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sleep-wake disturbance

Shen Ning, Mehdi Jorfi
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances. Numerous studies have linked disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms with amyloid-β (A&β), a key pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While previous evidence suggests that Aβ initiates AD pathogenesis, tau, another major hallmark of AD, seems to drive neurodegeneration. Recent studies imply that sleep-wake cycles affect brain tau more significantly than Aβ levels, leading to accelerated AD progression and cognitive decline...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Andrea Wendt, Caroline Santos Costa, Adriana Kramer Fiala Machado, Francine Santos Costa, Rosália Garcia Neves, Thaynã Ramos Flores, Iná Santos, Fernando César Wehrmeister
This study aims to describe the prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue and their association with socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey conducted in 2013 with 60,202 adults (≥ 18 years old) were used. The outcomes evaluated were self-reported sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue in the last two weeks. Sleep disturbance was defined as the presence of difficulty to fall asleep, frequently waking up during the night or sleeping more than usual; daytime fatigue was defined as the presence of not feeling rested and motivated during the day, feeling tired and lacking energy...
March 11, 2019: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Sumeet Kainth, Sachin Kumar, Ankit Bhardwaj, Hemant Kumar Agarwal, Rakhi Maiwall, Kapil Dev Jamwal, Saggere Muralikrishna Shasthry, Ankur Jindal, Ashok Choudhary, Lovkesh Anand, Rajender Mal Dhamija, Guresh Kumar, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to study the efficacy and safety of zolpidem for sleep disturbances in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: Fifty-two Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class A or B cirrhotics with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5 were randomized to either zolpidem 5 mg daily (n=26) or placebo (n=26) for 4 weeks. Results: The therapy of 4 weeks was completed by 23 patients receiving zolpidem (3 stopped treatment due to excessive daytime drowsiness) and 24 receiving placebo (2 refused to continue the study)...
March 11, 2019: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Elisabet Londos, Oskar Hansson, Ingmar Rosén, Elisabet Englund
Excessive sleep during the night and for >2 hours during the day is part of the fluctuating wakefulness criterion of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The phenomenon 'sleep days' is not uncommon in nursing homes. Here, we describe a woman who, for months, slept for 3 days and nights in a row and thereafter was awake for 3 days and nights. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed slow background activity and increased delta activity. No epileptiform activity was detected. Polysomnography showed a severely disturbed, markedly fragmented sleep pattern...
March 9, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Curtis Wells Dewey, Emma S Davies, Huisheng Xie, Joseph J Wakshlag
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is the canine analog of human Alzheimer disease (AD). The pathophysiology of CCD/AD is multifaceted. CCD is common in aged (>8 years) dogs, affecting between 14% and 35% of the pet dog population. Apparent confusion, anxiety, disturbance of the sleep/wake cycle, and decreased interaction with owners are all common clinical signs of CCD. Although there is no cure for CCD, several proven effective therapeutic approaches are available for improving cognitive ability and maintaining a good quality of life; instituting such therapies early in the disease course is likely to have the greatest positive clinical effect...
March 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Sangoh Kwon, Minseok Yoon, Jaekwang Lee, Kwang-Deog Moon, Dohyeon Kim, Seon-Bong Kim, Suengmok Cho
In our previous studies, a standardized phlorotannin (brown seaweed polyphenol) supplement (PS) exhibited sleep-promoting effects via type A γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptors in mice. In addition, in human clinical trials, it decreased wake after sleep onset in adults with sleep disturbance. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether PS attenuates caffeine-induced sleep disruption in mice. The effects of PS were evaluated in a caffeine model by analyzing sleep architecture based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram findings, and were compared with the effects of a well-known sedative-hypnotic drug zolpidem (ZPD)...
March 6, 2019: Nutrients
Hung-Chun Lai, Nai-Wei Hsu, Pesus Chou, Hsi-Chung Chen
OBJECTIVES: Given the close relationship between sleep-wake disturbances and depression, an in-depth investigation of such a relationship is imperative. The present study aims at elucidating the relationship between various sleep-wake disturbances and depression in older adults and at examining the influence of co-occurring anxiety on such associations. METHOD: A community-based survey using the cohort from the Yilan Study in Taiwan was conducted from August 2013 to November 2016...
March 5, 2019: Aging & Mental Health
Serhat Türkoğlu, Battal Tahsin Somuk, Emrah Sapmaz, Ayhan Bilgiç
OBJECTIVE: Chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common etiologic reason for upper airway obstruction in childhood and has been found to be associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders and poor quality of life. In the present study, we investigated the impact of adenotonsillectomy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, sleep problems, and quality of life in children with chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy. METHODS: The parents of children with chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy filled out the Conners's Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short form (CPRS-RS), Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Parent version (PedsQL-P) before and six months after adenotonsillectomy...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Elena Toffol, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Jari Lahti, Jari Lipsanen, Kati Heinonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Nadia Gosselin, Bhanu Sharma, Laura Langer, Isabelle Gagnon
A high proportion of adults who sustain a concussion identify changes in their sleep during the acute stage, typically reporting an increased need for sleep or nonrestful sleep. Our understanding of sleep following concussion is less well understood within a pediatric population. In this study, we investigated the trajectory of sleep and daytime sleepiness in a prospective cohort of 40 children and youth (6-18 years old) with concussion, 40 age-and sex-matched healthy children and youth, and 40 with upper-extremity orthopedic injury...
