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AI in medicine

Xin Zhao, Juqing Ai, Haoping Mao, Xiumei Gao
PURPOSE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively studied for its preventive and treatment properties toward osteoporosis (OP). Pharmacological studies have shown that TCM Eclipta prostrata induce anti-OP effects. Considering the growing evidence demonstrating that gut microbiota (GM) is related to OP, we aimed to study the GM-dependent function and mechanism of E. prostrata for preventing OP in mice. METHODOLOGY: Bone micro-structure was obtained using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone-relating factors were detected by molecular biological test...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Benoit Gallix, Jaron Chong
This Editorial comment refers to the article "Medical students' attitude towards artificial intelligence: a multicenter survey," Pinto Dos Santos D, et al Eur Radiol 2018. KEY POINTS: • Medical students are not well informed of the potential consequences of AI in radiology. • The fundamental principles of AI-as well as its application in medicine-must be taught in medical schools. • The radiologist specialty must actively reflect on how to validate, approve, and integrate AI algorithms into our clinical practices...
February 8, 2019: European Radiology
Lawrence A Lynn
The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into acute care brings a new source of intellectual thought to the bedside. This offers great potential for synergy between AI systems and the human intellect already delivering care. This much needed help should be embraced, if proven effective. However, there is a risk that the present role of physicians and nurses as the primary arbiters of acute care in hospitals may be overtaken by computers. While many argue that this transition is inevitable, the process of developing a formal plan to prevent the need to pass control of patient care to computers should not be further delayed...
2019: Patient Safety in Surgery
Wenya Linda Bi, Ahmed Hosny, Matthew B Schabath, Maryellen L Giger, Nicolai J Birkbak, Alireza Mehrtash, Tavis Allison, Omar Arnaout, Christopher Abbosh, Ian F Dunn, Raymond H Mak, Rulla M Tamimi, Clare M Tempany, Charles Swanton, Udo Hoffmann, Lawrence H Schwartz, Robert J Gillies, Raymond Y Huang, Hugo J W L Aerts
Judgement, as one of the core tenets of medicine, relies upon the integration of multilayered data with nuanced decision making. Cancer offers a unique context for medical decisions given not only its variegated forms with evolution of disease but also the need to take into account the individual condition of patients, their ability to receive treatment, and their responses to treatment. Challenges remain in the accurate detection, characterization, and monitoring of cancers despite improved technologies. Radiographic assessment of disease most commonly relies upon visual evaluations, the interpretations of which may be augmented by advanced computational analyses...
February 5, 2019: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Andrés M Bur, Matthew Shew, Jacob New
OBJECTIVE: To provide a state of the art review of artificial intelligence (AI), including its subfields of machine learning and natural language processing, as it applies to otolaryngology and to discuss current applications, future impact, and limitations of these technologies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Medline search engines. REVIEW METHODS: A structured search of the current literature was performed (up to and including September 2018)...
February 5, 2019: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Yan Yi, Yong Zhao, Chun-Ying Li, Yu-Shi Zhang, Chen Pan, Su-Yan Liu, Chun-Hong Jiang, Ai-Hua Liang
Animal traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of application in China, and its clinical application is very extensive. Due to the complex chemical composition in animal traditional Chinese medicine, the basis of chemical research is relatively weak, which leads to the unclear composition and toxic components of many animal Chinese medicines. The relationship between the medicinal and toxic components of animal Chinese medicine has not yet been elucidated. The non-clinical safety evaluation of animal traditional Chinese medicine mainly includes acute toxicity, long-term toxicity, safety pharmacology, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity experiments, and experimental studies such as carcinogenicity are needed when necessary...
December 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Oliver von Richter, Lena Lemke, Halimuniyazi Haliduola, Rainard Fuhr, Thomas Koernicke, Ellen Schuck, Maria Velinova, Andrej Skerjanec, Johann Poetzl, Julia Jauch-Lembach
BACKGROUND: To compare the pharmacokinetics of Sandoz biosimilar adalimumab (GP2017) with reference adalimumab (Humira) in healthy volunteers (PK similarity study) and to compare the pharmacokinetics of GP2017 administered by autoinjector (AI) or prefilled syringe (PFS; delivery study). METHODS: Healthy male subjects were randomized to receive a single 40 mg subcutaneous injection of GP2017, US-licensed or EU-authorized reference adalimumab (US/EU-Humira; PK similarity study) or a single 40 mg subcutaneous injection of GP2017 via AI or PFS (delivery study)...
