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DHA prematurity

Mariela Bernabe-García, Raúl Villegas-Silva, Astrid Villavicencio-Torres, Philip C Calder, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Denisse Macías-Loaiza, Mardia López-Alarcón, Patricia Inda-Icaza, Leonardo Cruz-Reynoso
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the retina of low-birth-weight preterm infants that potentially leads to blindness. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is protective in experimental models, but its administration as part of parenteral nutrition has shown inconsistent results. We test the effect of enteral DHA to prevent ROP and/or severity and to reduce hospital stay. METHODS: This was a double-blind parallel clinical trial. Preterm infants (n = 110; 55 per group) with birth weight <1500 g but ≥1000 g were recruited in a neonatal intensive care unit...
January 6, 2019: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Martina Furini, Alessandra Munarini, Cristina La Riccia, Vilma Mantovani, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are crucial for neural and visual development after premature birth. Preterm infants usually require tube feeding (TF) until the achievement of adequate oral feeding skills; the impact of TF on DHA and AA delivery has not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different TF techniques on the delivery of AA and DHA contained in human milk (HM). METHODS: HM samples (65 mL each) were collected and divided into three 20-mL aliquots...
September 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas, Burak Poyraz, Guluzar Atli, Yasar Sertdemir, Kurthan Mert, Ferda Ozlu, Mehmet Satar
BACKGROUND: Olive oil-soybean oil (OO/SO) based lipid emulsions (LE) lack ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid -EPA and docosahexaenoic acid- DHA, which have clinical benefits on inflammatory processes. Fish oil based LEs are good sources of DHA and EPA. Fish oil, MCT, Olive oil and Soya oil (FMOS) lipid is one of the fish oil containing LEs supplemented with high levels of α-tocopherol and lower levels of phytosterol compared to OO/SO lipid emulsions. We investigated the effects of OO/SO and FMOS lipid preparations on cholestasis, levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation...
August 2, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Anders K Nilsson, Chatarina Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Karin Sävman, Mats X Andersson, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk of a deficiency in ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated how fatty acids from breast milk and parenteral lipid emulsions shape serum LC-PUFA profiles in extremely preterm infants during early perinatal life. METHODS: Ninety infants born < 28 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive parenteral lipids with or without the ω-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (SMOFlipid: Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden, or Clinoleic: Baxter Medical AB, Kista, Sweden, respectively)...
April 21, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lynn Calvin Shaw, Sergio Li Calzi, Nan Li, Leni Moldovan, Nilanjana Sengupta-Caballero, Judith Lindsey Quigley, Mircea Ivan, Bokkyoo Jun, Nicolas G Bazan, Michael Edwin Boulton, Julia Busik, Josef Neu, Maria B Grant
Purpose: Low levels of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been implicated in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, oral DHA suffers from poor palatability and is associated with increased bleeding in premature infants. We asked whether oral administration of the neutraceutical arginine-glutamine (Arg-Glu) could increase retinal DHA and improve outcomes in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Methods: Postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were maintained at 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air on P12...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stephanie L Smith, Christopher A Rouse
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) that has a role in the cognitive and visual development, as well as in the immune function of newborns. Premature infants are typically deficient in DHA for several reasons, to include fetal accretion of DHA that typically occurs during the third trimester. These premature infants are reliant on enteral sources of DHA, most commonly through breast milk. The DHA content in breast milk varies in direct correlation with maternal DHA intake and mothers consuming a Western diet typically have lower levels of DHA in their breast milk...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Yoo Kyung Jeong, Hyeyoung Kim
Acute pancreatitis refers to the sudden inflammation of the pancreas. It is associated with premature activation and release of digestive enzymes into the pancreatic interstitium and systemic circulation, resulting in pancreatic tissue autodigestion and multiple organ dysfunction, as well as with increased cytokine production, ultimately leading to deleterious local and systemic effects. Although mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis have not been completely elucidated, oxidative stress is regarded as a major risk factor...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luis E Lozada, Abhishek Desai, Karl Kevala, Ji-Won Lee, Hee-Yong Kim
Background: Premature infants are deprived of prenatal accumulation of brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA (22:6n-3)], an omega-3 fatty acid [ω-3 FA (n-3 FA)] important for proper development of cognitive function. The resulting brain DHA deficit can be reversed by ω-3 FA supplementation. Objective: The objective was to test whether there is a critical period for providing ω-3 FA to correct cognitive deficits caused by developmental ω-3 FA deprivation in mice. Methods: Twelve timed-pregnant mice [embryonic day 14 (E14), C57/BL6NCr] were fed an ω-3 FA-deficient diet containing 0...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Andrew J McPhee, Thomas R Sullivan, Peter G Davis, Marta Thio, Karen Simmer, Victor S Rajadurai, Javeed Travadi, Mary J Berry, Helen G Liley, Gillian F Opie, Kenneth Tan, Kei Lui, Scott A Morris, Jacqueline Stack, Michael J Stark, Mei-Chien Chua, Pooja A Jayagobi, James Holberton, Srinivas Bolisetty, Ian R Callander, Deborah L Harris, Robert A Gibson
BACKGROUND: Studies in animals and in humans have suggested that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, might reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but appropriately designed trials are lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1273 infants born before 29 weeks of gestation (stratified according to sex, gestational age [<27 weeks or 27 to <29 weeks], and center) within 3 days after their first enteral feeding to receive either an enteral emulsion providing DHA at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or a control (soy) emulsion without DHA until 36 weeks of postmenstrual age...
