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Healthcare infection

Douglas Krakower, Kevin M Maloney, Victoria E Powell, Ken Levine, Chris Grasso, Kathy Melbourne, Julia L Marcus, Kenneth H Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Discontinuations of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by at-risk individuals could decrease the effectiveness of PrEP. Our objective was to characterize patterns of, reasons for, and clinical outcomes associated with PrEP discontinuations in primary care. METHODS: We conducted medical chart reviews for patients prescribed PrEP during 2011 to 2014 at a Boston community health centre specializing in healthcare for sexual and gender minorities. Patients were followed through 2015...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Deborah S K Thomas, Sheana Bull, Elias C Nyanza, Karen Hampanda, Michael Liedtke, Sospatro E Ngallaba
BACKGROUND: Data collection and integrated reporting between the multiple health facilities for supporting more efficient care linkages is an indispensable element for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) by fostering continuity of patient care and improving the treatment cascade for HIV-infected pregnant women. mHealth potentially presents timely solutions to the data challenges related to efficient and effective care delivery in resource-constrained settings, particularly in low- and middle-income countries...
2019: PloS One
Brendan J Kelly, Ebbing Lautenbach, Jennifer H Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Larry K Kociolek, Preeta K Kutty, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children. DESIGN: Electronic survey. METHODS: An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN). RESULTS: Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elizabeth V Robilotti, Asmita Kumar, Michael S Glickman, Mini Kamboj
Oncolytic viral immunotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for cancer that exploits in vivo replication and other viral properties to enhance immune killing of malignant cells. The potential for horizontal transmission of native or engineered oncolytic viruses creates several unique infection control challenges. In 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) became the first agent in this class to gain FDA approval for treatment of melanoma, and several others are being developed. Although some data on the transmissibility of TVEC are available from clinical studies, the aftermarket or real-world experience remains limited...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, David J Weber
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it can cause severe infections with frequent mortality in more than a dozen countries. It can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days and can cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Clearly, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection, will be essential to controlling Candida transmission. Unfortunately, data on the activity of antiseptics and disinfectants used in healthcare to inactivate this pathogen are limited...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Edward K Len, Ritesh Akkisetty, Sandia Royal, Maryanne Brooks, Susette Coyle, Rajan Gupta, Matthew Lissauer
BACKGROUND: Hospital over-capacity often forces boarding patients outside of their designated intensive care unit (ICU). Anecdotal evidence suggested medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients boarding in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) were responsible for increases in healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates. We studied the effect of ICU boarding on rates of SICU HAIs. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective two-year database study compared primary SICU patients (Home) to MICU patients boarding in the SICU (Boarders)...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Infections
Welathanthrige S P Botheju, Fawzi Zghyer, Sarwat Mahmud, Assel Terlikbayeva, Nabila El-Bassel, Laith J Abu-Raddad
The objective was to delineate hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in countries of Central Asia (CA), specifically Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. A systematic review was conducted guided by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, and reported using PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were performed using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. Random-effects meta-regression analyses were performed on general population studies. The systematic review identified a total of 208 HCV prevalence measures...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
J Leston, C Crisp, C Lee, E Rink
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to work with tribal communities to define and develop their own healthcare services and strategies for positive change regarding injection drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The secondary objective of this study was to incorporate community capacity building strategies to develop and sustain programming and resources to optimize tribal communities' responsiveness to reduce health disparities...
February 11, 2019: Public Health
Maha Talaat, Salma Afifi, Erik J Reaves, Hanaa Abu Elsood, Amany El-Gohary, Samir Refaey, Radi Hammad, Mostafa Abdel Fadeel, Amr Kandeel
BACKGROUND: Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004. METHODS: Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Susan S Huang, Raveena Singh, James A McKinnell, Steven Park, Adrijana Gombosev, Samantha J Eells, Daniel L Gillen, Diane Kim, Syma Rashid, Raul Macias-Gil, Michael A Bolaris, Thomas Tjoa, Chenghua Cao, Suzie S Hong, Jennifer Lequieu, Eric Cui, Justin Chang, Jiayi He, Kaye Evans, Ellena Peterson, Gail Simpson, Philip Robinson, Chester Choi, Charles C Bailey, James D Leo, Alpesh Amin, Donald Goldmann, John A Jernigan, Richard Platt, Edward Septimus, Robert A Weinstein, Mary K Hayden, Loren G Miller
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients who are colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are at high risk for infection after discharge. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of postdischarge hygiene education, as compared with education plus decolonization, in patients colonized with MRSA (carriers). Decolonization involved chlorhexidine mouthwash, baths or showers with chlorhexidine, and nasal mupirocin for 5 days twice per month for 6 months...
