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Alfalfa silage

Mette Lübeck, Peter Stephensen Lübeck
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have extensive industrial applications as producers of lactic acid, as probiotics, as biocontrol agents and as biopreservatives. LAB play a large role in food fermentation and in silage processes where crops such as grass, legumes, cereals or corn are fermented into high-moisture feed that is storable and can be used to feed cattle, sheep or other ruminants. LAB also have great applications within green biorefineries, with simultaneous production of protein-rich feed for monogastric animals, silage or feed pellets for ruminants and production of lactic acid or specific amino acids...
January 30, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
S W Fessenden, T J Hackmann, D A Ross, E Block, A Foskolos, M E Van Amburgh
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a fermentation by-product on rumen function, microbial yield, and composition and flows of nutrients from the rumen in high-producing lactating dairy cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 60 ± 10 d in milk and 637 ± 38 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment sequences in a switchback design. Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) 44% corn silage, 13% alfalfa silage, 12% ground corn, and 31% protein premix, containing either a control mix of urea and wheat middlings (CON) or a commercial fermentation by-product meal (Fermenten, Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) at 3% diet inclusion rate (EXP)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
J V Judy, G C Bachman, T M Brown-Brandl, S C Fernando, K E Hales, K J Harvatine, P S Miller, P J Kononoff
Although the inclusion of fat has reduced methane production in ruminants, relatively little research has been conducted comparing the effects of source and profile of fatty acids on methane production in lactating dairy cows. A study using 8 multiparous (325 ± 17 DIM; mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows was conducted to determine effects of feeding canola meal and lard versus extruded byproduct containing flaxseed as a high-C18:3 fat source on methane production and diet digestibility in late-lactation dairy cows...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
W P Weiss
Formulating diets with high inclusion rates of a feed that provides necessary nutrients at lower-than-market prices for those nutrients should increase income over feed costs if the feed is not detrimental to yields of milk and milk components. The objective of this study was to determine whether cows fed a diet composed of approximately 53% corn silage, 44% corn milling product (68% dry matter, 21% crude protein, 37% neutral detergent fiber, and 9% starch) and 3% minerals (CMP) would have similar productivity as cows fed a control diet of predominantly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Daniel L Grooms, Steven R Bolin, Jessica L Plastow, Ailam Lim, Joseph Hattey, Phillip T Durst, Steven R Rust, Michael S Allen, Daniel D Buskirk, Richard W Smith
OBJECTIVE To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis remains viable in ensiled forages. SAMPLE Alfalfa, mixed mostly grass, and corn silages. PROCEDURES For each of 10 sampling days, six 250-g replicate samples of each feedstuff were created and placed in a film pouch that could be vacuum sealed to simulate the ensiling process. Within each set of replicate samples, 4 were inoculated with 10 mL of mycobacterial liquid culture medium containing viable M bovis and 2 were inoculated with 10 mL of sterile mycobacterial liquid culture medium (controls) on day 0...
January 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Lili Yang, Xianjun Yuan, Junfeng Li, Zhihao Dong, Tao Shao
To reveal the mechanism of the survival and adaption of inoculated Lactobacillus plantarum during ensiling. Alfalfa was ensiled directly (A1), after γ-ray irradiation (A0), and after inoculation of the sterile (A0L) or fresh alfalfa (A1L) with Lactobacillus plantarum. The A0L had the higher lactic acid content and lower pH than that in A1L from 3 days of ensiling. Pediococcus was the dominant microbes in A1 silage, followed by Enterococcus and Lactobacillus, while Lactobacillus in A1L outnumbered all other genera at 3 d...
December 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
John Doelman, Leslie L McKnight, Michelle Carson, Kelly Nichols, Douglas F Waterman, John A Metcalf
Gluconic acid is a carboxylic acid naturally occurring in plants and honey. In nonruminant animals, gluconic acid has been shown to increase gastrointestinal butyrate concentrations and improve growth performance, but a ruminant application remains undescribed. This experiment examined the effects of postruminal calcium gluconate (CaG) on milk production, fecal volatile fatty acid concentrations, and plasma metabolite concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Six rumen cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (60 ± 6 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment sequences within a 6 × 6 Latin square design in which each experimental period consisted of 5 d of continuous postruminal infusion followed by a 2 d wash-out period...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
E Raffrenato, C F Nicholson, M E Van Amburgh
The digestion of neutral detergent fiber treated with amylase and sodium sulfite and ash corrected (aNDFom) has been described as a single digestible pool and a fraction undigested in ruminants. Further, most models that predict rate and extent of digestion of aNDFom in the rumen assume first-order processes, in which the rates of digestion and passage are proportional to the pool size of aNDFom consumed and digested. Data exist demonstrating that the undigested fraction of aNDFom is not well described by a fixed coefficient and varies by maturity and agronomic growing conditions of the plant...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mariele Cristina Nascimento Agarussi, Odilon Gomes Pereira, Vanessa Paula da Silva, Eliana Santos Leandro, Karina Guimarães Ribeiro, Stefanie Alvarenga Santos
This study was conducted to evaluate the fermentative profile and microbial populations of wilted and non-wilted alfalfa silages ensiled with or without inoculant and the population dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of wilted alfalfa plant and theirs silage. A 2 × 2 × 6 factorial arrangement was used, with the absence or presence of wilting (W), with and without bacterial inoculant (I) and six fermentation periods (P) (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days), in a completely randomized design, with three replicates...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
C Lee, D L Morris, P A Dieter
An experiment was conducted to validate and optimize the procedure of spot urine sampling with urinary creatinine as a marker to estimate urine outputs of dairy cows. Twelve lactating cows were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were grouped and randomly assigned to 2 experimental diets: a corn silage-based diet and an alfalfa silage-based diet with supplemental potassium. The experiment lasted for 21 d and total collection (TC) of urine was conducted for the last 3 d. Twelve spot samples of urine from individual cows were collected over a 3-d period during TC to represent every 2-h sampling in a 24-h cycle...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Malgorzata Szumacher-Strabel, Anna Stochmal, Adam Cieslak, Martyna Kozłowska, Dawid Kuznicki, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Wieslaw Oleszek
BACKGROUND: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important legume used in animal feed. The primary objective in this study was to analyze and trace the individual saponins in fresh and ensiled alfalfa of ten varieties, with the aim of evaluating the structural changes undergone by saponins during ensiling. A secondary objective was to examine whether any of the changes in saponin content were associated with changes in the basic nutrient composition of the ensiled alfalfa. RESULTS: The total saponin concentration increased when the fresh alfalfa was processed into silage...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Makoto Kondo, Yoshiaki Hirano, Kazumi Kita, Anuraga Jayanegara, Hiro-Omi Yokota
Spent tea leaf contains high levels of crude protein, suggesting that it may be used as an alternative source for ruminant feeding. We assessed the nutritive characteristics of spent green tea leaf silage (GTS) and black tea leaf silages (BTS) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM) and alfalfa hay cube (AHC) using in vitro assay. The effects of tannin on the nutritive characteristics were also evaluated by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. The amount of gas production was greater for SBM, followed by AHC, GTS, and BTS...
