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Ana Catarina Martins Reis, Wanessa Fernandes Matias Regis, Lidiany Karla Azevedo Rodrigues
Several studies of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) have been performed to verify the efficiency of this treatment against caries-related microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of aPDT and to review the literature regarding its effects on cariogenic microorganisms organized in biofilms and/or caries lesions. The literature was searched for reviews and original papers about aPDT and its outcomes against Streptococcus mutans as well as other caries-associated microorganisms or caries lesions...
March 18, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Paulette Spencer, Qiang Ye, Linyong Song, Ranganathan Parthasarathy, Kyle Boone, Anil Misra, Candan Tamerler
Nearly 100 million of the 170 million composite and amalgam restorations placed annually in the United States are replacements for failed restorations. The primary reason both composite and amalgam restorations fail is recurrent decay, for which composite restorations experience a 2.0-3.5-fold increase compared to amalgam. Recurrent decay is a pernicious problem-the standard treatment is replacement of defective composites with larger restorations that will also fail, initiating a cycle of ever-larger restorations that can lead to root canals, and eventually, to tooth loss...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
A P V Colombo, A C R Tanner
Over the last hundred years, groundbreaking research in oral microbiology has provided a broad and deep understanding about the oral microbiome, its interactions with our body, and how the community can affect our health, be protective, or lead to the development of dental diseases. During this exciting journey, hypotheses were proposed, and concepts were established, discarded, and later revisited from updated perspectives. Dental plaque, previously considered a polymicrobial community of unspecific pathogenicity, is recognized as microbial biofilms with healthy, cariogenic, or periodontopathogenic profiles, resulting from specific ecologic determinants and host factors...
April 2019: Journal of Dental Research
Lulu Chen, Brinta Chakraborty, Jing Zou, Robert A Burne, Lin Zeng
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) enhance the competitiveness of the laboratory strain DL1 of Streptococcus gordonii against the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans Here we examine how amino sugars affect the interaction of five low-passage clinical isolates of abundant commensal streptococci with S. mutans utilizing a dual-species biofilm model. Compared to glucose, growth on GlcN or GlcNAc significantly reduced the viability of S. mutans in co-cultures with most commensals, shifting the proportions of species...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
June Hsiao, Yuanyuan Wang, Li Zheng, Ruirui Liu, Raed Said, Lubomir Hadjiyski, Heekon Cha, Tatiana Botero, Xanthippi Chatzistavrou, Qing Dong, Silvana Papagerakis, Petros Papagerakis
Dental caries is an infectious oral disease caused primarily by complex interactions of cariogenic oral flora (biofilm) with dietary carbohydrates on the tooth surface over time. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. mutans and S. sobrinus) are the most prevalent cariogenic species within the oral biofilm and considered the main etiological agents of caries. Pulp exposure and infection can be caused by trauma, carious lesion, and mechanical reasons. Pulp response to these exposures depends on the state of the pulp as well as the potential bacterial contamination of pulp tissue...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bennett T Amaechi, Livia M A Tenuta, Antonio P Ricomini Filho, Jaime A Cury
Caries lesions result from the interaction between dental biofilm and sugars. Since the biofilm is an important component in the etiology of the disease, biofilm models have been developed to study the cariogenicity of dietary sugars, as well as the anticaries effect of substances. Two of such models, termed as "static" or "continuous flow," are described in details here together with their advantages, limitations, and applications.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Claudia Tschammler, Alexandra Simon, Knut Brockmann, Markus Röbl, Annette Wiegand
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to analyze the prevalence and severity of erosive tooth wear and caries experience in children and adolescents with overweight, obesity and extreme obesity compared to children with normal weight and to determine a possible association between erosive tooth wear and caries experience. METHODS: 223 children (4-17 years, n = 1476 primary and n = 4110 permanent teeth) were examined using standardized dental indices (BEWE, ICDAS, DMFT)...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Dentistry
Nebu Philip, Laurence J Walsh
Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such as bacterial acidogenicity, aciduricity, glucan synthesis, and hydrophobicity. Cranberry phenols have the ability to disrupt these cariogenic virulence properties without being bactericidal, a key quality essential for retaining the benefits of the symbiotic resident oral microbiome and preventing the emergence of resistant microbes...
