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D Bellavia, A De Luca, V Carina, V Costa, L Raimondi, F Salamanna, R Alessandro, M Fini, G Giavaresi
MicroRNA (miRNA) has shown to enhance or inhibit cell proliferation, differentiation and activity of different cell types in bone tissue. The discovery of miRNA actions and their targets has helped to identify them as novel regulations actors in bone. Various studies have shown that miRNA deregulation mediates the progression of bone-related pathologies, such as osteoporosis. The present review intends to give an exhaustive overview of miRNAs with experimentally validated targets involved in bone homeostasis and highlight their possible role in osteoporosis development...
February 14, 2019: Bone
Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kushwaha, Anirudha Karvande, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Priyanka Kothari, Sulekha Adhikary, Vikram Khedgikar, Vijay Kumar Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
Post-menopausal condition augments the biological aging process, characterized by multiple metabolic disorders in which bone loss is the most prevalent outcome and usually coupled with sarcopenia. Coexistence of such associated pathogenesis have much worse health outcomes, compared to individuals with osteoporosis only. Pre- and post-natal bone development demands calcium from mother to fetus during pregnancy and lactation leading to a significant maternal skeletal loss. It follows an anabolic phase around weaning during which there is a notable recovery of the maternal skeleton...
January 10, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Olivier Fogel, Andreas Bugge Tinggaard, Maud Fagny, Nelly Sigrist, Elodie Roche, Laurence Leclere, Jean-François Deleuze, Frederic Batteux, Maxime Dougados, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Jörg Tost
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (MiRs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. This study is the first to investigate miR expression profiles in purified CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes from patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) using a high-throughput qPCR approach. METHODS: A total of 81 axSpA patients fulfilling the 2009 ASAS classification criteria, and 55 controls were recruited from October 2014 to July 2017. CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 12, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Xiangdong Liu, Wenzhong Zhu, Lei Wang, Jin Wu, Feng Ding, Yingliang Song
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) provide a novel method for bone tissue regeneration, but their adipogenic tendency limits their therapeutic efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate stem cell differentiation and bone tissue regeneration, but the detailed mechanism is poorly investigated. Our study indicated that inhibition of miR-145-5p enhanced the osteogenic potential of ADSCs and reduced the adipogenic differentiation. Osteogenesis- and adipogenesis-associated genes were detected by qRT-PCR indicating a corresponding result...
February 11, 2019: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Amjd Ibraheem, Oshrat Attar-Schneider, Mahmoud Dabbah, Osnat Dolberg Jarchowsky, Shelly Tartakover Matalon, Michael Lishner, Liat Drucker
Multiple myeloma (MM) malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow (BM) where their interaction with the microenvironment promotes disease progression and drug resistance. Previously, we have shown that MM cells cocultured with BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) comodulated cells' phenotype in a MAPKs/translation initiation (TI)-dependent manner. Dissection of the coculture model showed that BM-MSCs secretomes and microvesicles (MVs) participate in this crosstalk. Here, we addressed the role of the BM-MSCs extracellular matrix (ECM)...
January 23, 2019: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Martina Faraldi, Marta Gomarasca, Veronica Sansoni, Silvia Perego, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi
MicroRNAs are fine regulators of the whole-body adaptive response but their use as biomarkers is limited by the lack of standardized pre- and post-analytical procedures. This work aimed to compare different normalization approaches for RT-qPCR data analyses, in order to identify the most reliable and reproducible method to analyze circulating miRNA expression profiles in sedentary and highly-trained subjects. As the physically active status is known to affect miRNA expression, they could be effective biomarkers of the homeostatic response...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Juan Hu, Cong-Xin Huang, Pan-Pan Rao, Ji-Peng Zhou, Xi Wang, Lu Tang, Ming-Xin Liu, Guo-Gang Zhang
Inflammation plays an important role in sympathetic neural remodeling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). MiR-155 is a vital regulator of inflammatory responses, and macrophage-secreted miR-155 promotes cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. However, whether miR-155 influences MI-induced sympathetic neural remodeling is not clear. Therefore, we examined the role of miR-155 in MI-induced sympathetic neural remodeling and the related mechanisms in both an mouse model and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)...
