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Exercise And Physical Activity

Jewel Gausman, Danielle Lloyd, Thomas Kallon, S V Subramanian, Ana Langer, S Bryn Austin
Many young people experience sexual debut before they are able to manage risk in order to avoid adverse consequences. Gender norms, social position, and power can undermine an adolescent's ability to exercise agency in their first sexual encounters and negotiate safer sexual behavior. This study examines the intersection of psychosocial and interpersonal factors with the social and physical environment to form an ecological understanding of how the determinants that shape sexual activity differ between boys and girls in two urban slums in Monrovia, Liberia...
February 8, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Valentina Alice Rossi, Christian Schmied, Josef Niebauer, David Niederseer
OBJECTIVES: Alpine skiing is one of the most popular recreational winter sports and attracts millions of tourists every year alone in the Alpine region. Several studies highlight the positive effects of alpine skiing as aerobic physical training and isometric muscle activity that is able to increase exercise capacity and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. However, a certain cardiovascular risk mainly related to an abrupt increase of myocardial oxygen consumption during skiing especially in otherwise sedentary subjects and effects of hypoxia in untrained patients have to be acknowledged...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ryoko Kawakami, Ikuko Kashino, Hiroshi Kasai, Kazuaki Kawai, Yun-Shan Li, Akiko Nanri, Mitsuru Higuchi, Tetsuya Mizoue
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether daily physical activity is associated with DNA damage. This cross-sectional study examined the association between leisure-time physical activity and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, or urinary 7-methylguanine (m7Gua), a biomarker of methylating DNA damage. METHODS: Participants included 501 workers (294 men and 207 women), aged 20-65 years, from municipal offices in Japan. Urinary 8-OH-dG and m7Gua were measured using column-switching HPLC...
2019: PloS One
Justin Yang, Costas A Christophi, Andrea Farioli, Dorothee M Baur, Steven Moffatt, Terrell W Zollinger, Stefanos N Kales
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Robust evidence indicates an association of increased physical fitness with a lower risk of CVD events and improved longevity; however, few have studied simple, low-cost measures of functional status. Objective: To evaluate the association between push-up capacity and subsequent CVD event incidence in a cohort of active adult men. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study conducted between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, in 1 outpatient clinics in Indiana of male firefighters aged 18 years or older...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Heather J Leach, Kelley R Covington, Corrine Voss, Kelli A LeBreton, Samantha M Harden, Steven R Schuster
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a group dynamics-based exercise intervention versus a personal training intervention for increasing physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and quality of life (QOL) in post-treatment breast cancer survivors. SAMPLE & SETTING: 26 women with stage I or II breast cancer who attended intervention activities at a local academic institution. METHODS & VRIABLES: Participants were randomly assigned to receive an eight-week intervention in either a group dynamics-based exercise or a personal training setting...
March 1, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
Maria Pia Francescato, Miloš Ajčević, Agostino Accardo
Physical activity is a keystone of a healthy lifestyle as well as of management of patients with type 1 diabetes. The risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia, however, is a great challenge for these patients. The glycemic response to exercise depends upon several factors concerning the patient him/herself (eg, therapy, glycemic control, training level) and the characteristics of the exercise performed. Only in-depth knowledge of these factors will allow to develop individualized strategies minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Martina Ferioli, Giorgio Zauli, Patrizia Maiorano, Daniela Milani, Prisco Mirandola, Luca M Neri
The genetic heritage for decades has been considered to respond only to gene promoters or suppressors, with specific roles for oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. Epigenetics is progressively attracting increasing interest because it has demonstrated the capacity of these regulatory processes to regulate the gene expression without modifying gene sequence. Several factors may influence epigenetics, such as lifestyles including food selection. A role for physical exercise is emerging in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Gusthavo A A Rodrigues, Priscila C Rodrigues, Fabiano F da Silva, Priscila M Nakamura, Wonder P Higino, Renato A de Souza
A new class of video game called exergame (EXG) has been used to promote physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, but EXGs are not as efficient as traditional aerobic exercises. However, auxiliary tools, such as the mini trampoline (MT), may enhance the physiological responses obtained by the EXG. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of a stationary running EXG with and without an MT. Nineteen healthy males performed a treadmill test for the determination of VO2 max and HRmax...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Eskild Klausen Fredslund, Anja Leppin
OBJECTIVES: Many sedentary individuals are aware of the health benefits of regular physical activity and start becoming more physically active. Yet, despite good intentions, many struggle to keep up initial exercise levels and experience a decline in exercise frequency. A possible explanation is that it is hard to establish habits or routines, and that such routines-once established-might be easy to break. In this paper, we analyse whether a break in habitual/routine behaviour-induced by the Easter holidays-results in individuals exercising less after the break...
February 13, 2019: BMJ Open
Mohamad Reza Sedighi Moghadam, Mostafa Ghanei, Klaus Kenn, Nicholas S Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: More than 60,000 people have health problems due to chemical weapons exposure during the Iran-Iraq war. Respiratory consequences of mustard gas exposure are common and disabling; medical interventions have limited effect. Patients complain of cough, sputum, breathlessness and exercise limitation. We hypothesized that patients with this condition would benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: We outline the protocol for an assessor-blind, two-armed, parallel-design randomized controlled clinical trial (IRCT2016051127848N1)...
