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Total Body Cooling

Kei Wagatsuma, Kiichi Ishiwata, Fumiyoshi Nobuhara, Iwane Koumura, Masayuki Kunugi, Keiichi Oda, Kenta Miwa, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
PURPOSE: The concrete vault, cyclotron body, and peripheral equipment in a cyclotron room become radioactivated by neutrons generated by operating an unshielded cyclotron. Radionuclides and the amounts of radioactivated materials must be identified before discarding a cyclotron system. The present study aimed to reduce the amounts of concrete from cyclotron vaults, as well as cyclotron components and peripheral equipment, that will be disposed of as radioactivated waste by clarifying the nature and quantity of radioactivated materials remaining in facilities after cyclotron operations have ceased...
March 14, 2019: Medical Physics
Sharifah Badriyah Alhadad, Pearl M S Tan, Jason K W Lee
Background: A majority of high profile international sporting events, including the coming 2020 Tokyo Olympics, are held in warm and humid conditions. When exercising in the heat, the rapid rise of body core temperature ( T c ) often results in an impairment of exercise capacity and performance. As such, heat mitigation strategies such as aerobic fitness (AF), heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA), pre-exercise cooling (PC) and fluid ingestion (FI) can be introduced to counteract the debilitating effects of heat strain...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Tamaho Suzuki, Hanako Tajima, Makoto Migita, Ruby Pawankar, Takeshi Yanagihara, Atsushi Fujita, Yoshio Shima, Emi Yanai, Yasuhiko Katsube
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare hereditary disorder with a triad of sparse hair, dental hypoplasia, and anhidrosis. Here we report a case of AED with food allergy and atopic eczema. The patient was a 11-month-old boy admitted to our hospital with pyrexia for 2 weeks. He presented with a history of dry skin, eczema, and food allergy to egg. On clinical examination, his body temperature was 38.8°C, with dry skin and eczema almost all over the body, sparse eyebrows, and scalp hair. Laboratory investigations and physical examination did not show any evidence of infection...
January 2019: Asia Pacific Allergy
Miryam Olivares Jara, Maria Isabel Vázquez Arce, Laura Peña Pachés, Catalina Roser Mas, Sofía Pérez-Alenda, Elena Marques-Sule
We present a non-randomised trial to evaluate a continuous physiotherapy program versus a periodic one in overweight patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome. AIM: To detect differences between a continuous (CONT) physiotherapy program (PF) and a periodic (INT) physiotherapy program in overweight patients with acute coronary syndrome on anthropometric parameters, analytical parameters, heart rate, adherence, drop-outs, safety and tolerance. DESIGN: A multicentre, non-randomised two-armed quasi-experimental study with pre-post design...
February 4, 2019: Atencion Primaria
E K Miller-Cushon, A M Dayton, K C Horvath, A P A Monteiro, X Weng, S Tao
Nutritional strategies to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on animal welfare and productivity often involve changes in ration formulation. However, cattle commonly sort their ration in favour of certain components, and it is not clear how feed sorting responds to heat stress. This study investigated the association between heat stress and feed sorting behaviour. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=32; parity=2.8±1.2; mean±SD) were housed in a free stall barn and milked 3×/day. Cows were fed individually using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System and offered ad libitum access to a total mixed ration (containing on a dry matter basis: 3...
February 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Heather M Logan-Sprenger
As little as 2% total body mass (BM) loss from sweat has been shown to compromise physiological functioning during prolonged exercise in the heat, subsequently compromising endurance performance. PURPOSE: This observational study aims to describe the fluid balance and thermoregulatory responses of competitive triathletes racing at a major international competition in a cool environment. METHODS: Fluid balance and thermoregulatory responses was measured in six (3 male, 3 female) national-level triathletes competing at the ITU World Triathlon Grand Finale in ambient temperatures of 19-20 °C (relative humidity (RH) ~55%)...
