S Naadland, H Steinshamn, S J Krizsan, Å T Randby
There are differences in grass-clover proportions and chemical composition between herbage from primary growth (PG) and regrowth (RG) in grass-clover leys. Mixing silages made from PG and RG may provide a more optimal diet to dairy cows than when fed separately. We tested the hypotheses that increasing dietary proportions of grass-clover silage made from RG compared with PG would increase digestion rate of potentially degradable NDF (pdNDF), and increase ruminal accumulation of indigestible NDF (iNDF). Eight rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cows were used in two replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-day periods...
June 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, K J Shingfield, I Simpura, T Kokkonen, S Jaakkola, V Toivonen, A Vanhatalo
Camelina is an ancient oilseed crop that produces an oil rich in cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid, LA) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA); however, reports on the use of camelina oil (CO) for ruminants are limited. The present study investigated the effects of incremental CO supplementation on animal performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, and milk sensory quality. Eight Finnish Ayrshire cows (91d in milk) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Treatments comprised 4 concentrates (12kg/d on an air-dry basis) based on cereals and camelina expeller containing 0 (control), 2, 4, or 6% CO on an air-dry basis...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J M Moorby, N M Ellis, D R Davies
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
L Campidonico, P G Toral, A Priolo, G Luciano, B Valenti, G Hervás, P Frutos, G Copani, C Ginane, V Niderkorn
This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Science
V Niderkorn, C Martin, Y Rochette, S Julien, R Baumont
The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique...
October 2015: Journal of Animal Science
J K Lowe, C N Boyer, A P Griffith, J C Waller, G E Bates, P D Keyser, J A Larson, E Holcomb
Heifer rearing is one of the largest production expenses for dairy cattle operations, which is one reason milking operations outsource heifer rearing to custom developers. The cost of harvested feedstuffs is a major expense in heifer rearing. A possible way to lower feed costs is to graze dairy heifers, but little research exists on this topic in the mid-south United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the cost of feeding bred dairy heifers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG), with and without legumes, and compare the cost of grazing with the cost of rearing heifers using 3 traditional rations...
January 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
E Koivunen, S Jaakkola, T Heikkilä, A-M Lampi, A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, M R F Lee, A L Winters, K J Shingfield, A Vanhatalo
Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis...
September 2015: Journal of Animal Science
C Benchaar, F Hassanat, R Martineau, R Gervais
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM)...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
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