January 30, 2019: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Yueliang Wang, Li Xing, Yinchun Ji, Jiqing Ye, Yang Dai, Wangting Gu, Jing Ai, Zilan Song
Starting from the recently launched FLT3/AXL multi-targeted inhibitor Gilteritinib (5), we conducted a side-chain ring closure medicinal chemistry approach leading to the identification of compound 15c as a highly potent AXL inhibitor in the biochemical and cellular anti-proliferative assays, with IC50 values of 1.2 and 0.3 nM, respectively. Compared with the reference compound 5, our new discovered AXL inhibitor 15c is more potent in both assays.
January 21, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Christopher A Sarkiss, Isabelle M Germano
BACKGROUND: Machine learning (ML) is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) giving computer systems the ability to learn data, without being explicitly programmed. ML is currently successfully used for optical character recognition, spam filtering, and face recognition. The aim of this study is to review its current application in the field of neuro-oncology. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on PubMed and Cochrane Database using a keyword search for the period January 30, 2000-March 31, 2018...
January 23, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Jia Xu, Pengwei Yang, Shang Xue, Bhuvan Sharma, Marta Sanchez-Martin, Fang Wang, Kirk A Beaty, Elinor Dehan, Baiju Parikh
In the field of cancer genomics, the broad availability of genetic information offered by next-generation sequencing technologies and rapid growth in biomedical publication has led to the advent of the big-data era. Integration of artificial intelligence (AI) approaches such as machine learning, deep learning, and natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the challenges of scalability and high dimensionality of data and to transform big data into clinically actionable knowledge is expanding and becoming the foundation of precision medicine...
January 22, 2019: Human Genetics
Ai-Ling Li, Guo-Hui Li, Yan-Ru Li, Xue-Yi Wu, Dong-Mei Ren, Hong-Xiang Lou, Xiao-Ning Wang, Tao Shen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Cinnamon is a worldwide used spice, dietary supplement and traditional medicine, and is used for the therapy of oxidative stress related diseases. A well-established concept is that the functions of cinnamon preventing oxidative stress-induced diseases are attributed to the occurrence of cinnamaldehyde and its analogues. HYPOTHESIS: In our continuous searching of natural molecules with antioxidant capacity, we have found that cinnamaldehyde and its analogues in cinnamon are weak inhibitors of oxidative stress, and thus we speculate that there are novel and/or potent molecules inhibiting oxidative stress in cinnamon...
September 5, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jeffrey D Rudie, Andreas M Rauschecker, R Nick Bryan, Christos Davatzikos, Suyash Mohan
Due to the exponential growth of computational algorithms, artificial intelligence (AI) methods are poised to improve the precision of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in medicine. The field of radiomics in neuro-oncology has been and will likely continue to be at the forefront of this revolution. A variety of AI methods applied to conventional and advanced neuro-oncology MRI data can already delineate infiltrating margins of diffuse gliomas, differentiate pseudoprogression from true progression, and predict recurrence and survival better than methods used in daily clinical practice...
January 22, 2019: Radiology
Quin Xie, Kevin Faust, Randy Van Ommeren, Adeel Sheikh, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
The precision-based revolution in medicine continues to demand stratification of patients into smaller and more personalized subgroups. While genomic technologies have largely led this movement, diagnostic results can take days to weeks to generate. Management at, or closer to, the point of care still heavily relies on the subjective qualitative interpretation of clinical and diagnostic imaging findings. New and emerging technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) now appear poised to help bring objectivity and precision to these traditionally qualitative analytic tools...
January 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Jianxing He, Sally L Baxter, Jie Xu, Jiming Xu, Xingtao Zhou, Kang Zhang
The development of artificial intelligence (AI)-based technologies in medicine is advancing rapidly, but real-world clinical implementation has not yet become a reality. Here we review some of the key practical issues surrounding the implementation of AI into existing clinical workflows, including data sharing and privacy, transparency of algorithms, data standardization, and interoperability across multiple platforms, and concern for patient safety. We summarize the current regulatory environment in the United States and highlight comparisons with other regions in the world, notably Europe and China...