January 2019: Journal of Thermal Biology
Matthew L Keefer, Tami S Clabough, Michael A Jepson, Tracy Bowerman, Christopher C Caudill
River warming poses an existential threat to many Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp) populations. However, temperature-mediated risks to salmon are often complex and addressing them requires species- and population-specific data collected over large spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we combined radiotelemetry with archival depth and temperature sensors to collect continuous thermal exposure histories of 21 adult spring- and summer-run Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) as they migrated hundreds of kilometers upstream in the Columbia River basin...
January 2019: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chiara Autilio, Shivani Shankar-Aguilera, Angelo Minucci, Lhoussaine Touqui, Daniele De Luca
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia can modify surfactant composition and function. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) hydrolyses surfactant phospholipids and is important in the pathobiology of several critical respiratory disorders. We hypothesize that sPLA2 activity might be influenced by the temperature partially explaining surfactant changes. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hypothermia on sPLA2 activity. METHODS: We measured sPLA2 activity, at different temperatures, alone or combined with bile acids, in vitro(incubating human recombinantsPLA2-IIA and porcine sPLA2-IB), ex vivo(by cooling bronchoalveolar lavage samples from neonates with respiratory distress syndrome or no lung disease) and in vivo(using lavage samples obtained before and after 72h of whole body cooling in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy)...
January 3, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Caroline Beaulieu, Lisa Kurczewski
Current American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage suggest therapeutic hypothermia (TH) as a salvage therapy in patients with elevated intracranial pressure. Electrolyte disorders may develop at any stage of the cooling process. Such deregulation can place patients at an increased risk for arrhythmias and worsened neurologic outcomes. The impact of TH on serum electrolyte concentration has been described, but electrolyte changes and repletions are yet to be quantified...
December 26, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Lisette Klok, Niek Rood, Jeroen Kluck, Laura Kleerekoper
Since it is insufficiently clear to urban planners in the Netherlands to what extent design measures can reduce heat stress and which urban spaces are most comfortable, this study evaluates the impact of shading, urban water, and urban green on the thermal comfort of urban spaces during hot summer afternoons. The methods used include field surveys, meteorological measurements, and assessment of the PET (physiological equivalent temperature). In total, 21 locations in Amsterdam (shaded and sunny locations in parks, streets, squares, and near water bodies) were investigated...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Raghuram Chava, Menekhem Zviman, Fabrizio R Assis, Madhavan Srinivas Raghavan, Henry Halperin, Farhan Maqbool, Romergryko Geocadin, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Aravindan Kolandaivelu, Benjamin A Rosen, Harikrishna Tandri
PURPOSE: Early initiation of hypothermia is recommended in the setting of cardiac arrest. Current hypothermia methods are invasive and expensive and not applicable in ambulatory settings. We investigated the evaporative cooling effect of high flow transnasal dry air on core esophageal temperature in human volunteers. METHODS & RESULTS: A total of 32 subjects (mean age 53.2 ± 9.3 yrs., mean weight 90 ± 17 Kg) presenting for elective electrophysiological procedures were enrolled for the study...
October 22, 2018: Resuscitation
Soroush Safa, Shahryar Kargar, Gholam Ali Moghaddam, Maria Giovanna Ciliberti, Mariangela Caroprese
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cooling upon calving in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress in Holstein lactating cows. Production performance, indicators of metabolic status, immune response, and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured. Based on mature equivalent milk production, parity, and calving date, 46 multiparous lactating cows were allotted to groups of equal sizes (n = 23); heat stressed [HS; BW = 658 ± 28 kg (mean ± SD); BCS = 2.7 ± 0.18; parity = 3 ± 0...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Varun Harish, Neha Tiwari, Oliver M Fisher, Zhe Li, Peter K M Maitz
BACKGROUND: Animal studies indicate treating burn injuries with running water (first aid) for 20min up to 3h post-burn reduces healing time and scarring. There is a lack of human data to support such a recommendation. The purpose of this cohort study was to assess the effect of first aid on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected for patients with <10% total body surface area (TBSA) burns from 2007-2012. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association of adequate first aid with four outcomes - wound depth, requirement for skin grafting, healing time (in non-grafted patients), and TBSA not grafted (in grafted patients)...