January 2019: ASN Neuro
Lucas Kramer, Christian Sander, Katja Bertsch, Dorothee Maria Gescher, Sylvia Cackowski, Ulrich Hegerl, Sabine C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotional instability, impulsivity, disturbed cognition, sleeplessness and states of high inner tension. Altered arousal regulation which is regarded as a higher domain of functioning according to the research domain criteria of the NIMH and which has previously been reported in several psychiatric disorders, such as mania or major depression could be involved in these features of BPD. METHODS: 40 unmedicated patients with BPD and 42 matched healthy volunteers participated in a twenty minute resting-state EEG measurement with closed eyes...
February 20, 2019: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Eiko N Minakawa, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai
Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in patients with various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it can manifest in the early stages of the disease. Impaired sleep in patients with AD has been attributed to AD pathology that affects brain regions regulating the sleep⁻wake or circadian rhythm. However, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated an association between impaired sleep and an increased risk of AD. These studies have led to the idea of a bidirectional relationship between AD and impaired sleep; in addition to the conventional concept that impaired sleep is a consequence of AD pathology, various evidence strongly suggests that impaired sleep is a risk factor for the initiation and progression of AD...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Iranzo, A Stefani, B Högl, J Santamaria
OBJECTIVE: As Franz Kafka, one of the most important writers of the 20th century, suffered from severe chronic insomnia disorder and inadequate sleep hygiene that impaired his quality of life, we speculated that sleep disorders would be found in his narrative works. METHODS: We read Kafka's complete literary works looking for references to sleep and sleep disorders, excluding insomnia. RESULTS: In Kafka's works, sleeping well and for a long time was used as an allegory of having a pleasant life...
March 2019: Sleep Medicine
Stoyan Dimitrov, Tanja Lange, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Anja T R Jensen, Michael Szczepanski, Jannik Lehnnolz, Surjo Soekadar, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Jan Born, Luciana Besedovsky
Efficient T cell responses require the firm adhesion of T cells to their targets, e.g., virus-infected cells, which depends on T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of β2 -integrins. Gαs -coupled receptor agonists are known to have immunosuppressive effects, but their impact on TCR-mediated integrin activation is unknown. Using multimers of peptide major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) and of ICAM-1-the ligand of β2 -integrins-we show that the Gαs -coupled receptor agonists isoproterenol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGD2 , and adenosine strongly inhibit integrin activation on human CMV- and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Wentao Li, Carol Chi-Hei Kwok, Dominic Chun-Wan Chan, Amy Wing-Yin Ho, Chung-Shun Ho, Jihui Zhang, Yun Kwok Wing, Feng Wang, Lap Ah Tse
OBJECTIVE: This prospective cohort study captured the patterns of sleep, sleep-wake activity rhythm, and first-morning urinary melatonin in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy wore wrist actigraph for 168 h and collected first-morning void urine samples before treatment, during the first, and at the last cycle of chemotherapy. We converted actigraphy data into sleep duration, sleep efficiency, nighttime total wake time, percent rhythm, F-statistic, amplitude, mesor, and acrophase...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Margaret S Blattner, Gabriela S de Bruin, Robert C Bucelli, Gregory S Day
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of subacute cognitive decline, seizures, and encephalopathy, with an ever-broadening clinical phenotype. Sleep disturbances are reported in AE patients, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hypersomnia, fragmented sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing; however, the prevalence of sleep disturbances and contributions to outcomes in AE patients remain unknown. There is a need to determine the prevalence of sleep disturbances in AE patients, and to clarify the relationship between specific autoantibodies and disruptions in sleep...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Andrey Kostin, Aftab Alam, Dennis McGinty, Ronald Szymusiak, Noor Alam
Aging is associated with sleep-wake disruption, dampening of circadian amplitudes, and a reduced homeostatic sleep response. Aging is also associated with a decline in hypothalamic cell proliferation. We hypothesized that the aging-related decline in cell-proliferation contributes to the dysfunction of preoptic-hypothalamic sleep-wake and circadian systems and consequent sleep-wake disruption. We determined if cytosine-β-D-arabinofuranoside (AraC), an antimitotic agent known to suppress hypothalamic cell-proliferation and neurogenesis, causes sleep-wake instability in young mice...
February 7, 2019: Neuroscience
Alexandre N Datta, Daniel Trachsel
A Child's Sleep: A Book with Seven Seals? A Guide to Systematic Problem Identification and Solution Abstract. The sleep of a child can be influenced and sometimes disturbed by many, often development-associated, phenomena. This results not only in a burden for the child, but regularly also for the parents, who in their need for help, often seek the advice of the attending physician. The child- and adolescent-specific questionnaire BEARS, which was developed by J. Owens and K. Mindell, allows the first diagnostic steps and classifications based on the most important symptoms such as bedtime problems, excessive daytime sleepiness, waking up at night, problems with regularity and sleep duration as well as nocturnal breathing disorders...
January 2019: Praxis
Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Jessica Benedict, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Study Objectives: Insomnia is a prominent complaint in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, despite the importance of sleep in the maintenance of sobriety, treatment options for sleep disturbance associated with a history of AUD are currently limited. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that suvorexant, a dual Hct/OX receptor antagonist, normalizes sleep in patients with primary insomnia, yet its potential for the treatment of sleep pathology associated with AUD has not been investigated in either pre-clinical or clinical studies...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Shanthi G Parkar, Andries Kalsbeek, James F Cheeseman
This article reviews the current evidence associating gut microbiota with factors that impact host circadian-metabolic axis, such as light/dark cycles, sleep/wake cycles, diet, and eating patterns. We examine how gut bacteria possess their own daily rhythmicity in terms of composition, their localization to intestinal niches, and functions. We review evidence that gut bacteria modulate host rhythms via microbial metabolites such as butyrate, polyphenolic derivatives, vitamins, and amines. Lifestyle stressors such as altered sleep and eating patterns that may disturb the host circadian system also influence the gut microbiome...
January 31, 2019: Microorganisms
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