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Ocular Infectious

S Amal Hussnain, Orly Gal-Or, Armand Daccache, Jeffrey D Klausner, Lawrence Yannuzzi
As rates of infectious syphilis continue to rise in the U.S., it is important to be familiar with known manifestations of ocular syphilis as well as report presentations not previously described in the literature. Here, the authors report a case of a 49-year-old myopic woman presenting with bilateral white dots characteristic of a white dot syndrome; these white dots were not evident on slit-lamp examination and became obvious on fundus autofluorescence. She tested positive and was successfully treated for syphilis...
February 1, 2019: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Niels C Pedersen, Michel Perron, Michael Bannasch, Elizabeth Montgomery, Eisuke Murakami, Molly Liepnieks, Hongwei Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for cats suffering from various forms of naturally acquired feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). METHODS: Cats ranged from 3.4-73 months of age (mean 13.6 months); 26 had effusive or dry-to-effusive FIP and five had non-effusive disease. Cats with severe neurological and ocular FIP were not recruited. The group was started on GS-441524 at a dosage of 2.0 mg/kg SC q24h for at least 12 weeks and increased when indicated to 4...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Claudia Fabiani, Antonio Vitale, Donato Rigante, Giacomo Emmi, Giuseppe Lopalco, Jurgen Sota, Lorenzo Vannozzi, Silvana Guerriero, Alice Bitossi, Ida Orlando, Rossella Franceschini, Bruno Frediani, Mauro Galeazzi, Florenzo Iannone, Gian Marco Tosi, Luca Cantarini
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of monoclonal anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents in patients with anterior uveitis (AU) in terms of decrease of recurrences, variation of visual acuity and steroid sparing effect and to identify any demographic, clinical or therapeutic variables associated with a sustained response to monoclonal TNF-α inhibitors. METHODS: Data from patients suffering from AU treated with adalimumab, infliximab, golimumab or certolizumab pegol were retrospectively collected and statistically analysed...
January 18, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Hongmin Zhang, Susu Liu, Juan Yue, Shengtao Sun, Qixue Lv, Shoujun Jian, Yanting Xie, Lei Han, Fenfen Zhang, Yanfang Dai, Liya Wang
Bacterial keratitis is an aggressive infectious corneal disease. With the continuing rise in antibiotic resistance and a decline in the discovery of new antibiotics, new antimicrobial drugs are now required. In the present study, we determined the antibacterial activity of diacerein, an anti-inflammatory drug, against 76 Gram-positive cocci isolated from bacterial keratitis patients in vitro and anti- Staphylococcus aureus activity in mouse bacterial keratitis model in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diacerein were tested using the broth microdilution method in vitro...
February 4, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yi-Hua Chen, Ya-Han Li, Yu-Jr Lin, Yen-Po Chen, Nan-Kai Wang, An-Ning Chao, Laura Liu, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai, Tun-Lu Chen, Kuan-Jen Chen
Endogenous K. pneumoniae endophthalmitis (EKE) has a higher incidence among East Asians, and the most common infectious source of EKE is pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). We investigate the risk factors for poor visual outcomes in patients with PLA-related EKE. The retrospective medical records of 104 patients (120 eyes) diagnosed with PLA-related EKE between 1996 and 2015. In univariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for poor visual outcomes were initial visual acuity (VA) worse than counting fingers (CF) (p < 0...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Panagiotis Georgoudis, Francesco Sabatino, Nora Szentmary, Sotiria Palioura, Eszter Fodor, Samer Hamada, Hendrik P N Scholl, Zisis Gatzioufas
Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a systemic cicatrizing autoimmune disease that primarily affects orificial mucous membranes, such as the conjunctiva, the nasal cavity, the oropharynx, and the genitalia. Ocular involvement occurs in about 70% of all MMP cases. Ocular MMP (OcMMP) also encompasses the conditions linear immunoglobulin A disease, mucosal dominated epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, and anti-laminin 332/anti-epiligrin/anti-laminin 5 pemphigoid. It is a complex clinical entity that may lead to ocular surface failure and result in inflammatory and infectious complications, as well as potentially devastating visual loss...