October 14, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Lei Chen, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Silages produced with grass and legume mixtures may have positive associative effects on silage quality, and animal performance when ruminants are fed the silages. The objective of this study was to determine the preservation characteristics, in vitro rumen fermentation profile and microbial abundance of silages, produced with mixtures of sweet sorghum (SS) and alfalfa (AF) in different ratios: 100: 0 (Control), 75: 25 (SA25), 50: 50 (SA50), 25: 75 (SA75) and 0: 100 (SA100) on a fresh weight basis...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sanjeewa D Ranathunga, Kenneth F Kalscheur, Jill L Anderson, Kevin J Herrick
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary forage and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) concentration on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by parity and milk production and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain low forage [LF; 17% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or high forage (HF; 24.5% forage NDF) and DDGS at 0 or 18% of diet dry matter...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Wencan Ke, Wurong Ding, Dongmei Xu, Mian Nazir Shah, Ping Zhang, Xusheng Guo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two organic acids [malic acid (MA) and citric acid (CA)], Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and their mixtures on the fermentation of alfalfa silage. The wilted and chopped alfalfa was ensiled in vacuum-sealed plastic bags (200-230 g per bag) with following additives: 0.5% distilled water (control), 0.5% DL-MA, 0.5% CA, LP (1 · 106  cfu/g), 0.5% DL-MA plus LP (MA+LP) or 0.5% CA plus LP (CA+LP) (application rates based on fresh weight). Each treatment had four replicates and was stored at room temperature...
December 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
D M Donnelly, J R R Dórea, H Yang, D K Combs
This study compared dry matter (DM) predictions of 3 handheld near-infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) units (Moisture Tracker, Digi-Star Inc., Fort Atkinson, WI) to conventional oven drying at 60°C using 2 alfalfa and 2 corn silages. In addition, on-farm DM methods [microwave, Koster tester (Koster Moisture Tester Inc., Brunswick, OH), and food dehydrator methods] were also compared. Corn and alfalfa silages (1,600 g) obtained from the University of Wisconsin Dairy Cattle Center (DCC) and the Arlington Research Station (ARS) were analyzed for DM daily for 20 d...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P Berzaghi, A Lotto, M Mancinelli, F Benozzo
A large portion of the cow's ration is composed of forages that can vary greatly in mineral concentrations, which may affect animal performance and health. Current methods for mineral analysis require sample destruction either through wet or dry ashing and complex analytical techniques for individual minerals. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a nondestructive, multi-mineral, spectroscopy technique, which makes mineral quantification simple, direct, and affordable. The study objective was to evaluate the prediction performance of EDXRF of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forages...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
I A Aboagye, M Oba, A R Castillo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
Sustainability of animal agriculture requires efficient use of energy and nitrogen (N) by ruminants fed high forage diets. Thus, there is a need to decrease methane (CH4) emissions and prevent excessive N release into the environment. Therefore, this experiment examined the long-term effects of feeding hydrolyzable tannin (HT) with or without condensed tannin (CT) on animal performance, rumen fermentation, N use and CH4 production in beef cattle fed a high forage diet. A total of 75 weaned crossbred steers (292 ± 4...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Diming Wang, Jie Cai, Fengqi Zhao, Jianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: It is known that milking frequency and plasma hormones play important roles in regulating mammary permeability. However, whether nutritional factors can influence udder permeability is still unknown. DESIGN: This study was conducted to investigate mammary epithelial tight junction permeability in lactating dairy cows fed different forage-based diets. Twenty mid-lactating dairy cows were allocated into 10 blocks based on their parity and milk yield and then randomly assigned into rice straw-based diet and alfalfa-based diet groups...
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Reza Vakili, Abbas Ali Naserian, Ehsan Khafipour
Objective: We hypothesized that silage additives may alter the undigested NDF (uNDF) content through ensiling. Therefore, urea and formic acid applied to corn, whole barley crop (WBC) and alfalfa in order to change uNDF content of the ensiled forages. Methods: Six experimental diets at two groups of high uNDF (untreated corn and alfalfa silages (CSAS) and untreated whole barley and alfalfa silages (BSAS)) and low uNDF (urea-treated corn silage + untreated alfalfa silage (CSUAS), urea-treated whole barley silage + untreated alfalfa silage (BSUAS), untreated corn silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (CSASF) and untreated whole barley silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (BSASF)), were allocated to thirty-six multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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