February 2, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
M Li, Y-L Zhang, H Huang, Y Xiong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the regulatory effect of microRNA-10-5p on TBX5 during myocardial differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat BMSCs were first isolated, cultured and identified by flow cytometry. Expression levels of BNP (Brain Natriuretic Peptide), α-actinin, and Islet-1 in BMSCs co-cultured with rat cardiomyocytes were detected by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR)...
January 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jian-Sheng Wang, Ming-Yue Duan, Yong-Sheng Zhong, Xue-Dong Li, Shi-Xin Du, Peng Xie, Gui-Zhou Zheng, Jing-Ming Han
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy. It predominantly occurs in adolescents, but can develop at any age. The age at diagnosis is a prognostic factor of OS, but the molecular basis of this remains unknown. The current study aimed to identify age‑induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and potential molecular mechanisms that contribute to the different outcomes of patients with OS. Microarray data (GSE39058 and GSE39040) obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and used to analyze age‑induced DEGs to reveal molecular mechanism of OS among different age groups (<20 and >20 years old)...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Leopold F Fröhlich
Bone formation and regeneration is a multistep complex process crucially determined by the formation of blood vessels in the growth plate region. This is preceded by the expression of growth factors, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), secreted by osteogenic cells, as well as the corresponding response of endothelial cells, although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified. Thereby, coordinated coupling between osteogenesis and angiogenesis is initiated and sustained. The precise interplay of these two fundamental processes is crucial during times of rapid bone growth or fracture repair in adults...
February 3, 2019: Cells
Tian Su, Yuzhong Xiao, Ye Xiao, Qi Guo, Changjun Li, Yan Huang, Qiufang Deng, Jingxiang Wen, Fangliang Zhou, Xiang-Hang Luo
Insulin resistance is the major pathological characteristic of type 2 diabetes and the elderly often develop insulin resistance. However, the deep-seated mechanisms for aging-related insulin resistance remain unclear. Here, we showed that nano-sized exosomes released by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of aged mice could be taken up by adipocytes, myocytes, and hepatocytes, resulting in insulin resistance both in vivo and in vitro. Using microRNA (miRNA) array assays, we found that the amount of miR-29b-3p was dramatically increased in exosomes released by BM-MSCs of aged mice...
February 4, 2019: ACS Nano
Joyce Bj van Meurs, Cindy G Boer, Laura Lopez-Delgado, Jose A Riancho
Phenotypic variation in skeletal traits and diseases is the product of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms include information-containing factors, other than DNA sequence, that cause stable changes in gene expression and are maintained during cell divisions. They represent a link between environmental influences, genome features, and the resulting phenotype. The main epigenetic factors are DNA methylation, posttranslational changes of histones, and higher-order chromatin structure. Sometimes non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are also included in the broad term of epigenetic factors...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Ehsan Valiollahi, Josep Maria Ribera, Eulàlia Genescà, Javad Behravan
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant transformation with uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells within bone marrow including a dismal prognosis after relapse. Survival of a population of quiescent leukemia stem cells (LSCs, also termed leukemia-initiating cells (LICs)) after treatment is one of the relapse reasons in Ph+ ALL patient. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known as highly conserved 19-24 nucleotides non-protein-coding small RNAs that regulate the expression of human genes. miRNAs are often involved in the tuning of hematopoiesis...
February 2, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Yi Shuai, Rui Yang, Rui Mu, Yang Yu, Liang Rong, Lei Jin
A number of evidences suggest that microRNAs are involved in the adipogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent studies have investigated that miR-199a-3p played a pivotal role in adipocyte differentiation. However, the detailed mechanism in this complex biological process remains largely unknown. In current study, we found that the expression of miR-199a-3p was gradually increased during adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Enhanced expression of miR-199a-3p promoted adipogenesis, whereas silence of miR-199a-3p rescued BMMSCs from adipogenic commitment...