March 1, 2019: Dentistry journal
Ling Deng, Wei Li, Yuanli He, Juan Wu, Biao Ren, Ling Zou
OBJECTIVE: How the interactions between Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscosus contributed to the root caries was not clear. This study aimed to investigate their cross-kingdom interactions on the biomass and the cariogenic virulence in dual-species biofilms. DESIGN: Suspensions of C. albicans and A. viscosus were formed the mono and polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Crystal violet assay, viable plate count, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to analyze the biomass and biofilm structure...
February 18, 2019: Archives of Oral Biology
Laryssa de Barros Pinto, Maria Luiza Lima Alves Lira, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Eugênia Livia de Andrade Dantas, Maria Lúcia Oliveira Vieira, Gabriel Garcia de Carvalho, Frederico Barbosa de Sousa
It is believed that penetration of dentinal fluid into natural enamel caries (NEC) is negligible because of the barrier created by underlying sclerotic dentine, but there are conflicting evidences on whether dentine subjacent to NEC is sclerotic or demineralized. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between NEC, subjacent dentine reactions, modification of dentinal fluid, and composition of cariogenic biofilm formed on the NEC surface. Proximal NEC (PNEC) lesions of human permanent posterior teeth were included in five experiments...
February 26, 2019: Scientific Reports
Russel Gitalis, Liangyi Zhou, Muna Q Marashdeh, Chunxiang Sun, Michael Glogauer, Yoav Finer
Cholesterol esterase-like (CE) activity from saliva and esterase from cariogenic bacteria hydrolyze ester linkages of dental methacrylate resins. Collagenolytic, matrix metalloproteinase-like (MMP) activities from dentin and bacteria degrade collagen in demineralized tooth dentin. Human neutrophils in the oral cavity contain factors that are hypothesized to have CE and MMP activities that could contribute to the degradation of methacrylate resins and dentinal collagen. OBJECTIVES: To measure the CE and MMP activities from human neutrophils and their ability to degrade dental methacrylate resin composite and dentinal collagen...
February 23, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Luísa Valente Gotardo Lara Alves, Fabiana Almeida Curylofo-Zotti, Maria Cristina Borsatto, Sérgio Luiz de Souza Salvador, Rodrigo Alexandre Valério, Aline Evangelista Souza-Gabriel, Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona
BACKGROUND: The literature has presented many studies regarding photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (aPDT). However, the great variety of protocols to be used can directly influence its effectiveness in reducing microorganisms. The aim of this randomized split-mouth clinical study was to evaluate the effect of aPDT in the reduction of Streptococcus mutans and their effect on restorations performed. METHODS: Twenty children between 6 and 8 years old with active caries and dentin cavitation, located on the occlusal surface of homologous primary molars were included...
February 23, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Nikita V Lolayekar, Sharmin S Kadkhodayan
Background: The current concepts of dental caries focus on cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans fermenting carbohydrates to form organic acids, which cause a drop in pH, resulting in demineralization of the tooth surface.[l] Studies show that Tulsi has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity.[2] Hence, this study aimed at estimating the change in salivary pH and viability of S. mutans on chewing of Tulsi leaves, in children. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the change in salivary pH and viability of S...
January 2019: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Nebu Philip, Shaneen J Leishman, Hmhn Bandara, Laurence J Walsh
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts on dual-species Streptococcus mutans-Candida. albicans biofilms implicated in contributing to the severity of early childhood caries. Methods: S. mutans-C. albicans biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs (s-HA) mounted on the high-throughput Amsterdam Active Attachment model. The s-HA discs were treated with the cranberry extracts/vehicle control for five minutes just before biofilm growth and subsequently, for similar exposure times, after 12 hours and 24 hours of biofilm growth...
