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Pathogenesis Guillain Barre

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692173/genetics-behind-the-biosynthesis-of-nonulosonic-acid-containing-lipooligosaccharides-in-campylobacter-coli
#1
Alejandra Kolehmainen, Mirko Rossi, Jacek Stupak, Jianjun Li, Michel Gilbert, Warren Wakarchuk
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute polyneuropathy. Sialyltransferases from the glycosyltransferase (GT) family 42 are essential for the expression of ganglioside mimics in C. jejuni Recently, two novel GT-42 genes, cstIV and cstV , have been identified in C. coli. Despite being present in ∼11% of currently available C...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621317/a-furry-tale-of-zika-virus-infection-what-have-we-learned-from-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Loulieta Nazerai, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Allan Randrup Thomsen
The worldwide attention that the Zika virus (ZIKV) attracted, following its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International concern by WHO in 2016, has led to a large collective effort by the international scientific community to understand its biology. Despite the mild symptoms caused by ZIKV in most infected people, the virus displays a number of worrying features, such as its ability to cause transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector independent transmission through body fluids. In addition, the virus has been associated with the induction of Guillain-Barre syndrome in a number of infected individuals...
January 6, 2019: Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544390/inflammatory-demyelinating-neuropathies-with-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-two-case-reports
#3
Yuhe Mao, Min Zhang, Shaojun Liu, Yunyu Xu, Jun Xue, Chuanming Hao, Lingyun Lai
RATIONALE: Inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are autoimmune disorders that may have a common pathogenesis. Here, we describe 2 unique cases of FSGS, 1 with GBS and the other with CIPD. We believe that reviewing these multisystemic diseases will help in better understanding of FSGS pathogenesis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The 1st patient, a 66-year-old woman, complained of tingling and numbness in the limbs and within 2 days, she developed progressive muscle weakness...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30538761/traditional-korean-medicine-treatment-for-patients-with-wilting-disorder-a-literature-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#4
REVIEW
Sung-Jin Kim, Yeon-Cheol Park, Yong-Hyeon Baek, Byung-Kwan Seo
Wilting disorder is an abnormal condition characterized by weakness and paralysis of the upper and lower extremities. Pathogenesis and treatment target of the disorder are unclear; hence, allopathic treatment is generally used to relieve the symptoms. To investigate the treatment mechanism and effect of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) in patients with wilting disorder, we reviewed in vivo studies that focused on the effect of TKM on the main symptoms of wilting disorder and treatment of the diseases that can cause these symptoms...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30533526/molecular-pathogenesis-of-human-cd59-deficiency
#5
Netanel Karbian, Yael Eshed-Eisenbach, Adi Tabib, Hila Hoizman, B Paul Morgan, Ora Schueler-Furman, Elior Peles, Dror Mevorach
Objective: To characterize all 4 mutations described for CD59 congenital deficiency. Methods: The 4 mutations, p.Cys64Tyr, p.Asp24Val, p.Asp24Valfs*, and p.Ala16Alafs*, were described in 13 individuals with CD59 malfunction. All 13 presented with recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, recurrent strokes, and chronic hemolysis. Here, we track the molecular consequences of the 4 mutations and their effects on CD59 expression, localization, glycosylation, degradation, secretion, and function...
December 2018: Neurology. Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30500056/clinical-subpopulations-in-a-sample-of-north-american-children-diagnosed-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-2012-2016
#6
Matthew J Elrick, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Thomas O Crawford, Keith Van Haren, Kevin Messacar, Nicole Thornton, Elizabeth Dee, Annie Voskertchian, Jessica R Nance, Laura S Muñoz, Mark P Gorman, Leslie A Benson, David L Thomas, Carlos A Pardo, Aaron M Milstone, Priya Duggal
Importance: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an emerging poliolike illness of children whose clinical spectrum and associated pathogens are only partially described. The case definition is intentionally encompassing for epidemiologic surveillance to capture all potential AFM cases. Defining a restrictive, homogenous subpopulation may aid our understanding of this emerging disease. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of AFM incorporates possible alternative diagnoses and to assess the plausibility of a case definition that enriches the biological homogeneity of AFM for inclusion in research studies...
