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Chemical Abnormalities

Robert M Lester, Sabina Paglialunga, Ian A Johnson
The QT interval occupies a pivotal role in drug development as a surface biomarker of ventricular repolarization. The electrophysiologic substrate for QT prolongation coupled with reports of non-cardiac drugs producing lethal arrhythmias captured worldwide attention from government regulators eventuating in a series of guidance documents that require virtually all new chemical compounds to undergo rigorous preclinical and clinical testing to profile their QT liability. While prolongation or shortening of the QT interval may herald the appearance of serious cardiac arrhythmias, the positive predictive value of an abnormal QT measurement for these arrhythmias is modest, especially in the absence of confounding clinical features or a congenital predisposition that increases the risk of syncope and sudden death...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Divya Vimal, Sanjay Saini, Ravi Ram Kristipati, Debapratim Kar Chowdhuri
The study reports the effects of an herbicide (atrazine) and a plasticizer (Bisphenol A, BPA) on the transcriptional modulation of a mismatch repair gene (mlh1) and its adverse consequences on female fertility using Drosophila as a model. Through a chemical screen, we show that exposure to atrazine or BPA significantly downregulates mlh1 and the exposed flies had reduced fertility with smaller ovaries having reduced number of mature oocytes and abnormal distribution of ovarian follicles with increased apoptosis in them...
March 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Takeshi Fuchigami, Masao Kawasaki, Ryusuke Koyama, Mari Nakaie, Takehiro Nakagaki, Kazunori Sano, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sakura Yoshida, Mamoru Haratake, Masahiro Ono, Noriyuki Nishida, Morio Nakayama
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the deposition of abnormal prion protein aggregates (PrPSc ) in the brain tissue. Here, we report the development of 125 I-labeled iodobenzofuran (IBF) derivatives as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probes to detect cerebral PrPSc deposits. We synthesized and radioiodinated several 5-IBF and 6-IBF derivatives. The IBF derivatives were evaluated as prion imaging probes using recombinant mouse prion protein (rMoPrP) aggregates and brain sections of mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mBSE)-infected mice...
March 15, 2019: ACS Infectious Diseases
Alexandra N Barone, Caitlyn E Hayes, James J Kerr, Ryan C Lee, Denise B Flaherty
Given the prevalence of skin cancer, sunscreens are recommended by dermatologists including the American Academy of Dermatology to protect skin from harmful ultraviolet rays. Unfortunately, this leads to an estimated 14,000 tons of sunscreen entering waterways each year. Many of the chemicals in sunscreens, such as oxybenzone and benzophenone-2, are indicated to have adverse effects on corals and other aquatic life. As an eco-conscious alternative, physical barrier sunscreens, such as non-nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), have been suggested as a replacement...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dong Uk Kim, Jehyun Nam, Matthew D Cha, Sang-Woo Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease involving numerous genetic abnormalities. One of the major characteristics of CRC is enhanced Wnt signaling caused by loss-of-function mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the majority of malignant phenotypes following APC deletion in adult murine small intestines could be rescued when Myc, a downstream target of the Wnt pathway, was deleted. This indicated that Myc is a critical regulator of CRC development following APC loss...
March 2019: Oncology Letters
M A Frigerio, D Gómez Cisneros, I Santiago Llorente, G Manso-Díaz, J López-Sanromán
BACKGROUND: Chemical restraint is often used to perform diagnostic and minor surgical procedures; α2 -adrenoceptor agonists are the most commonly used drugs, however, the combination with an opiate can induce a profound sedation. There is a lack of kinematic studies examining the effects of the combination of these drugs on locomotor patterns. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the duration of the effects of sedation with detomidine and detomidine combined with a low dose of butorphanol on the movement patterns of horses...