January 30, 2019: Life Sciences
YunJeong Choi, Ji Hyun Yoo, Youngkyun Lee, Moon Kyoung Bae, Hyung Joon Kim
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a naturally occurring, irreversible disorder and a major health burden. The disease is multifactorial, involving both physiological and mechanical processes, but calcium crystals have been associated intimately with its pathogenesis. This study tested the hypothesis that these crystals have a detrimental effect on the differentiation of osteoclasts and bone homeostasis. This study employed an osteoblastosteoclast coculture system that resembles in vivo osteoblastdependent osteoclast differentiation along with Ca2+-phosphate-coated culture dishes...
January 24, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Vincent Ka-Fai Cheng, Philip Chun-Ming Au, Kathryn Cb Tan, Ching-Lung Cheung
The small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcription regulators that modulate diverse cellular process in bone cells. Because optimal miRNA targeting is essential for their function, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or proximal to the loci of miRNA (miR-SNPs) or mRNA (PolymiRTS) could potentially disrupt the miRNA-mRNA interaction, leading to changes in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Recent human studies of skeletal traits using miRNA profiling, genomewide association studies, and functional studies started to decipher the complex miRNA regulatory network...
January 2019: JBMR Plus
Ritu Shekhar, Priyanka Priyanka, Praveen Kumar, Tanushree Ghosh, Md Muntaz Khan, Perumal Nagarajan, Sandeep Saxena
MicroRNAs of the miR-16 and miR-34 families have been reported to inhibit cell cycle progression and their loss has been linked to oncogenic transformation. Utilizing a high-throughput, genome-wide screen for miRNAs and mRNAs that are differentially regulated in osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines, we report that miR-449a and miR-424, belonging to the miR-34 and miR-16 families, respectively, target the major S/G2 phase cyclin, cyclin A2 (CCNA2) in a bipartite manner. We found that the 3' UTR of CCNA2 is recognized by miR-449a whereas the CCNA2 coding region is targeted by miR-424...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Feng-Qiang Yu, Zeng Wang, Xin-Wen Wang, Sheng-Lin Wang, Xiao-Dong Li, Qing-Shan Huang, Jian-Hua Lin
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. Numerous studies have strongly implicated the ectopic expression of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs), including miR-885-5p, which is aberrantly expressed in several cancer types, in multiple cancer-related processes. However, the role of miR-885-5p in OS remains unknown. In the present study, it was found that the expression of miR-885-5p was markedly upregulated in OS cell lines and clinical tissues. Moreover, high expression of miR-885-5p was significantly associated with the development of OS...
February 2019: Oncology Letters
Dapeng Wang, Fuqin Bao, Yugang Teng, Qiang Li, Jianjun Li
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor. In cancer cells, autophagy is related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although microRNA (miR)-506-3p has been demonstrated to act as a tumor suppressor in OS, its role in regulating the EMT process and autophagy remains unknown. The results showed that miR-506-3p directly inhibited the expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) in 143B and SaOS-2 cells. The invasive capability of OS cells was reduced following miR-506-3p mimics transfection, and restored when SPHK1 was overexpressed simultaneously...
January 23, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yin Hu, Ran Xu, Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Kun Xia, Jie Huang, Hao Yin, Zhen-Xing Wang, Jia Cao, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Yi-Juan Tan, Juan Luo, Hui Xie
OBJECTIVE: Senile osteoporosis is one of the most common age-related diseases worldwide. Accumulating evidences have indicated that young blood can reverse age-related impairments. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exert therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases by delivering bioactive molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EVs from human umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-EVs) on senile osteoporosis and to preliminarily clarify the underlying mechanism...
January 19, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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