November 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30453684/characterizing-the-different-effects-of-zika-virus-infection-in-placenta-and-microglia-cells
#7
Maria Del Pilar Martinez Viedma, Brett E Pickett
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neuropathic virus that causes serious neurological abnormalities such as Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in fetuses, which makes it an important concern for global human health. A catalogue of cells that support ZIKV replication, pathogenesis, and/or the persistence of the virus still remains unknown. Here, we studied the behavior of the virus in human placenta (JEG-3) and human microglia (HMC3) cell lines in order to better understand how different host tissues respond during infection...
November 18, 2018: Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30384426/reverse-genetic-approaches-for-the-generation-of-recombinant-zika-virus
#8
REVIEW
Ginés Ávila-Pérez, Aitor Nogales, Verónica Martín, Fernando Almazán, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that was responsible for a recent epidemic in the Americas. ZIKV has been associated with severe clinical complications, including neurological disorder such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and severe fetal abnormalities and microcephaly in newborn infants. Given the significance of these clinical manifestations, the development of tools and reagents to study the pathogenesis of ZIKV and to develop new therapeutic options are urgently needed...
October 31, 2018: Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30359409/zika-virus-infection-modulates-the-metabolomic-profile-of-microglial-cells
#9
Fodé Diop, Thomas Vial, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Michèle Bengue, Rodolphe Hamel, Loïc Talignani, Florian Liegeois, Julien Pompon, Hans Yssel, Guillaume Marti, Dorothée Missé
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although infection with ZIKV generally leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has been associated with an increase in the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, as well as with neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly, in new-borns. To date, little information is available on neuroinflammation induced by ZIKV, notably in microglial cells in the context of their metabolic activity, a series of chemical transformations that are essential for their growth, reproduction, structural maintenance and environmental responses...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30356305/icr-suckling-mouse-model-of-zika-virus-infection-for-disease-modeling-and-drug-validation
#10
Yu-Hsuan Wu, Chin-Kai Tseng, Chun-Kuang Lin, Chih-Ku Wei, Jin-Ching Lee, Kung-Chia Young
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes diseases ranging from acute self-limiting febrile illness to life-threatening Guillain-Barré Syndrome and other neurological disorders in adults. Cumulative evidence suggests an association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly in newborn infants. Given the host-range restrictions of the virus, a susceptible animal model infected by ZIKV must be developed for evaluation of vaccines and antivirals. In this study, we propose a convenient mouse model for analysis of neurological disorders caused by ZIKV...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30232664/association-of-cd1-and-fc%C3%AE-r-gene-polymorphisms-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-susceptibility-a-meta-analysis
#11
Liang Zhang, Lijun Liu, Hong Li, Lei Guo, Qing Yu, Jijun Teng
CD1 and immunoglobulin G Fc receptor (FcγR) genes have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, results of different studies are conflicting. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically examine the association between CD1 and FcγR gene polymorphisms and GBS. A comprehensive literature search through PubMed, EmBase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library was performed to identify all eligible studies. The strength of association was assessed by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in allelic, dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous genetic models...
September 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30227960/high-throughput-fitness-profiling-of-zika-virus-e-protein-reveals-different-roles-for-glycosylation-during-infection-of-mammalian-and-mosquito-cells
#12
Danyang Gong, Tian-Hao Zhang, Dawei Zhao, Yushen Du, Travis J Chapa, Yuan Shi, Laurie Wang, Deisy Contreras, Gang Zeng, Pei-Yong Shi, Ting-Ting Wu, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Ren Sun
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes Guillain-Barré syndrome and severe birth defects. ZIKV envelope (E) protein is the major viral protein involved in cell receptor binding and entry and is therefore considered one of the major determinants in ZIKV pathogenesis. Here we report a gene-wide mapping of functional residues of ZIKV E protein using a mutant library, with changes covering every nucleotide position. By comparing the replication fitness of every viral mutant between mosquito and human cells, we identified that mutations affecting glycosylation display the most divergence...
March 23, 2018: iScience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30199371/-peripheral-nervous-system-immunological-disorder
#13
Ricardo Erazo Torricelli
Autoimmune diseases of the peripheral nervous system are common in pediatrics. Guillain-Barré syndrome, juvenile myasthenia gravis, and juvenile dermatomyositis are the most important. Their common pathogenesis involves the action of specific autoantibodies which are frequently triggered by viral or bacterial infection. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the most frequent pathological feature. There is also a motor axonal form. Both have a progressive ascending clinical course. The specific treatment is immunoglobulin 2 g/kg...
