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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891835/associations-of-child-and-adolescent-anxiety-with-later-alcohol-use-and-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#1
REVIEW
Maddy L Dyer, Kayleigh E Easey, Jon Heron, Matthew Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite a wealth of literature, the relationship between anxiety and alcohol use remains unclear. We examined whether (a) child and adolescent anxiety is positively or negatively associated with later alcohol use and disorders and (b) study characteristics explain inconsistencies in findings. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a systematic review of 51 prospective cohort studies from 11 countries. Three studies contributed to a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases, and studies were included if they met the following criteria: English language publication, human participants, anxiety exposure (predictor variable) in childhood or adolescence and alcohol outcome at least 6 months later...
March 19, 2019: Addiction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890778/association-of-dietary-diversity-with-total-mortality-and-major-causes-of-mortality-in-the-japanese-population-jphc-study
#2
Minatsu Kobayashi, Shizuka Sasazuki, Taichi Shimazu, Norie Sawada, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Tetsuya Mizoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating a variety of foods has been recommended in the dietary guidelines of many developed nations, as well as global dietary guidelines. We investigated the potential effect of dietary diversity on the risk of total mortality and major causes of mortality in a large-scale cohort study involving the Japanese population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From 1995 to 2012, 79,904 participants (37,240 men and 42,664 women) aged 45 to 74 years, without histories of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed-up for a median of 14...
March 19, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890357/liver-enzymes-in-alcohol-consumers-with-or-without-binge-drinking
#3
Ulla Nivukoski, Aini Bloigu, Risto Bloigu, Mauri Aalto, Tiina Laatikainen, Onni Niemelä
BACKGROUND: While alcohol use is linked with a wide variety of health problems, the question whether differences in drinking patterns could yield different outcomes has remained unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured liver enzymes (ALT, GGT) from alcohol consumers with or without binge drinking from a population-based sample in Finland, where binge-type drinking is common. Data on alcohol use, diet, body weight, lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption, physical activity) and health status were collected from 19,225 subjects (9,492 men, 9,733 women), aged 25-74 years...
March 16, 2019: Alcohol
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888206/lack-of-association-between-ctla-4-genetic-polymorphisms-and-noncardiac-gastric-cancer-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Jun Liu, Weifeng Tang, Wanzun Lin, Yafeng Wang, Yu Chen, Jiling Wang, Miao Liu, Weifeng Xu, Jianhua Lin, Lurong Zhang
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a key negative immunoregulatory molecule with characteristics of gene polymorphisms. Genetically predisposed CTLA-4 alteration in humans was associated with gastric cancer (GC) development. To explore the association of CTLA-4 polymorphism with susceptibility of noncardiac GC (NCGC), 490 NCGC patients and 1476 control individuals were studied. Four CTLA-4 polymorphisms were genotyped with SNPscan genotyping assays and the haplotypes were constructed with SHESIS software...
March 19, 2019: DNA and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888061/family-based-prevention-programmes-for-alcohol-use-in-young-people
#5
REVIEW
Conor Gilligan, Luke Wolfenden, David R Foxcroft, Amanda J Williams, Melanie Kingsland, Rebecca K Hodder, Emily Stockings, Tameka-Rae McFadyen, Jenny Tindall, Shauna Sherker, Julie Rae, John Wiggers
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in young people is a risk factor for a range of short- and long-term harms and is a cause of concern for health services, policy-makers, youth workers, teachers, and parents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of universal, selective, and indicated family-based prevention programmes in preventing alcohol use or problem drinking in school-aged children (up to 18 years of age).Specifically, on these outcomes, the review aimed:• to assess the effectiveness of universal family-based prevention programmes for all children up to 18 years ('universal interventions');• to assess the effectiveness of selective family-based prevention programmes for children up to 18 years at elevated risk of alcohol use or problem drinking ('selective interventions'); and• to assess the effectiveness of indicated family-based prevention programmes for children up to 18 years who are currently consuming alcohol, or who have initiated use or regular use ('indicated interventions')...
March 19, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887902/association-of-pro-inflammatory-dietary-intake-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-findings-from-iranian-case-control-study
#6
Farhad Vahid, Nitin Shivappa, Azita Hekmatdoost, James R Hebert, Hossein Poustchi, Ali Shamsipour, Tannaz Eslamparast, Mohammad Meibodi, Diyako Rahmani
BACKGROUND: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is considered as a major health problem in the world. There is much evidence that diet and dietary factors play an important role in inflammation, and consequently pathogenesis of NAFLD. To investigate the role of diet in the development of inflammation, we can use the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), which has been shown to be predictive of levels of inflammatory markers. METHODS: 295 incident cases were selected using the convenience-sampling procedure, and 704 controls randomly were selected from the same clinic and among the patients who had no hepatic steatosis and were frequency-matched on age (±5 years) and sex...