January 2019: Nature Medicine
Allan M Jordan
Artificial intelligence in drug design in experiencing a wave of excitement not seen since the emergence of computational chemistry in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Apparently failing to learn the lessons of recent history, we are promised imminent and pervasive solutions to the ills of drug design and significant increases in productivity as we seek to deliver innovative new therapeutics. However, do significant issues remain to be answered before AI enters the day-to-day toolbox of the practicing medicinal chemist?...
December 13, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Rong-Rong Fan, Ze-Huai Wen, Da-Wei Wang, Rong-Yuan Yang, Ai-Hua Ou, Lian-Shun Jin, Zhong-de Zhang, Yun-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is one of the leading causes of chronic coughing. The main treatment is currently anti-inflammatory medication. However, the coughing may return or be aggravated and lung function may deteriorate once the anti-inflammatory treatment is stopped. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on chronic coughing is remarkable, but high-quality evidence supporting its effectiveness is still lacking. This trial aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy, especially the long-term efficacy, of CHM plus anti-inflammatory medications for the treatment of CVA...
January 3, 2019: Trials
Igor Rudan, Dhiraj Agrawal, Norita Hussein, Ai Theng Cheong, Steve Cunningham, David Dockerell, Sazlina Shariff Ghazali, Deesha Ghorpade, Monsur Habib, Tabish Hazir, Sanjay Juvekar, Anand Kawade, Ping Yein Lee, Su May Liew, Saturnino Luz, Ee Ming Khoo, Harish Nair, John Norrie, Rutuja Patil, Hilary Pinnock, Siti Nurkamilla Ramdzan, Sudipto Roy, Hani Salim, Pam Smith, Hana Mahmood Yahya, Siân Williams, Harry Campbell, Aziz Sheikh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Xin-Yu Liu, Xia Lv, Ping Wang, Chun-Zhi Ai, Qi-Hang Zhou, Moshe Finel, Bin Fan, Yun-Feng Cao, Hui Tang, Guang-Bo Ge
Flavonoids are widely distributed phytochemicals in vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. Recent studies demonstrate that some natural flavonoids are potent inhibitors of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), a key enzyme in detoxification of endogenous harmful compounds such as bilirubin. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 56 natural and synthetic flavonoids on UGT1A1 were assayed, while the structure-inhibition relationships of flavonoids as UGT1A1 inhibitors were investigated. The results demonstrated that the C-3 and C-7 hydroxyl groups on the flavone skeleton would enhance UGT1A1 inhibition, while flavonoid glycosides displayed weaker inhibitory effects than their corresponding aglycones...
December 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yan Yi, Chun-Ying Li, Yong Zhao, Yu-Shi Zhang, Jia-Yin Han, Lian-Mei Wang, Chun-Hong Jiang, Ai-Hua Liang
Animal medicine injection is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections. All or part of animals with a significant curative effect and little side reactions as raw materials as well as modern technology are used to produce traditional Chinese medicine injections with a reliable and rapid drug efficacy and high bioavailability. Due to the complex composition of traditional Chinese medicine injections, imperfect quality standards, and unreasonable clinical use, the incidence of adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been significantly higher than that of traditional Chinese medicine for oral use...
November 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Benjamin J Shore, Polina Martinkevich, Mahdis Riazi, Emily Baird, Clarissa Encisa, Kate Willoughby, Unni G Narayanan
INTRODUCTION: Children with cerebral palsy are at risk for progressive hip displacement. Since surveillance for hip displacement uses specific radiographic measurements to guide decision making, it is important to establish the reliability of these measurements, which include Reimer's migration percentage (MP), acetabular index or acetabular angle (AI or AA), and pelvic obliquity (PO). The purpose of this study was to determine the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of these radiographic measures among an international group of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons participating in the prospective international multicenter Cerebral Palsy Hip Outcomes Project (CHOP) currently underway to evaluate the outcomes of hip interventions in cerebral palsy...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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