January 15, 2019: Pediatric Dentistry
Virginia Rall Chomitz, Hubert J Park, Susan Koch-Weser, Kenneth Kwan Ho Chui, Lingxia Sun, Mary Ellen Malone, Carole Palmer, Cheen Y Loo, Aviva Must
OBJECTIVES: To describe the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a theory-informed obesity and dental caries prevention pilot study, Baby Steps to Health, conducted in an academic dental clinic among a primarily Asian immigrant population. METHODS: Baby Steps used self-determination theory and behavioral motivation strategies for a caregiver/child (6-36 months) nutrition and oral health behavior change intervention implemented in a pediatric dental clinic...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Ana Carolina S Ré, Maria Carolina Bonjovanni, Maíra P Ferreira, Osvaldo Freitas, Carolina P Aires
(1) Background: For any antibacterial oral formulation to be successful, it must present effects in the presence of biofilms. Therefore, our aim is to analyze the drug release and the antibiofilm effects of a semi-solid formulation containing chlorhexidine (CHX) in the presence of pathogenic biofilms. (2) Methods: The biofilms of Streptococcus mutans ( n = 6) or Porphyromonas gingivalis ( n = 3) were formed for 6 and 4 days, respectively, being exposed to: 1) a CHX system or 2) vehicle control without CHX. A group without treatment was included as negative control...
February 19, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Qian Ren, Longjiang Ding, Zhongcheng Li, Xiuqing Wang, Kun Wang, Sili Han, Wei Li, Xuedong Zhou, Linglin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, caries prevention focuses on controlling pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting demineralization and promoting re-mineralization. The aim of this study is to design a more clinically powerful anti-caries treatment by combining amelogenin-derived peptide QP5 with antibacterial chitosan in a hydrogel (CS-QP5 hydrogel), and characterize its effects on inhibition of cariogenic bacteria and promotion of remineralization of initial caries lesions. DESIGN: CS-QP5 interactions at different pH and chitosan concentrations were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism...
February 10, 2019: Archives of Oral Biology
Juliana M Farias, Thayza Christina M Stamford, Ana Helena M Resende, Jaciana S Aguiar, Raquel D Rufino, Juliana M Luna, Leonie A Sarubbo
The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial action and toxicity of mouthwashes formulated with a biosurfactant, chitosan of a microbial origin and peppermint (Mentha piperita) essential oil (POE). Chitosan was extracted from the biomass of a fungus from the order Mucorales grown in yam bean broth. Three biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCP 0992 (PB), Bacillus cereus UCP 1615 (BB) and Candida bombicola URM 3718 (CB) were tested. Six mouthwashes were prepared, the active ingredients of which were the biosurfactant, chitosan and POE...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dimitris Sarris, Zoe Sampani, Anna Rapti, Seraphim Papanikolaou
Crude glycerol (Glol), used as substrate for screening eleven natural Yarrowia lipolytica strains in shake-flask experiments. Aim of this study was to assess the ability of the screened strains to produce biomass (dry cell weight; X), lipid (L), citric acid (Cit), mannitol (Man), arabitol (Ara) and erythritol (Ery), compounds presenting pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest, in glycerol-based nitrogen-limited media, in which initial glycerol concentration had been adjusted to 40 g/L. Citric acid may find use in biomedical engineering (i...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Zhouxiang Zhao, Chunmei Ding, Yaqin Wang, Hong Tan, Jianshu Li
Traditional antibacterial treatments, such as chlorhexidine (CHX), destroy cariogenic biofilms. However, they exert negative effects in clinical applications, for example, teeth staining, taste disturbance and harm to oral tissue after a long-term exposure. Therefore, biocompatible strategies for efficient antibacterial drug delivery are in high demand. In this study, aimed at dental caries therapy enhancement, we designed a pH-responsive nanocarrier system, capable of releasing CHX in an acidic environment within cariogenic biofilms...
February 6, 2019: Biomaterials Science
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