February 14, 2019: Trials
Stephen J Carter, Gary R Hunter, J Walker Blackston, Nianjun Liu, Elliot J Lefkowitz, William J Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Jesseca A Paulsen, Laura Q Rogers
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity persist after adjusting for the potential effects of %body fat and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to examine the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity while accounting for the underlying effects of %body fat and free-living AEE. Results from the present work suggest cardiorespiratory fitness, not physical activity, is a superior correlate of gut microbiota diversity among post-primary treatment, non-metastatic breast cancer survivors...
February 14, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Judith van der Waerden, Aurelie Nakamura, Laura Pryor, Marie-Aline Charles, Fabienne El-Khoury, Patricia Dargent-Molina
The potential beneficial effects of physical activity during pregnancy on postpartum depressive symptoms (PPD) remain inconclusive. Using data from two prospective French birth cohorts, we aimed to examine the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (including leisure-time sedentary behavior) in pregnancy and the occurrence of PPD. Participants of the ELFE cohort (n = 15,538) completed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), which assesses the following physical activity/sedentary behavior domains: household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, transportation and leisure-time sedentary behavior during the third pregnancy trimester...
February 11, 2019: Preventive Medicine
John D Akins, Charles K Crawford, Heath M Burton, Anthony S Wolfe, Emre Vardarli, Edward F Coyle
Acute exercise improves postprandial lipemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, recent research suggests that prolonged sedentary behavior might abolish these healthy metabolic benefits. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of an acute bout of exercise on postprandial plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations after four days of prolonged sitting (~13.5 hrs/day). METHODS: Ten untrained to recreationally active men (n=5) and women (n=5) completed a counterbalanced, crossover study...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Elise L Rice, William M P Klein
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has documented the influence of social norms on health-related behaviors, though social norms may affect behaviors in more complex ways than have conventionally been modeled. The present research evaluates parent norms and teens' own attitudes as moderators of associations between perceived peer norms and diet and physical activity behaviors (both health-promoting and health-impairing) in a national sample of U.S. adolescents. METHODS: Adolescent participants (N = 1,859; ages 12-17) from the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study reported on the extent to which their friends eat fruits and vegetables; eat junk food or drink sugary drinks; exercise; and watch TV, play on the computer, or play electronic games most days of the week...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Michel D Wissing, Simone Chevalier, Ana O'Flaherty, Ginette McKercher, Saro Aprikian, Fred Saad, Michel Carmel, Louis Lacombe, Marc Hamel, Armen Aprikian
OBJECTIVE: The psychosocial impact of a prostate cancer diagnosis significantly affects a patient's quality of life. We studied patient communication at the time of diagnosis and its impact on psychosocial adjustment of patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional data analysis from self-administered questionnaires in the PROCURE biobank study, consisting of a cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy in Québec (Canada), 2006-2013...
February 14, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Susan Reutman, Renee Lewis
Motivating employees to increase their physical activity is a health promotion challenge. A Move-A-Thon (MAT) event approach was implemented as an alternative incentive to help workers to optimize their physical activity levels. We implemented a demonstration project in which workers were incentivized for their participation through monetized donations to charity. Their steps were monitored over the 2-week demonstration period. The MAT goal was for participants to achieve a minimum of 3,000 daily steps for 2 weeks, for which they could earn a total donation of up to US$20...
February 14, 2019: Workplace Health & Safety
Erhan Çapkın, Seyhan Bilge Keskin, Murat Karkucak, Ahmet Ayar
Background/aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of anti-TNF alpha therapy on cardiorespiratory fitness and physical functional capacity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Materials and methods: Twenty-eight AS patients meeting the modified New York criteria with active disease state and an equivalent number of healthy individuals as the control were prospectively enrolled. Physical working capacity and aerobic exercise capacity of the participants were determined by using cardiopulmonary exercise tests, performed before and 4 months after initiation of anti-TNF alpha therapy...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Alexander T Bureau, Lindsey C Blom, Jocelyn Bolin, Paul Nagelkirk
Research into the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) has suggested that a harmonious passion for an activity is related to more positive outcomes (e.g., higher well-being and satisfaction with life), and an obsessive passion for an activity is related to negative and less adaptive outcomes (e.g., lower self-esteem and burnout; 37, 40, 43). The current study demonstrated differences between passion types (i.e., harmonious passion, obsessive passion, no passion) in terms of physical fitness, risk of exercise addiction, frequency of exercise, and perceptions of exercise...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Sijia Liu, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xiuyan Guo
Brain adverse structural changes, especially the atrophy of gray matter, are inevitable in aging. Fortunately, the human brain is plastic throughout its entire life. The current cross-section study aimed to investigate whether long-term Tai Chi exercise could slow gray matter atrophy and explore the possible links among gray matter volume (GMV), long-term Tai Chi experience and emotional stability in a sequential risk-taking task by using voxel-based morphometry. Elders with long-term Tai Chi experience and controls, who were matched to Tai Chi group in age, gender, physical activity level, participated in the study...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
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