March 13, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Sultan Ullah, Chaeun Park, Muhammad Ikram, Dongwan Kang, Sanggwon Lee, Jungho Yang, Yujin Park, Sik Yoon, Pusoon Chun, Hyung Ryong Moon
Abnormal melanogenesis results in excessive production of melanin, leading to pigmentation disorders. As a key and rate-limiting enzyme for melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been considered an important target for developing therapeutic agents of pigment disorders. Despite having an (E)-β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, which plays an important role in the potent inhibition of tyrosinase activity, cinnamic acids have not attracted attention as potential tyrosinase inhibitors, due to their low tyrosinase inhibitory activity and relatively high hydrophilicity...
March 4, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Lingyuan Xu, Guikun Huang, Xiaobao Guo, Qiji Zhou, Silu He
Hepatic function is of great concern in metabolic and immunological homeostasis. Traditionally, medical management to liver damage may benefit from phytomedicine, such as Chinese herbs. In southern China, Polygonum perfoliatum L can contribute to alleviating pathological symptoms of liver disease, such as hepatitis. However, bioactive compounds of hepatoprotection in this herb are still less to be investigated. In this study, clinical data of patients with drug-induced liver injury were collected on the basis of serological analyses...
March 10, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiyan Xu, Ying Liu, Shuming Liu, Junyu Li, Guancheng Guo, Kate Smith
Risk of cross-connection is becoming higher due to greater construction of potable-reclaimed water dual distribution systems. Cross-connection events can result in serious health concerns and reduce public confidence in reclaimed water. Thus, reliable, cost-effective and real-time online detection methods for early warning are required. The current study carried out pilot-scale experiments to simulate potable-reclaimed water pipe cross-connection events for different mixing ratios (from 30% to 1%) using machine learning methods based on multiple conventional water quality parameters...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
P Martín Serrano, J G Martín Hernández, R Martín Celemín, N de Antonio Antón, R Orús García, A Planas Roca
Mastocytosis is a disease characterised by an abnormal proliferation of mast cells. The degranulation of mast cells can be triggered by chemical, physical, and psychological factors, and in severe cases may be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations and shock. Tryptase concentrations greater than 20ug/L may be associated with an increased risk of mastocyte degranulation. The case is presented on a 71 year-old man that underwent an aortic valve replacement and aortic-coronary bypass surgery. He had an indolent systemic mastocytosis and a history of histaminergic crises, with a baseline value of tryptase prior to surgery of 58...
March 5, 2019: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Shengxian Liang, Shaojun Liang, Nuoya Yin, Francesco Faiola
The liver is one of the major targets of hormones, including thyroid hormones (THs), and many industrial chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Those compounds may permeate the placenta barrier and pose a risk for embryonic development. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the toxic effects of those kind of industrial chemicals during liver development. In this study, to mimic liver specification in vitro, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into functional hepatocyte-like cells...
March 5, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qian Guo, Tianhong Pan, Shan Chen, Xiaobo Zou, Dorothy Yu Huang
Real-time cellular analyzer (RTCA) has been generally applied to test the cytotoxicity of chemicals. However, several factors impact the experimental quality. A non-negligible factor is the abnormal time-dependent cellular response curves (TCRCs) of the wells located at the edge of the E-plate which is defined as edge effect. In this paper, a novel statistical analysis is proposed to detect the edge effect. First, TCRCs are considered as observations of a random variable in a functional space. Then, functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is adopted to extract the principal component (PC) functions of the TCRCs, and the first and second PCs of these curves are selected to distinguish abnormal TCRCs...
March 5, 2019: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
K Kaouri, P K Maini, P A Skourides, N Christodoulou, S J Chapman
Calcium signalling is one of the most important mechanisms of information propagation in the body. In embryogenesis the interplay between calcium signalling and mechanical forces is critical to the healthy development of an embryo but poorly understood. Several types of embryonic cells exhibit calcium-induced contractions and many experiments indicate that calcium signals and contractions are coupled via a two-way mechanochemical feedback mechanism. We present a new analysis of experimental data that supports the existence of this coupling during apical constriction...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ashutosh Yadav, Abhay Raj, Diane Purchase, Luiz Fernando R Ferreira, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Ram Naresh Bharagava
The leather industry is a major source of environmental pollution in India. The wastewater generated by leather industries contains very high pollution parameters due to the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants even after the treatment at a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) and disturbs the ecological flora and fauna. The nature, characteristics and toxicity of CETP treated wastewater is yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study aims to characterize and evaluate the toxicity of CETP treated tannery wastewater collected from the Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh, India...