March 19, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878464/a-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-forensic-toxicology-at-the-academy-of-forensic-science-in-2017
#7
Meiru Pan, Xin Wang, Yunli Zhao, Wei Liu, Ping Xiang
Knowing the specific pattern of forensic toxicology cases in a region is vital to help the local government establish an effective prevention and treatment system; currently, there have been no published reports investigating various types of forensic toxicology cases based on a large autopsy series and city size. The data in this study were obtained from records kept at the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS) between February 2017 and December 2017, and the cases were mainly from the Public Security Organs People's Police in Shanghai, China...
February 28, 2019: Forensic Science International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875764/dietary-patterns-associated-with-sebum-content-skin-hydration-and-ph-and-their-sex-dependent-differences-in-healthy-korean-adults
#8
Sunhee Lim, Jihye Shin, Yunhi Cho, Kun-Pyo Kim
Sebum content, skin hydration and acidic skin pH are major factors in maintaining skin health. Various nutrients are reported to influence skin health, but the effect of dietary patterns (DPs) on skin health is unclear. In this study, we considered the DPs associated with these three skin health parameters in 84 healthy adults aged 19⁻37 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and skin health parameters were determined on the forehead of each subject. Among the four DPs extracted from the FFQ, DP2, characterized by a high intake of cereals, potatoes and starch, saccharides and fish and shellfish, was negatively associated with skin hydration...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875649/perceived-harmfulness-of-various-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-modes-secular-trends-differences-and-associations-with-actual-substance-use-behaviors-among-norwegian-adolescents-2007-2015
#9
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas
BACKGROUND: How youth perceive harmfulness of risk behaviors such as substance use relates to their engagement in those behaviors. Yet, little is known about how different substance use modes (i.e., variations in amounts and use frequencies) are perceived. We investigated how adolescent perceptions of harmfulness of various alcohol- and cannabis use modes changed over time, compared to one another, and related to actual substance use behaviors. METHODS: We examined nationally-representative repeated cross-sectional samples of 16-year olds in Norway, assessed in 2007, 2011, and 2015 (NTotal  = 9296) as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD)...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875494/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-presence-and-severity-are-associated-with-aortic-stiffness-beyond-abdominal-obesity-the-elsa-brasil
#10
Paulo H Harada, Isabela J M Bensenõr, Luciano F Drager, Alessandra C Goulart, José G Mill, Paulo A Lotufo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with aortic stiffness in a racial/ethnically diverse and admixed society. We addressed whether NAFLD presence and severity were associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in individuals free of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In 7196 individuals free of cardiovascular disease at the baseline Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health, we classified NAFLD presence and severity (mild, moderate and severe) by ultrasound hepatic attenuation...
February 13, 2019: Atherosclerosis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874500/potential-influence-of-socioeconomic-status-on-genetic-correlations-between-alcohol-consumption-measures-and-mental-health
#11
Andries T Marees, Dirk J A Smit, Jue-Sheng Ong, Stuart MacGregor, Jiyuan An, Damiaan Denys, Florence Vorspan, Wim van den Brink, Eske M Derks
BACKGROUND: Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption are metrics commonly used to measure alcohol consumption behaviors. Epidemiological studies indicate that these alcohol consumption measures are differentially associated with (mental) health outcomes and socioeconomic status (SES). The current study aims to elucidate to what extent genetic risk factors are shared between frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and how these alcohol consumption measures are genetically associated with four broad phenotypic categories: (i) SES; (ii) substance use disorders; (iii) other psychiatric disorders; and (iv) psychological/personality traits...
March 15, 2019: Psychological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874299/selection-on-structural-allelic-variation-biases-plasticity-estimates
#12
Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos, Sheng Pei Wang, David M Althoff
Wang and Althoff (2019) explored the capacity of Drosophila melanogaster to exhibit adaptive plasticity in a novel environment. In a full-sib, half-sib design, they scored the activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and plastic responses, measured as changes in ADH activity across ethanol concentrations in the range of 0-10% (natural variation) and 16% (the novel environment). ADH activity increased with alcohol concentration, and there was a positive association between larval viability and ADH activity in the novel environment...