January 29, 2019: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Alejandra de-la-Torre, Juanita Valdés-Camacho, Clara López de Mesa, Andrés Uauy-Nazal, Juan David Zuluaga, Lina María Ramírez-Páez, Felipe Durán, Elizabeth Torres-Morales, Jessica Triviño, Mateo Murillo, Alba Cristina Peñaranda, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda-Arias, Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín
BACKGROUND: Making a definite diagnosis of infectious uveitis is a challenging task because many other infectious, and non-infectious uveitis, may have similar non-specific symptoms and overlapping clinical appearances. Co-infections in immunocompetent patients are not frequently proved with traditional serologic-diagnostic tools. METHODS: Descriptive transversal study, in a Uveitis Service of an Ophthalmology Reference Center, in Bogotá, Colombia, from July 2014 to February 2016...
January 25, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nuria Vegas-Revenga, Vanesa Calvo-Río, Marina Mesquida, Alfredo Adán, María Victoria Hernández, Emma Beltrán, Elia Valls Pascual, David Díaz-Valle, Gisela Díaz- Cordovés, Marisa Hernandez-Garfella, Lucía Martínez-Costa, Inmaculada Calvo, Antonio Atanes, Luis F Linares, Consuelo Modesto, Carmen González-Vela, Rosalia Pablo-Demetrio, Elena Aurrecoechea, Miguel Cordero, Lucía C Domínguez-Casas, Belén Atienza-Mateo, José Luis Martín-Varillas, Javier Loricera, Natalia Palmou-Fontana, José L Hernández, Miguel A González-Gay, Ricardo Blanco
PURPOSE: Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a leading cause of blindness. In this study we assessed the efficacy and safety of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in refractory CME. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with CME secondary to non-infectious uveitis who had inadequate response to corticosteroids and at least one conventional immunosuppressive drug, and in most cases to other biological agents were studied. CME was defined as central retinal thickness greater than 300 μm...
January 17, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Carlos A Gomez, Malaya K Sahoo, Ghazala Yasmeen Kahn, Lina Zhong, José G Montoya, Benjamin A Pinsky, Thuy Doan
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common infectious cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. Two multicopy targets (B1 and Rep529) are commonly used in T. gondii PCR assays, but studies evaluating these targets in ocular fluid samples are limited. Herein, we determine the analytical characteristics of a single-reaction, internally controlled, dual-target, real-time T. gondii PCR and evaluate the clinical performance of this assay in intraocular fluid samples obtained at a reference ophthalmologic centre in the USA...
January 12, 2019: British Journal of Ophthalmology
T J Divers, Y-F Chang, N L Irby, J L Smith, C N Carter
North American horses are commonly exposed to Leptospira organisms. Leptospira Bratislava is the most common infecting serovar but this serovar has not been confirmed to cause clinical disease in North American horses. Leptospira Pomona type kennewicki is responsible for most of the clinical diseases (leptospirosis) in North American horses. Leptospirosis is most commonly associated with diseases of the placenta and fetus, the kidneys and the eyes in horses. In-utero infections in pregnant mares may result in abortion, neonatal illness or birth of an antibody positive healthy foal...
January 10, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Caiyun You, Lina Ma, Stephen D Anesi
Aim: To report a case of bilateral papillitis as the initial ophthalmologic presentation in a patient with complex medical history and multisystemic symptoms, eventually revealing a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Methods: Retrospective interventional case report. Report: A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented with bilateral decreased vision, photophobia and eye pain for a month. She was referred for evaluation of disc edema with questionable history of vitritis...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Alexandra Bograd, Theo Seiler, Sara Droz, Stefan Zimmerli, Beatrice Früh, Christoph Tappeiner
BACKGROUND: Infectious keratitis is a serious corneal disease and may lead to permanent visual deterioration if not treated rapidly and effectively. In order to determine possible changes in the spectrum of pathogens over time, we evaluated the pathogenic organisms of keratitis at a university hospital in Switzerland, comparing two time periods within a decade. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 417 patients with the clinical diagnosis of bacterial or fungal keratitis in 2006/07 and 2015/16 were enrolled...
