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Event Segmentation

Christopher A Lepczyk, Jean E Fantle-Lepczyk, Kathleen Misajon, Darcy Hu, David C Duffy
Millions of birds in the United States die annually due to vehicle collisions on roads. Collisions may be of particular interest for species of conservation concern, such as the endangered Hawaiian goose (Nēnē), which is endemic to Hawai'i. Using a nearly 40-year dataset of Nēnē road mortality in and around Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, we sought to answer the following research questions: 1) has Nēnē mortality changed over time? 2) are there times of the year in which mortality is greatest and does it relate to specific events in the species' lifecycle? 3) does age at mortality differ over time, space, or sex? 4) given that existing mortalities appear to occur only in certain locations, do the number of mortality events differ across these locations; 5) does mortality rate show any density dependence? and, 6) are mortality rates related to numbers of visitors or vehicles? Between 1977 and 2014, a total of 92 Nēnē died from vehicle collisions; while absolute mortality increased over this time, the mortality rate remained the same...
2019: PloS One
Giuseppe Gargiulo, Greta Carrara, Enrico Frigoli, Sergio Leonardi, Pascal Vranckx, Gianluca Campo, Ferdinando Varbella, Paolo Calabrò, Tiziana Zaro, Davide Bartolini, Carlo Briguori, Giuseppe Andò, Maurizio Ferrario, Ugo Limbruno, Salvatore Colangelo, Paolo Sganzerla, Filippo Russo, Marco Stefano Nazzaro, Giovanni Esposito, Giuseppe Ferrante, Andrea Santarelli, Gennaro Sardella, Stephan Windecker, Marco Valgimigli
BACKGROUND: The value of prolonged bivalirudin infusion after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without ST-segment elevation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of a full or low post-PCI bivalirudin regimen in ACS patients with or without ST-segment elevation. METHODS: The MATRIX program assigned bivalirudin to patients without or with a post-PCI infusion at either a full (1...
February 26, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jingping Yuan, Tongkun Liu, Zhanghong Yu, Yan Li, Haibo Ren, Xilin Hou, Ying Li
Thirty-five IQD genes were identified and analysed in Chinese cabbage and BrIQD5 transgenic plants enhanced the drought resistance of plants. The IQD (IQ67-domain) family plays an important role in various abiotic stress responses in plant species. However, the roles of IQD genes in the Chinese cabbage response to abiotic stress remain unclear. Here, 35 IQD genes, from BrIQD1 to BrIQD35, were identified in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, these genes were clustered into three subfamilies (I-III), and members within the same subfamilies shared conserved exon-intron distribution and motif composition...
February 19, 2019: Plant Molecular Biology
Francesca Chiarini, Camilla Evangelisti, Vittoria Cenni, Antonietta Fazio, Francesca Paganelli, Alberto M Martelli, Giovanna Lattanzi
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that regulates anabolic and catabolic processes, in response to environmental inputs. The existence of mTOR in numerous cell compartments explains its specific ability to sense stress, execute growth signals, and regulate autophagy. mTOR signaling deregulation is closely related to aging and age-related disorders, among which progeroid laminopathies represent genetically characterized clinical entities with well-defined phenotypes...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Siwen Liang, Hongwei Li, Xuhua Shen, Ruifeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that adiponectin (APN) could ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury and endothelial dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, the relationship between serum APN level and coronary flow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. METHODS: A total of 144 patients with STEMI treated by PPCI were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the mean serum APN level on admission...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Martin V Andersen, Cooper Moore, Peter Søgaard, Daniel Friedman, Brett D Atwater, Kristine Arges, Melissa LeFevre, Johannes J Struijk, Joseph Kisslo, Samuel E Schmidt, Olaf T von Ramm
Recently, we developed a high-frame-rate echocardiographic imaging system capable of acquiring images at rates up to 2500 per second. High imaging rates were used to quantify longitudinal strain parameters in patients with echocardiographically normal function. These data can serve as a baseline for comparing strain parameters in disease states. The derived timing data also reveal the propagation of mechanical events in the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle. High-frame-rate echocardiographic images were acquired from 17 patients in the apical four-chamber view using Duke University's phased array ultrasound system, T5...