March 30, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Caroline Hunsche, Oskarina Hernandez, Alina Gheorghe, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Ascensión Marcos, Mónica De la Fuente
PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with impaired immune defences and chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidation. In addition, this condition may lead to premature aging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on several functions and oxidative stress parameters in peritoneal immune cells of obese mice, as well as on the life span of these animals. METHODS: Obesity was induced in adult female ICR/CD1 by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks...
April 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism
S Fares, M M Sethom, M Feki, M Cheour, H Sanhaji, S Kacem, N Kaabachi
Fatty acids (FA), especially arachidonic (AA, 20:4ω6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids are critical for the health and development of infants. Colostrum FA composition has been examined in 101 lactating Tunisian women delivering prematurely using gas chromatography. Among polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid predominated whereas each of the other polyunsaturated FA accounted for 1% or less of total FA. Colostrum AA and DHA contents were lower in women aged above 34 years compared to those less than 34 years...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Melissa A Bates, Christina Brandenberger, Ingeborg I Langohr, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Adam L Lock, Jack R Harkema, Andrij Holian, James J Pestka
Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (cSiO2, quartz) is etiologically linked to systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) and other human autoimmune diseases (ADs). In the female NZBWF1 mouse, a widely used animal model that is genetically prone to lupus, short-term repeated intranasal exposure to cSiO2 triggers premature initiation of autoimmune responses in the lungs and kidneys. In contrast to cSiO2's triggering action, consumption of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prevents spontaneous onset of autoimmunity in this mouse strain...
2016: PloS One
Christine Henriksen, Astrid N Almaas, Ane C Westerberg, Christian A Drevon, Per O Iversen, Britt Nakstad
UNLABELLED: The study is a follow-up of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to 129 very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) infants fed human milk. The main hypothesis was that supplementation would affect growth, metabolic markers, and cognitive function. The secondary aim was to describe predictors of metabolic markers and cognitive status at follow-up. Ninety-eight children met for 8-year follow-up with anthropometric measures, blood biomarkers, and cognitive testing...
September 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Astrid Nylander Almaas, Christian K Tamnes, Britt Nakstad, Christine Henriksen, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Per Ole Iversen, Christian A Drevon
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1500 g) children have increased risk of behavioral problems. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain shows reduced white matter maturation. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are hypothesized to improve both myelination and behavioral outcome. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that postnatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to very low birth weight infants would influence cerebral white matter measured by DTI and improve behavioral outcome at 8 years of age...
April 2016: Early Human Development
Lisa M Christian, Lisa M Blair, Kyle Porter, Mary Lower, Rachel M Cole, Martha A Belury
Mechanistic pathways linking maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status with gestational length are poorly delineated. This study examined whether inflammation and sleep quality serve as mediators, focusing on the antiinflammatory ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and proinflammatory ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n6). Pregnant women (n = 135) provided a blood sample and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at 20-27 weeks gestation. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels were determined by gas chromatography and serum inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein] by electrochemiluminescence using high sensitivity kits...
2016: PloS One
Michelle L Baack, Susan E Puumala, Stephen E Messier, Deborah K Pritchett, William S Harris
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid (FA) important for health and neurodevelopment. Premature infants are at risk of DHA deficiency and circulating levels directly correlate with health outcomes. Most supplementation strategies have focused on increasing DHA content in mother's milk or infant formula. However, extremely premature infants may not reach full feedings for weeks and commercially available parenteral lipid emulsions do not contain preformed DHA, so blood levels decline rapidly after birth...
April 2016: Lipids
Eric H Souied, Tariq Aslam, Alfredo Garcia-Layana, Frank G Holz, Anita Leys, Rufino Silva, Cécile Delcourt
Against a background of considerable epidemiological and other evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the negative results of the Age-Related Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) were unexpected. The possibility that the design, setting, intake or subjects of AREDS2 may not have permitted the prophylactic potential of omega-3 to be adequately demonstrated is considered. Epidemiological studies had indicated potential preventative effects of omega-3, and an earlier randomised prospective study (NAT2) showed that patients who achieved high red blood cell membrane EPA/DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid) levels were significantly protected against AMD compared with those with permanently low EPA/DHA levels...
2015: Ophthalmic Research
Carly S Molloy, Sacha Stokes, Maria Makrides, Carmel T Collins, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at risk of visual-processing impairments. Several lines of evidence have contributed to the rationale that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of preterm infants may improve outcomes in visual processing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether at 7 y of age children who were born very preterm and who received a high-DHA diet have better visual-processing outcomes than do infants fed a standard-DHA diet. DESIGN: This was a follow-up study in a subgroup of children from a randomized controlled trial...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kayla M Bridges, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Janet C Tou, Jane Ziegler, Luigi Brunetti
Very preterm infants (<32 weeks' gestation) are at high risk for impaired skeletal development because of factors that limit the provision of extrauterine nutrients. Cumulative net deficiencies of calcium, phosphorus, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) are evident in these infants after prolonged administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This is significant because minerals as well as metabolites of DHA and ARA are important modulators of bone cell differentiation, lengthening of bone, and bone matrix deposition...
December 2015: Nutrition Reviews
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