January 7, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Xavier Fernández Aguilar, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Maria Puig Ribas, Mattia Begovoeva, Roser Velarde, Jesús Cardells, Oscar Cabezón
Mycoplasma conjunctivae is an obligate microparasite that causes Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in Caprinae species. IKC is a long-recognised disease, but little attention has been paid to the mechanisms of transmission of the mycoplasma and its occurrence in locations other than the eyes. In this study, the presence of M. conjunctivae is assessed in the eyes, external ear canals (EEC), nasal cavity, and vagina of host species as well as in potential vectors, which may be involved in the transmission and persistence of infection within the host...
January 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
Dianlei Guo, Mengke Li, Bin Zou, Xinyu Gu, Zhaohui Yuan, Shixin Guo, Fuxiang Mao, Hong Ouyang, Kaili Wu, Lai Wei, Yizhi Liu, Chunqiao Liu
Ocular surface disease is one major type of eye diseases. Different etiologies trigger distinct pathological responses of the ocular surface. We previously reported that genetically engineered mice with ablation of Prickle 1 manifested precocious eyelid opening with ensuing cornea dysplasia. The current study aimed to characterize the molecular traits and the direct cause of ocular pathology associated with precocious eyelid opening in the Prickle 1 mutant mouse. Prickle 1 mutant mice exhibited a slew of ocular surface pathology including cell proliferation, cell fate transformation and inflammatory infiltration coinciding with the timing of the precocious eyelid opening...
December 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
John A Gonzales, Armin Hinterwirth, Jessica Shantha, Kaidi Wang, Lina Zhong, Susie L Cummings, Ying Qian, Michael R Wilson, Nisha R Acharya, Thuy Doan
Importance: Metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS) demonstrates that persistent and active rubella virus (RV) infection is associated with Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Objective: To assess the utility of MDS in identifying RV infection in patients with uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series assessed 6 patients diagnosed by MDS with RV-associated uveitis at a tertiary uveitis referral center in the United States...
December 27, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Shaohui Wang, Kati Tormanen, Harry Matundan, Alexander V Ljubimov, Homayon Ghiasi
HSV-1-induced corneal scarring (CS), also broadly referred to as Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK), is the leading cause of infectious blindness in developed countries. It is well-established that HSK is in fact an immunopathological disease. The contribution of the potentially harmful T cell effectors that lead to CS remains an area of intense study. Although the HSV-1 gene(s) involved in eye disease is not yet known, we have demonstrated that gK, which is one of the 12 known HSV-1 glycoproteins, has a crucial role in CS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yannick Simonin, Nejla Erkilic, Krishna Damodar, Marion Clé, Caroline Desmetz, Karine Bolloré, Mehdi Taleb, Simona Torriano, Jonathan Barthelemy, Grégor Dubois, Anne Dominique Lajoix, Vincent Foulongne, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe Van de Perre, Vasiliki Kalatzis, Sara Salinas
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently re-emerged as a pathogenic agent with epidemic capacities as was well illustrated in South America. Because of the extent of this health crisis, a number of more serious symptoms have become associated with ZIKV infection than what was initially described. In particular, neuronal and ocular disorders have been characterized, both in infants and in adults. Notably, the macula and the retina can be strongly affected by ZIKV, possibly by a direct effect of the virus...
December 19, 2018: EBioMedicine
Krati Chauhan, Steven Scaife, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE: Health disparities exist when the prevalence or outcome of the disease are influenced by age, race, sex or income. Health disparities are prevalent in autoimmune diseases. However, there is a lack of national US data regarding health disparities in uveitis. The primary aim of our study is to evaluate health disparities for uveitis in the USA. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study to ascertain health disparities for uveitis and its complications in the USA using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2002-2013...
December 21, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Robert J Barry, Mohammad O Tallouzi, Nick Bucknall, Jonathan M Mathers, Philip I Murray, Melanie J Calvert, David J Moore, Alastair K Denniston
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious uveitis describes a heterogenous group of ocular disorders characterised by intraocular inflammation in the absence of infection. Uveitis is a leading cause of visual loss, most commonly due to uveitic macular oedema (UMO). Treatment is aimed at reducing disease activity by suppression of the intraocular inflammatory response. In the case of macular oedema, the aim is to restore macular architecture as quickly as possible, in order to prevent irreversible photoreceptor damage in this area...
December 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Aaron M Dickey, Gennie Schuller, J Dustin Loy, Michael L Clawson
Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M...
2018: PloS One
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