February 14, 2019: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Sóstenez A Vessaro-Silva, Marcílio Hubner Miranda Neto, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucineia Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Ana Tereza Bittencout Guimarães, Camila Maria Toigo de Oliveira
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Considering the importance of this organ in the feeding of caterpillars and in the production of quality silk threads, and because it is also the first barrier faced by the BmNPV, the study analyzed details of cytopathological events in the intestinal cells as well as evaluated the action of the antioxidant systems as a response to cellular infection...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
M P J Hermans, D C Eindhoven, L A M van Winden, G J de Grooth, G J Blauw, M Muller, M J Schalij
OBJECTIVE: Consistent with the aging population in the Western world, there is a growing number of elderly patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the recommended reperfusion strategy in elderly patients; risk models to determine which of these patients are prone to have poor clinical outcomes are, however, essential. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between frailty and short-term mortality and PCI-related serious adverse events (SAE) in elderly patients...
February 15, 2019: Netherlands Heart Journal
Pierre-Antoine Chuste, Catherine Massonnet, Dominique Gérant, Berndt Zeller, Joseph Levillain, Christian Hossann, Nicolas Angeli, Rémi Wortemann, Nathalie Bréda, Pascale Maillard
The predicted recurrence of adverse climatic events such as droughts, which disrupt nutrient accessibility for trees, could jeopardize the nitrogen (N) metabolism in forest trees. Internal tree N cycling capacities are crucial to ensuring tree survival but how the N metabolism of forest trees responds to intense, repeated environmental stress is not well known. For 2 years, we submitted 9-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to either a moderate or a severe prolonged drought or a yearly removal of 75% of the foliage to induce internal N cycling changes...
February 16, 2019: Tree Physiology
Xiaoying Ji, Yang-Ming Zhu, Bin Zhang, Andriy Andreyev
Background and Objective: Positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition and reconstruction is time consuming. A PET preview image is commonly reconstructed at the end of data acquisition of each bed frame in the step and shoot mode. We propose a scheme to reconstruct, stream, and visualize the PET preview image during acquisition to provide a quasi real-time visual feedback. Methods: As acquisition proceeds, event data is processed continuously by a back-projection method using time-of-flight kernels while only sensitivity, time-span, and decay corrections are applied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Lili Ren, Siyuan Ding, Yanhua Song, Bin Li, Muthukumar Ramanathan, Julia Co, Manuel R Amieva, Paul A Khavari, Harry B Greenberg
Genome replication and virion assembly of segmented RNA viruses are highly coordinated events, tightly regulated by sequence and structural elements in the UTRs of viral RNA. This process is poorly defined and likely requires the participation of host proteins in concert with viral proteins. In this study, we employed a proteomics-based approach, named RNA-protein interaction detection (RaPID), to comprehensively screen for host proteins that bind to a conserved motif within the rotavirus (RV) 3' terminus. Using this assay, we identified ATP5B, a core subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, as having high affinity to the RV 3'UTR consensus sequences...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Minsik Park, Seunghwan Choi, Suji Kim, Joohwan Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Wonjin Park, Taesam Kim, Jiwon Jung, Jong Yun Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Sungwoo Ryoo, Seung Goo Kang, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in maintaining vascular function. Inflammation-mediated VSMC dysfunction leads to atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia and preeclamptic hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed the expression levels of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in cultured VSMCs, mouse vessels, and clinical specimens and then assessed its role in VSMC function. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elevated miR-155 biogenesis in cultured VSMCs and vessel segments, which was prevented by NF-κB inhibition...
February 15, 2019: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Arjun Majithia, Michael E Matheny, Jessica K Paulus, Danica Marinac-Dabic, Susan Robbins, Henry Ssemaganda, Kathleen Hewitt, Angelo Ponirakis, Nilsa Loyo-Berrios, Issam Moussa, Joseph Drozda, Sharon-Lise Normand, Frederic S Resnic
Background Current strategies for ensuring the postmarket safety of medical devices are limited by small sample size and reliance on voluntary reporting of adverse events. Prospective, active surveillance of clinical registries may provide early warnings in the postmarket evaluation of medical device safety but has not been demonstrated in national clinical data registries. Methods and Results The CathPCI DELTA (Data Extraction and Longitudinal Trend Analysis) study was designed to assess the feasibility of prospective, active safety surveillance of medical devices within a national cardiovascular registry...