February 20, 2019: Chemosphere
Shokichi Teramoto, Hisao Osada, Yasunori Sato, Makio Shozu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of blastocyst transfer derived from small follicles (SF; ≤10 mm) and large follicles (LF; ≥11 mm). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Private clinic. PATIENT(S): Patients (n = 1,072) 30-40 years old who underwent blastocyst transfer (BT; n = 1,247) between January 2012 and December 2014. INTERVENTION(S): Oocytes retrieved during a modified natural cycle from both LF and SF were fertilized by a conventional method or intracytoplasmic sperm injection...
February 27, 2019: Fertility and Sterility
Guoxin Chen, Changjin Guo, Yao Cheng, Huanming Lu, Junfeng Cui, Wanbiao Hu, Rongrong Jiang, Nan Jiang
How a heavily charged metal nanocrystal, and further a dual-nanocrystals system behavior with continuous electron charging? This refers to the electric dynamics in charged particles as well as the crystal growth for real metal particles, but it is still opening in experimental observations and interpretations. To this end, we performed an in-situ electron-beam irradiation study using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the Au nanocrystals that freely stand on the nitride boron nanotube (BNNT). Au nanocrystalline particles with sizes of 2⁻4 nm were prepared by a well-controlled sputtering method to stand on the BNNT surface without chemical bonding interactions...
March 1, 2019: Nanomaterials
Joan Torrent, Davy Martin, Angélique Igel-Egalon, Vincent Béringue, Human Rezaei
The abnormal protein aggregates in progressive neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases, adopt a generic structural form called amyloid fibrils. The precise amyloid fold can differ between patients and these differences are related to distinct neuropathological phenotypes of the diseases. A key focus in current research is the molecular mechanism governing such structural diversity, known as amyloid polymorphism. In this review, we focus on our recent work on recombinant prion protein (recPrP) and the use of pressure as a variable for perturbing protein structure...
February 28, 2019: Viruses
M M Sperry, S Kartha, B A Winkelstein, E J Granquist
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the joint that can produce persistent orofacial pain as well as functional and structural changes to its bone, cartilage, and ligaments. Despite advances in the clinical utility and reliability of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, clinical tools inadequately predict which patients will develop chronic TMJ pain and degeneration, limiting clinical management. The challenges of managing and treating TMJ OA are due, in part, to a limited understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of TMJ pain...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
Giuseppe Carotenuto, Christopher W Schmidt, Joan Viciano, Ruggero D'Anastasio
Post mortem abnormal modification of bone are known as pseudopathologies. The geochemical characteristic of the burial soil and/or the presence of biological agents may produce marked changes in bone preservation. This could be the case for a young individual, E74, from Herculaneum, which was a Roman town near Naples completely destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE. E74 is an incomplete skeleton of a male individual of 7-8 years of age. Its second and third cervical vertebrae, the eighth thoracic vertebra and the first lumbar vertebra show a septum dividing the vertebral foramen...
February 28, 2019: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Guo-Zhu Wang, Jing Li, Yong-Tao Hu, Yuan Li, Zhi-Yong Du
Data-driven fault detection and identification methods are important in large-scale chemical processes. However, some traditional methods often fail to show superior performance owing to the self-limitations and the characteristics of process data, such as nonlinearity, non-Gaussian distribution, and multi-operating mode. To cope with these issues, the k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor) fault detection method and extensions have been developed in recent years. Nevertheless, these methods are primarily used for fault detection, and few papers can be found that examine fault identification...
February 22, 2019: Sensors
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