March 15, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873589/radiation-risk-of-incident-colorectal-cancer-by-anatomical-site-among-atomic-bomb-survivors-1958-2009
#13
Hiromi Sugiyama, Munechika Misumi, Alina Brenner, Eric J Grant, Ritsu Sakata, Atsuko Sadakane, Mai Utada, Dale L Preston, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Kotaro Ozasa
Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption, and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation-associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958-2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal, and 1,046 rectal cancers...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872682/thermochemistry-and-kinetics-of-the-thermal-degradation-of-2-methoxyethanol-as-possible-biofuel-additives
#14
Mohamed A Abdel-Rahman, Nessreen Al-Hashimi, Mohamed F Shibl, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Ahmed M El-Nahas
Oxygenated organic compounds derived from biomass (biofuel) are a promising alternative renewable energy resource. Alcohols are widely used as biofuels, but studies on bifunctional alcohols are still limited. This work investigates the unimolecular thermal degradation of 2-methoxyethanol (2ME) using DFT/BMK and ab initio (CBS-QB3 and G3) methods. Enthalpies of the formation of 2ME and its decomposition species have been calculated. Conventional transition state theory has been used to estimate the rate constant of the pyrolysis of 2ME over a temperature range of 298-2000 K...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872551/exercise-and-incidence-of-myocardial-infarction-stroke-hypertension-type-2-diabetes-and-site-specific-cancers-prospective-cohort-study-of-257-854-adults-in-south-korea
#15
Youngwon Kim, Stephen Sharp, Semi Hwang, Sun Ha Jee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations of exercise frequency with the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and 10 different cancer outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Physical examination data linked with the entire South Korean population's health insurance system: from 2002 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS: 257 854 South Korean adults who provided up to 7 repeat measures of exercise (defined as exercises causing sweat) and confounders...
March 13, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30869918/do-misperceptions-of-peer-drinking-influence-personal-drinking-behavior-results-from-a-complete-social-network-of-first-year-college-students
#16
Melissa J Cox, Angelo M DiBello, Matthew K Meisel, Miles Q Ott, Shannon R Kenney, Melissa A Clark, Nancy P Barnett
This study considered the influence of misperceptions of typical versus self-identified important peers' heavy drinking on personal heavy drinking intentions and frequency utilizing data from a complete social network of college students. The study sample included data from 1,313 students (44% male, 57% White, 15% Hispanic/Latinx) collected during the fall and spring semesters of their freshman year. Students provided perceived heavy drinking frequency for a typical student peer and up to 10 identified important peers...
March 14, 2019: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867934/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-among-adults-in-hawassa-city-southern-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#17
Teshale Darebo, Addisalem Mesfin, Samson Gebremedhin
Background: In Ethiopia, limited information is available about the epidemiology of over-nutrition. This study assessed the prevalence of, and factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2015 in the city. A total of 531 adults 18-64 years of age were selected using multistage sampling approach. Interviewer administered qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the consumption pattern of twelve food groups...
2019: BMC Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864852/gender-differences-in-associations-between-pain-related-anxiety-and-alcohol-use-among-adults-with-chronic-pain
#18
Emily L Zale, Lisa R LaRowe, Jeff Boissoneault, Stephen A Maisto, Joseph W Ditre
BACKGROUND: Over 100 million Americans live with chronic pain, and adults with chronic pain may be more likely to experience alcohol-related problems or Alcohol Use Disorder. An evolving conceptual model posits that bidirectional effects between pain and alcohol exacerbate both pain and drinking. Pain has been shown to motivate alcohol urge and consumption, and drinking for pain-coping predicts escalations in alcohol use over time. Pain-related anxiety is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor that has been implicated in both pain and substance-related (i...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864528/investigation-of-the-roles-of-new-antiepileptic-drugs-and-serum-bdnf-levels-in-efficacy-and-safety-monitoring-and-quality-of-life-a-clinical-research
#19
Meral Demir, Emel Oğuz Akarsu, Hava Özlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Sevda Özel Yıldız, Betül Baykan, Ahmet Gökhan Akkan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) features and the relation to brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) of frequently used new antiepileptic drugs (NAD) including lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), zonisamide (ZNS) and lacosamide (LCM). Moreover, we investigated their effect on the quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Eighty epileptic patients who had been using the NAD, thirteen healthy participants were included in this cross-sectional study...
March 12, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864294/occurrence-of-cyp2b6-516g-t-polymorphism-in-patients-with-arv-associated-hepatotoxicity
#20
HariOm Singh, Sonam Lata, T N Dhole, Raman R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: Hepatic enzyme cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) plays a role in the metabolism of efavirenz drugs. CYP2B6 516G>T variation showed an implication for HIV treatment. METHODS: CYP2B6 516G>T polymorphism was genotyped in a total 165 HIV patients that include 34 with and 131 without hepatotoxicity and 155 healthy individuals by the PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: In patients with hepatotoxicity, the prevalence of CYP2B6 516TT genotype was higher as compared to healthy individuals (35...
March 12, 2019: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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