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Amit Ghosh, Shouvik Das, Tuhin Ghosh, Sugata Hazra
Anthropogenic climate change is considered as one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats to the future world. Low lying deltas all over the world are increasingly subjected to multidimensional risk of sea level rise, cyclone, surges and salinisation. The life and livelihood of the communities of such deltas are endangered due to climate change acting as risk multiplier. The Mahanadi delta in the state of Odisha, India is one of the such populous deltas with estimated 8 million population in 2011 with a density of 613 persons/km2 ...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Maria C White, Hui Tao, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Influenza A virus (IAV) has a segmented genome, which ( i ) allows for exchange of gene segments in coinfected cells, termed reassortment, and ( ii ) necessitates a selective packaging mechanism to ensure incorporation of a complete set of segments into virus particles. Packaging signals serve as segment identifiers and enable segment-specific packaging. We have previously shown that packaging signals limit reassortment between heterologous IAV strains in a segment-dependent manner. Here, we evaluated the extent to which packaging signals prevent reassortment events that would raise concern for pandemic emergence...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Demetris Yannopoulos, Jason A Bartos, Tom P Aufderheide, Clifton W Callaway, Rajat Deo, Santiago Garcia, Henry R Halperin, Karl B Kern, Peter J Kudenchuk, Robert W Neumar, Ganesh Raveendran
Coronary artery disease is prevalent in different causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), especially in individuals presenting with shockable rhythms of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT). The purpose of this report is to review the known prevalence and potential importance of coronary artery disease in patients with OHCA and to describe the emerging paradigm of treatment with advanced perfusion/reperfusion techniques and their potential benefits on the basis of available evidence...
February 14, 2019: Circulation
Mathijs C Bodde, Maaike P J Hermans, Ron Wolterbeek, Christa M Cobbaert, Arnoud van der Laarse, Martin J Schalij, J Wouter Jukema
INTRODUCTION: Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and subsequently for the risk of a myocardial infarction (MI). Moreover, it might also be related to the extent of damaged myocardium in the event of a MI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of baseline low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) level with infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary percutaneously coronary intervention (pPCI)...
February 13, 2019: Cardiology and Therapy
Wataru Shimizu, Hisaki Makimoto, Kenichiro Yamagata, Tsukasa Kamakura, Mitsuru Wada, Koji Miyamoto, Yuko Inoue-Yamada, Hideo Okamura, Kohei Ishibashi, Takashi Noda, Satoshi Nagase, Aya Miyazaki, Heima Sakaguchi, Isao Shiraishi, Takeru Makiyama, Seiko Ohno, Hideki Itoh, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kenshi Hayashi, Masakazu Yamagishi, Hiroshi Morita, Masao Yoshinaga, Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Kengo Kusano, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Shiro Kamakura, Satoshi Yasuda, Hisao Ogawa, Toshihiro Tanaka, Naotaka Sumitomo, Nobuhisa Hagiwara, Keiichi Fukuda, Satoshi Ogawa, Yoshifusa Aizawa, Naomasa Makita, Tohru Ohe, Minoru Horie, Takeshi Aiba
Importance: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by several ion channel genes, yet risk of arrhythmic events is not determined solely by the responsible gene pathogenic variants. Female sex after adolescence is associated with a higher risk of arrhythmic events in individuals with congenital LQTS, but the association between sex and genotype-based risk of LQTS is still unclear. Objective: To examine the association between sex and location of the LQTS-related pathogenic variant as it pertains to the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Cardiology
Iakovos Lazaridis, Ourania Tzortzi, Moritz Weglage, Antje Märtin, Yang Xuan, Marc Parent, Yvonne Johansson, Janos Fuzik, Daniel Fürth, Lief E Fenno, Charu Ramakrishnan, Gilad Silberberg, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Konstantinos Meletis
Encoding and predicting aversive events are critical functions of circuits that support survival and emotional well-being. Maladaptive circuit changes in emotional valence processing can underlie the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to aversion and mood regulation through modulation of the dopamine and serotonin systems. We have defined the identity and function of glutamatergic (Vglut2) control of the LHb, comparing the role of inputs originating in the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Simon Ermakov, Radhika Gulhar, Lisa Lim, Dwight Bibby, Qizhi Fang, Gregory Nah, Theodore P Abraham, Nelson B Schiller, Francesca N Delling
OBJECTIVE: Bileaflet mitral valve prolapse (MVP) with either focal or diffuse myocardial fibrosis has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Left ventricular (LV) mechanical dispersion by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a measure of heterogeneity of ventricular contraction previously associated with myocardial fibrosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether mechanical dispersion can identify MVP at higher arrhythmic risk. METHODS: We identified 32 consecutive arrhythmic MVPs (A-MVP) with a history of complex ventricular ectopy on Holter/event monitor (n=23) or defibrillator placement (n=9) along with 27 MVPs without arrhythmic complications (NA-MVP) and 39 controls...
February 12, 2019: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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