2018: Medicina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30192399/efficiencies-and-kinetics-of-infection-in-different-cell-types-lines-by-african-and-asian-strains-of-zika-virus-zikv
#14
Suzane Ramos da Silva, Fan Cheng, I-Chueh Huang, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
After recent outbreaks, Zika virus (ZIKV) was linked to severe neurological diseases including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns. The severities of pathological manifestations have been associated with different ZIKV strains. To better understand the tropism of ZIKV, we infected 10 human and 4 nonhuman cell lines (types) with 2 African (IbH30656 and MR766) and 2 Asian (PRVABC59 and H/FP/2013) ZIKV strains. Cell susceptibility to ZIKV infection was determined by examining viral titers, synthesis of viral proteins, and replication of positive and negative strands of viral genome...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30053656/hsp70-copurifies-with-zika-virus-particles
#15
Ronik Khachatoorian, Whitaker Cohn, Anthony Buzzanco, Rana Riahi, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Asim Dasgupta, Julian P Whitelegge, Samuel W French
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified as a cause of neurologic diseases in infants and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and currently, no therapeutics or vaccines are approved. In this study, we sought to identify potential host proteins interacting with ZIKV particles to gain better insights into viral infectivity. Viral particles were purified through density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Mass spectrometric analyses revealed viral envelope protein and HSP70 to comigrate in only one SEC fraction...
September 2018: Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30002446/negligible-contribution-of-m2634v-substitution-to-zikv-pathogenesis-in-ag6-mice-revealed-by-a-bacterial-promoter-activity-reduced-infectious-clone
#16
Fanfan Zhao, Yongfen Xu, Dimitri Lavillette, Jin Zhong, Gang Zou, Gang Long
ZIKV has emerged as a significant human pathogene for the severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré(GBS) syndrome in adults and a variety of fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly. A stable and efficient infectious clone of Brazilian ZIKV isolate is required to study pathogenesis of epidemic ZIKV and virus evolution impact on it. Here we successfully constructed infectious cDNA clone on an early Brazilian isolate by eliminating the activity of predicted bacterial promoter in 1-3000 nt of ZIKV genome, leading to a stable infectious cDNA clone (pZL1)...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29988497/zika-virus-non-structural-protein-4a-blocks-the-rlr-mavs-signaling
#17
Jinzhu Ma, Harshada Ketkar, Tingting Geng, Emily Lo, Leilei Wang, Juemin Xi, Qiangming Sun, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui, Long Yang, Penghua Wang
Flaviviruses have evolved complex mechanisms to evade the mammalian host immune systems including the RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) like receptor (RLR) signaling. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging flavivirus that is associated with severe neonatal microcephaly and adult Guillain-Barre syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ZIKV pathogenesis remain poorly defined. Here we report that ZIKV non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) impairs the RLR-mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) interaction and subsequent induction of antiviral immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29953326/immunotherapy-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#18
Shuang Liu, Chaoling Dong, Eroboghene Ekamereno Ubogu
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the most common cause of acute neuromuscular weakness and paralysis worldwide, encompasses a group of acute immune-mediated disorders restricted to peripheral nerves and roots. Immune-mediated attack of peripheral nervous system myelin, axons or both is presumed to be triggered by molecular mimicry, with both cell- and humoral-dependent mechanisms implicated in disease pathogenesis. Good circumstantial evidence exists for a pathogenic role for molecular mimicry in GBS pathogenesis, especially with its axonal forms, providing insights that could guide future immunotherapy...
June 28, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29882008/overview-of-therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-pediatric-neurology-a-single-center-experience
#19
Murat Özkale, Ilknur Erol, Yasemin Özkale, İlknur Kozanoğlu
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is used in the treatment of neurological, hematological, renal and autoimmune diseases with known or suspected immune pathogenesis. In comparison with neurological diseases of adults, knowledge about the use of TPE in children is incomplete. We report our experience on TPE in children with neurological diseases in a single institution and describe the underlying etiology, clinical course, treatment and outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 22 consecutive children (12 girls, 10 boys, aged 2-16 years) who underwent TPE in the pediatric intensive care unit between January 2010 and January 2017...
September 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29685816/the-complement-story-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-from-pathogenesis-to-therapy
#20
Eduardo Nobile-Orazio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Lancet Neurology
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