February 14, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Vipin Chembili, Musliyarakath Mujeeburahiman, Ashwini Prabhu, Arun Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath, Rekha Punchappady-Devasya
Increase in infection with multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious global challenge in healthcare. P. aeruginosa is capable of causing human infection in various sites and complicates the infection due to its virulence factors. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin, a dietary flavonoid against the virulence factors of P. aeruginosa and its cell protective effecets on epithelial cells. Bactericidal activity, anti-biofilm activity and effect on different virulence factors were carried out using standard methods by using five P...
February 14, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Fatma Eser, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, İmran Hasanoğlu, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez Korkmaz, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz, Mehmet Akın Taşyaran
Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Materials and methods: The study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2016. The colonized group consisted of patients who had a CRE strain in their rectal swab cultures, whereas patients with negative rectal surveillance cultures for CRE who were concurrently hospitalized in the same units with the colonized group patients were included in the control group...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Maresca Attard Pizzuto, Liberato Camilleri, Lilian M Azzopardi, Anthony Serracino-Inglott
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the perception of Maltese pharmacists to prescribe a selected number of antibiotics. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire entitled 'Antibiotic Prescribing by Pharmacists' was developed to study pharmacist perception to prescribing a selected number of antibacterial agents. The questionnaire was validated by a two-round Delphi technique and disseminated to all practising pharmacists (N = 930) during a 3-month period. KEY FINDINGS: Two hundred and nine pharmacists answered the questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Amanda M Wilson, Kelly A Reynolds, Marc P Verhougstraete, Robert A Canales
Understanding healthcare viral disease transmission and the effect of infection control interventions will inform current and future infection control protocols. In this study, a model was developed to predict virus concentration on nurses' hands using data from a bacteriophage tracer study conducted in Tucson, Arizona, in an urgent care facility. Surfaces were swabbed 2 hours, 3.5 hours, and 6 hours postseeding to measure virus spread over time. To estimate the full viral load that would have been present on hands without sampling, virus concentrations were summed across time points for 3...
February 13, 2019: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Sarah K Shea, David E Soper
Importance: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of cesarean delivery. Seen in up to 12% of cesarean deliveries, it is a major cause of prolonged hospital stay and a burden to the healthcare system. Interventions and techniques must be identified to decrease the risk of cesarean delivery SSIs. Objective: We review the categories of SSI, current studies that have focused on various interventions to decrease SSI, and preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative recommendations for cesarean delivery SSI prevention...
February 2019: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Ryan D Lockard, Mary E Wilson, Nilda E Rodríguez
Worldwide, an estimated 12 million people are infected with Leishmania spp. and an additional 350 million are at risk of infection. Leishmania are intracellular parasites that cause disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. Infection can remain asymptomatic or lead to a spectrum of diseases including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Ultimately, the combination of both pathogen and host factors determines the outcome of infection. Leishmaniasis, as well as numerous other infectious diseases, exhibits sex-related differences that cannot be explained solely in terms of environmental exposure or healthcare access...
2019: Journal of Immunology Research
Richard R Watkins, David Van Duin
Pneumonia is one of the most common infections worldwide. Morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs increase substantially when pneumonia is caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The ongoing spread of antimicrobial resistance has made treating MDR-GNB pneumonia increasingly difficult. Fortunately, there have been some recent additions to our antibiotic armamentarium in the US and Europe for MDR-GNB, along with several agents that are in advanced stages of development. In this article, we review the risk factors for and current management of MDR-GNB pneumonia as well as novel agents with activity against these important and challenging pathogens...
2019: F1000Research
Sharon H Kim, Sallie J Weaver, Ting Yang, Michael A Rosen
BACKGROUND: Are creativity and compliance mutually exclusive? In clinical settings, this question is increasingly relevant. Hospitals and clinics seek the creative input of their employees to help solve persistent patient safety issues, such as the prevention of bloodstream infections, while simultaneously striving for greater adherence to evidence-based guidelines and protocols. Extant research provides few answers about how creativity works in such contexts. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from employees in 24 different U...
February 12, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Tamara Milovanovic, Igor Dumic, Jelena Veličkovic, Milica Stojkovic Lalosevic, Vladimir Nikolic, Ivan Palibrk
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome (CAIDS) has been identified in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), predisposing them to a wide variety of infections. In patients with LC, healthcare-associated infections involving multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria have increased significantly over the last decades. Among them, hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) are the most common. This study aimed to investigate the rates of antimicrobial resistance among patients with LC and HA-UTI and to determine risk factors associated with their development among patients hospitalized in tertiary care facility in Serbia...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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