October 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Wendy A Pethick, Holly J Murray, Paula McFadyen, Ryan Brodie, Catherine A Gaul, Trent Stellingwerff
The impact of hydration status was investigated during a 5-day heat acclimation (HA) training protocol vs mild/cool control conditions on plasma volume (PV) and performance (20 km time-trial [TT]). Sub-elite athletes were allocated to one of two heat training groups (90 min/day): (a) dehydrated to ~2% body weight (BW) loss in heat (35°C; DEH; n = 14); (b) euhydrated heat (35°C; EUH; n = 10), where training was isothermally clamped to 38.5°C core temperature (Tc ). A euhydrated mild control group (22°C; CON; n = 9) was later added, with training clamped to the same relative heart rate (~75% HRmax ) as elicited during DEH and EUH; thus all groups experienced the same internal training stress (%HRmax )...
October 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Y N Prashantha, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, B S Chandrakala, Kalyan Chakravarthy Balla, A Shashidhar
BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used for therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). As standard cooling devices are expensive, there is a need to establish the safety and efficacy of low-cost devices such as ice packs (IP) and phase changing material (PCM). AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the clinico-laboratory profile of neonates who underwent cooling with IP or PCM...
August 15, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
J F Willms, O Boss, E Keller
BACKGROUND: Fever control plays a key role in therapy of patients with acute brain injury. The infusion of cold saline could serve as an alternative or additional method for targeted temperature management. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of fluid required to achieve normothermia merely on the basis of body weight. There is no standardized load management regarding the administration of cold saline, and no closed-loop systems based on continuous temperature-controlled feedback are available...
August 10, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Jun Zhang, Kaiyin Liu, Omar Elmadhoun, Xunming Ji, Yunxia Duan, Jingfei Shi, Xiaoduo He, Xiangrong Liu, Di Wu, Ruiwen Che, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
Hypothermia is considered as a promising neuroprotective treatment for ischemic stroke but with many limitations. To expand its clinical relevance, this study evaluated the combination of physical (ice pad) and pharmacological [transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)] approaches for faster cooling and stronger neuroprotection. A total of 144 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to 7 groups: sham (n=16), stroke only (n=24), stroke with physical hypothermia at 31ºC for 3 h after the onset of reperfusion (n=24), high-dose DHC (H-DHC)(1...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Yue Liu, Harry J Grier, Terrence R Tiersch
Previous studies of sperm cryopreservation of livebearing fish have been limited to two genera within the family Poeciliidae. The goal of the present study was to investigate the feasibility to produce live young of livebearing goodeids (family Goodeidae) with cryopreserved sperm, using aquarium-trade populations of the endangered species Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni, Rutter, 1896). Reproductive condition of females was evaluated by histological categorization of ovarian development. A total of 117 females were inseminated with cryopreserved sperm, 81 were inseminated with fresh sperm, 27 were mixed with males for natural breeding, and 30 were maintained without males or insemination...
September 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Oliver Rivero-Arias, Oya Eddama, Denis Azzopardi, A David Edwards, Brenda Strohm, Helen Campbell
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of hypothermic neural rescue for perinatal asphyxia at birth on healthcare costs of survivors aged 6-7 years, and to quantify the relationship between costs and overall disability levels. DESIGN: 6-7 years follow-up of surviving children from the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy (TOBY) trial. SETTING: Community study including a single parental questionnaire to collect information on children's healthcare resource use...
July 11, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Robyn S Hetem, Duncan Mitchell, Brenda A de Witt, Linda G Fick, Shane K Maloney, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller
As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus Von Schreber, 1775) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity never have been reported for cheetahs, or indeed for any free-living felid. We report here body temperature and locomotor activity measured with implanted data loggers over seven months in five free-living cheetahs in Namibia...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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