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Soil-transmitted parasites

María A Duque-Correa, Natasha A Karp, Catherine McCarthy, Simon Forman, David Goulding, Geetha Sankaranarayanan, Timothy P Jenkins, Adam J Reid, Emma L Cambridge, Carmen Ballesteros Reviriego, Werner Müller, Cinzia Cantacessi, Gordon Dougan, Richard K Grencis, Matthew Berriman
The whipworm Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth that dwells in the epithelium of the caecum and proximal colon of their hosts causing the human disease, trichuriasis. Trichuriasis is characterized by colitis attributed to the inflammatory response elicited by the parasite while tunnelling through intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The IL-10 family of receptors, comprising combinations of subunits IL-10Rα, IL-10Rβ, IL-22Rα and IL-28Rα, modulates intestinal inflammatory responses. Here we carefully dissected the role of these subunits in the resistance of mice to infection with T...
January 14, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Chuchard Punsawad, Nonthapan Phasuk, Kanjana Thongtup, Surasak Nagavirochana, Parnpen Viriyavejakul
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are major public health problems in poor and developing countries that require fecal contamination of the environment for transmission. The consumption of raw vegetables without proper washing is one of the main routes of intestinal parasite acquisition. Therefore, this study was designed to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic contamination in commonly consumed raw vegetables sold in three central open-air markets in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand...
January 8, 2019: BMC Public Health
Anthony A Adegoke, Isaac D Amoah, Thor A Stenström, Matthew E Verbyla, James R Mihelcic
The use of partially treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation is beneficial in agriculture but may be associated with human health risks. Reports from different locations globally have linked microbial outbreaks with agricultural reuse of wastewater. This article reviews the epidemiological evidence and health risks associated with this practice, aiming toward evidence-based conclusions. Exposure pathways that were addressed in this review included those relevant to agricultural workers and their families, consumers of crops, and residents close to areas irrigated with wastewater (partially treated or untreated)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Elizabeth Tanjong Ghogomu, Shalini Suresh, Pura Rayco-Solon, Alomgir Hossain, Jessie McGowan, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Vivian Welch
BACKGROUND: The impact of deworming on parasite load, nutritional status and other health outcomes of non-pregnant adolescent girls and adult women is uncertain. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Food and Technology Abstracts databases were searched until 24 September 2018. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after studies or interrupted time studies comparing deworming with no intervention or placebo in non-pregnant adolescent girls and women 10 to 49 years old...
December 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Maria Victoria Periago, Rocío García, Osvaldo Germán Astudillo, Marta Cabrera, Marcelo Claudio Abril
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites (IP) have been reported in point studies from different provinces of Argentina. The presence of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) was detected in many of these studies, including varied prevalences of all five species of STH in the north were the climate is more appropriate for transmission. Nonetheless, Argentina lacks a comprehensive prevalence map of STH. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, focusing on STH, in rural and peri-urban areas of Añatuya, Santiago del Estero Province and identifying risk factors for their transmission...
December 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Perrine Decaudin, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Isabelle Kmiec, Yohan Nguyen, Caroline Migault, Delphine Lebrun, Maxime Hentzien, Eric Bertin, Moustapha Drame, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
Geophagy is widespread among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and the Caribbean and may persist in western countries. This practice may be associated with adverse effects such as anaemia, constipation or intestinal occlusion. We aimed to determine the prevalence of geophagy and the level of knowledge about its health effects among healthy adults originating from these countries and attending a travel medicine and international vaccination consultation in France. Among 101 travellers enrolled in the study, 83 (82...
December 13, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Niaré Doumbo Safiatou, Aissata Ongoïba, Didier Doumtabe, M Tran Tuan, Abdrahamane Traoré, Jules Sangala, Kassoum Kayentao, D Compton Peter, Boubacar Traoré, K Doumbo Ogobara
Soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are neglected tropical diseases (NTD), affecting the health status of endemic Malian populations. Mali has a national NTD elimination program using the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy combining Albendazole, Ivermectinand Praziquantel. Malaria still remains a public health problem in Mali. The Community health Center (CSCOM) in Kalifabougouvillage in the Kati health district has benefited from such MDA program since 2010. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence rate of malaria, intestinal and urinary parasite infections in the local population...
2018: Le Mali Médical
Neil A Mabbott
Parasites have evolved a wide range of mechanisms that they use to evade or manipulate the host's immune response and establish infection. The majority of the in vivo studies that have investigated these host-parasite interactions have been undertaken in experimental animals, especially rodents, which were housed and maintained to a high microbiological status. However, in the field situation it is increasingly apparent that pathogen co-infections within the same host are a common occurrence. For example, chronic infection with pathogens including malarial parasites, soil-transmitted helminths, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and viruses such as HIV may affect a third of the human population of some developing countries...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
K J L Monteiro, D A Calegar, F A Carvalho-Costa, L H Jaeger
Despite the reduction in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiases in many regions of the world, morbidity rates remain high in some rural regions. The Kato-Katz technique is a simple, inexpensive and field-applicable tool commonly used for the diagnosis and worm-burden characterization of these infections. Molecular studies have revolutionized our understanding of the epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of parasites. In this study we recovered helminthic DNA from Kato-Katz slides (n = 93) prepared in 2011 in the Brazilian Amazon...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Astra S Bryant, Elissa A Hallem
Infection with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a major cause of chronic morbidity and economic burden around the world, particularly in low-resource settings. Some parasitic nematode species, including the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis and human-parasitic hookworms in the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, feature a soil-dwelling infective larval stage that seeks out hosts for infection using a variety of host-emitted sensory cues. Here, we review our current understanding of the behavioral responses of soil-dwelling infective larvae to host-emitted sensory cues, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate these responses...
