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Ruirui Qi, Yang Su, Leilei Pan, Yuqi Mao, Lu Liang, Zhiqiang Dai, Junqin Wang, Yiling Cai
Enhanced cholinergic activity contributes to the production of complex autonomic manifestations of motion sickness (MS). However, whether anti-cholinergics exert their anti-MS effects through central or peripheral actions remained unclarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mecamylamine (MEC) and scopolamine (SCOP) on rotation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms (conditioned gaping and defecation), locomotion disturbances (hypoactivity and impaired balance performance), hypothermia as well as Fos expression in vestibulo-autonomic regions in rats...
December 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Søren T Just Christensen, Jonathan Myrup Staalsø, Anders Jørgensen, Pia Weikop, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Martin Balslev Jørgensen
The antidepressant efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is correlated to the quality of the seizure as measured by EEG but has also been linked to the magnitude of changes in hemodynamic variables. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are frequently used in the treatment, and are known to affect the hemodynamic response. We hypothesized that atropine and glycopyrrolate alter the hemodynamic and autonomic hormonal response to ECT. In a randomized, cross-over study design 23 patients received either atropine, glycopyrrolate or placebo before ECT...
November 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hee-Seon Park, Chang-Seob Seo, Charith Ub Wijerathne, Hye-Yun Jeong, Og-Sung Moon, Young-Won Seo, Young-Suk Won, Hwa-Young Son, Jong-Hwan Lim, Hyo-Jung Kwun
Veratrum maackii (VM), a perennial plant in the Melanthiaceae family, has anti-hypertensive, anti-cholinergic, anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive, anti-fungal, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of VM on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in human normal prostate cell line (WPMY-1) and a testosterone propionate-induced BPH animal model. WPMY-1 cells were treated with VM (1-10 µg/mL) and testosterone propionate (100 nM). BPH in rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks...
November 1, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Lauren Folgosa Cooley, Stephanie Kielb
Prior to FDA approval of intradetrusor botulinum toxin (BoTA) injections for the treatment of neurogenic bladder, patients had limited treatment options including "off-label" use of pharmacotherapies (anticholinergics, beta agonists, and alpha-blockers) or invasive interventions including bladder augmentation and urinary diversion procedures. Herein, we provide a comprehensive literature review detailing the salient clinical literature that led to FDA approval of intradetrusor BoTA for neurogenic bladder...
August 21, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Agnes Katalin Urban, Celine Foote, Frank P Brennan, Mark Brown, Brendon Lee
AIM: To explore the quality of deaths in the acute hospital under a Nephrology service at two teaching hospitals in Sydney with Renal Supportive Care services over time. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all deaths in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 at St George Hospital (SGH) and in 2014 at Concord Repatriation General Hospital (CRGH). Domains assessed were recognition of dying, invasive interventions, symptom assessment, anticipatory prescribing, documentation of spiritual needs and bereavement information for families...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology
Gul Yalcin-Cakmakli, Samuel J Rose, Rosa M Villalba, Lagena Williams, Hyder A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Yoland Smith
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction is a common phenotype associated with various forms of dystonia in which anti-cholinergic drugs have some therapeutic benefits. However, the underlying substrate of striatal cholinergic defects in dystonia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used a recently developed knock-in mouse model of dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD) with strong symptomatic responses to anti-cholinergic drugs, to assess changes in the prevalence and morphology of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in a model of generalized dystonia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Morgan Gazzola, Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Clémentine Beucher, Ynuk Bossé
The mechanisms whereby anticholinergics improve asthma outcomes, such as lung function, symptoms, and rate of exacerbation, can be numerous. The most obvious is by affecting the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The acetylcholine released from the cholinergic nerves is the most important bronchoconstrictor that sets the baseline degree of contractile activation of ASM in healthy individuals. Although the degree of ASM's contractile activation can also be fine-tuned by a plethora of other bronchoconstrictors and bronchodilators in asthma, blocking the ceaseless effect of acetylcholine on ASM by anticholinergics reduces, at any given moment, the overall degree of contractile activation...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sarah A Morrow, Heather Rosehart, Alp Sener, Blayne Welk
Bladder dysfunction is common in persons with MS (PwMS), often due to detrusor muscle overactivity. Anticholinergic medications are considered the first line treatment for bladder dysfunction and are known to worsen cognition in healthy older adults and in persons with dementia. Yet, it is not known if these medications have the same effect on PwMS. Thus, the Objective of this prospective matched-cohort study was to determine if anticholinergic medications affect objective measures of cognition in PwMS. We recruited PwMS starting either oxybutynin or tolterodine (cases)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Agam Vora
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in under-developing and developing countries. As per current estimations, COPD will become the third leading cause of death globally, by 2030. Long-acting anti-cholinergic agents, β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, antibiotics and mucolytics are few of the agents currently used in the treatment of COPD, which improve the symptoms and overall quality of life. Several of the important classes of antibiotics are used in the management of COPD including penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and macrolides...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ali B Goodson, Matthew A Cantrell, Robert F Shaw, Brian C Lund
BACKGROUND: Limited data from short-term clinical trials suggest efficacy advantages of solifenacin and fesoterodine over other anticholinergic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the real-world comparative effectiveness of newer anticholinergic agents for lower urinary tract symptoms, as assessed by 1-year persistence, and (b) identify patient factors independently associated with persistence. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of U...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Mohammed Ruzieh, Abdelmoniem Moustafa, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Mohammad M Karim, Saima Karim
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sinus heart rate inexplicably higher than one hundred beats per minute at rest that is associated with symptoms like palpitations, dyspnea or dizziness in the absence of primary causes of tachycardia. The diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of tachycardia including medications/substances (such as anti-cholinergic, beta-blocker withdrawal, caffeine, and alcohol) or medical conditions (such as panic attacks, pulmonary embolism, fever, hyperthyroidism, hypovolemia, anemia, and pain)...