October 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Yasmin Sultana, Sabina Karim, Gouri Rani Banik, Harunor Rashid, Rogan Lee
The burden of parasitic infections among children with disability in resource poor settings has not been summarised through a focused review. Here, we have summarised the key studies reporting the burden of parasitic infections among children without and with disability. In most instances, among children without disability giardia or soil-transmitted helminths dominate the epidemiology, while among disabled individuals enteric protozoa are the predominant parasites to be reported in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries...
October 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
D A Oyebamiji, A N Ebisike, J O Egede, A A Hassan
Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura , the four major Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and also Strongyloides stercoralis infect humans worldwide. Most studies on Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) carried out in Ibadan were faecal examination based while relatively few soil examination based studies were carried out mostly around school premises using limited number of sampling locations. This study was therefore designed to assess the level of soil contamination with STH and associated risk factors in the eleven local government areas of Ibadan...
November 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, Simona Gabrielli, David Rojo, Herlan Gamboa, Ana Liz Villagrán, Yolanda Vallejos, Marianne Strohmeyer, Mimmo Roselli, Gabriella Cancrini, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
Tropical anemia can have multiple causes, whether socioeconomic, dietary, or infectious. In the Bolivian Chaco, soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), malaria, and Chagas disease are potential infectious causes of anemia among school-aged children (SAC). Following years of preventive chemotherapy with mebendazole, the prevalence of STH among SAC living in that area is now negligible, whereas protozoan infections are still highly prevalent (81%); Hymenolepis nana is the most frequent intestinal helminth (∼13%)...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Paloma Pérez, Aleyda Pavón, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luis Caraballo, Nathalie Acevedo, Josefina Zakzuk
Ascariasis is the most frequent soil transmitted helminthiasis and, as well as other helminth infections, is expected to influence the clinical presentation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Indeed, several clinical and experimental works have shown an important impact either increasing or suppressing symptoms, and the same effects have been detected on the underlying immune responses. In this review we analyze the work on this field performed in Colombia, a Latin American tropical country, including aspects such as the molecular genetics of the IgE response to Ascaris; the allergenic activity of Ascaris IgE-binding molecular components and the immunological and clinical influences of ascariasis on asthma...
October 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Almea Matanock, Xin Lu, Gordana Derado, Victoria M Cuéllar, Patricia Juliao, Maricruz Alvarez, Beatriz López, Fredy Muñoz, Andrew Thornton, Jaymin C Patel, Gerard Lopez, Lissette Reyes, Wences Arvelo, Anna J Blackstock, Kim A Lindblade, Sharon L Roy
Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. To assess water quality associations with diarrhea and STH, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in households of south-eastern Guatemala. Diarrhea was self-reported in the past week and month. STH was diagnosed by stool testing using a fecal parasite concentrator method. We explored associations between Escherichia coli-positive source water (water quality) and disease outcomes using survey logistic regression models...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Tadesse Kebede, Yohanis Negash, Berhanu Erko
Background & objectives: The transmission of schistosomiasis, caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, relies on freshwater snails that act as an intermediate host while human and other mammalian act as the definitive hosts. Many non-human primates (NHPs) such as Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet) and Papio anubis (baboon) are reported to be infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia, but the role they play in parasite maintenance and transmission is still not clear. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of S...
April 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Tian Luo, Shanshan Hou, Li Yang, Gaofu Qi, Xiuyun Zhao
Root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites that feed on plant roots and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Bacillus species (Bacilliaceae) can produce nematicidal metabolites and have shown good potential for biological control of nematodes. In this study, Bacillus mycoides strain R2 isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato plants exhibited high nematicidal activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In a pot experiment, control efficiency of B...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Akina Shrestha, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Séverine Erismann, Subodh Sharma, Rajendra Koju, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa pose a considerable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. We assessed the extent of intestinal parasite infections among schoolchildren in two districts of Nepal and determined underlying risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and May 2015 in the districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal...
September 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Antony P Page
Parasitic nematodes represent formidable pathogens of humans, livestock and crop plants. Control of these parasites is almost exclusively dependent on a small group of anthelmintic drugs, the most important of which belong to the macrocyclic lactone class. The extensive use of these drugs to control the ubiquitous trichostrongylid parasites of grazing livestock has resulted in the emergence of both single and multi-drug resistance. The expectation is that this resistance will eventually occur in the human parasites such as the common and debilitating soil transmitted nematodes and vector-borne filarial nematodes...
November 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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