March 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Wen-Han Hsu, Yu-Wen Wen, Liang-Kung Chen, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
PURPOSE: No consensus has been reached regarding which anticholinergic scoring system works most effectively in clinical settings. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to examine the association between anticholinergic medication burden, as defined by different scales, and adverse clinical outcomes among older adults. METHODS: From Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, we retrieved data on monthly anticholinergic drug use measured by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB), and the Drug Burden Index - Anticholinergic component (DBI-Ach) for 116,043 people aged 65 years and older during a 10-year follow-up...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
Chantal Csajka, Catherine Brémond, Pierre Olivier Lang
Limitation of inappropriate prescribing must be a medical concern in daily practice especially in older patients. In particular, anti-cholinergic drugs (anti-ACh), which are not all explicitly classified as anti-ACh, are commonly prescribed for a wide range of indications (pulmonary obstructive diseases, anxiety, insomnia, urinary incontinence, Parkinson's disease, congestive heart failure). Their prescription is however associated with a reduced quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. Tools detecting inappropriate prescriptions and clinical scales that quantify the anti-ACh burden contribute, despite some limitations, to secure and optimize these drugs' prescription in this vulnerable population...
November 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
Hongjia Zhang, Lan Bai, Jun He, Lei Zhong, Xingmei Duan, Liang Ouyang, Yuxuan Zhu, Ting Wang, Yiwen Zhang, Jianyou Shi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Although the cause remains unknown, several pathological processes and central factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, inflammatory reactions, abnormal deposition of α-synuclein, and cell apoptosis have been reported. Currently, anti-PD drugs are classified into two major groups: drugs that affect dopaminergic neurons and anti-cholinergic drugs. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies against PD are with numerous side effects, and cannot fundamentally improve the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fatemeh Heydari, Zahra Motaghed, Shahin Abbaszadeh
BACKGROUND: Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) is one of the most reported health dilemmas of women suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. AIM: To determine the relation between hysterectomy and severity of female SUI using Valsalva Leak Point Pressure (VLPP). METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at a public urology clinic in Tehran in 2015. The study population was all female with SUI complaints who visited the clinic during 2015...
June 2017: Electronic Physician
Katelynn E Dodd, Jacek M Mazurek
OBJECTIVE: Asthma severity is defined as the intensity of treatment required to achieve good control of asthma symptoms. Studies have shown that work-related asthma (WRA) can be associated with poorer asthma control and more severe symptoms than non-WRA. Associations between asthma medications and WRA status were assessed using data from the 2012-2013 Asthma Call-back Survey among ever-employed adults (≥18 years) with current asthma from 29 states. METHODS: Persons with WRA had been told by a physician that their asthma was work-related...
April 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Gerrit John-Schuster, Stan de Kleijn, Yolanda van Wijck, Veerle Kremer, Hermelijn H Smits, Michael P Pieper, Pieter S Hiemstra, Christian Taube
One of the major goals of asthma therapy is to maintain asthma control and prevent acute exacerbations. Long-acting bronchodilators are regularly used for the treatment of asthma patients and in clinical studies the anti-cholinergic tiotropium has recently been shown to reduce exacerbations in patients with asthma. So far it is unclear how tiotropium exerts this effect. For this purpose, we designed an allergen-driven rechallenge model of allergic airway inflammation in mice, to assess the effectiveness of tiotropium and the long-acting β-2 adrenoceptor agonist olodaterol on allergen-induced exacerbations of airway disease...
August 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kyung-Min Baek, Oh-Dae Kwon, Soo-Jin Park, Chang-Hyun Song, Sae-Kwang Ku
Chongmyungtang (CMT) is a famous Korean herbal medicine for improving learning and memory, which has been reported to have anti-cholinergic and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, drug-drug interactions were examined between CMT and donepezil as a first screening of combination therapy for cognitive deficits. Rats received oral co-administration of donepezil with distilled water as a control or donepezil with CMT as a combination. The distilled water or CMT was co-administered at intervals within 5min after donepezil or 1...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yusra Rahman, Shumaila Afrin, Mohammed Amir Husain, Tarique Sarwar, Abad Ali, Shamsuzzaman, Mohammad Tabish
Pirenzepine is an anti-ulcer agent which belongs to the anti-cholinergic group of gastrointestinal disorder drugs and functions as an M1 receptor selective antagonist. Drug-DNA interaction studies are of great significance as it helps in the development of new therapeutic drugs. It provides a deeper understanding into the mechanism through which therapeutic drugs control gene expression. Interaction of pirenzepine with calf-thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) was determined via a series of biophysical techniques. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the formation of pirenzepine-Ct-DNA complex...
July 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Sunghwan Kim, Seung-Yup Lee, MinSeob Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Tardive dystonia is characterized by sustained, generally slow involuntary twisting movements. It is estimated to occur at a frequency of 1% to 4% among patients who are taking an antipsychotic agent. Unlike the first generation antipsychotics, the second generation antipsychotics are less likely to cause neuroleptic-induced movement disorder. For aripiprazole, only a few cases have been reported for tardive dystonia. We present a young male, who developed a severe tardive dystonia after taking aripiprazole for 5 years...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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