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Efthymia Nikita, Panos Nikitas
Age-at-death estimation in a skeletal assemblage (target sample) is biased by the demographic profile of the material used for age prediction (training sample) when this profile is different from that of the target sample. This bias is minimized if the demographic profile of the target sample is properly taken into account in the method developed for age-at-death estimation. In the Bayesian approach this is accomplished via the informative prior. For methods based on regression, we propose two techniques: (a) using weighting factors taken from the demographic profile of the target sample, and (b) creating a new hypothetical training sample that has a demographic profile similar to that of the target sample...
February 5, 2019: Forensic Science International
Sriram Bandi, Tatyana Tchaikovskaya, Sanjeev Gupta
Endogenous cell signals regulate tissue homeostasis and are significant for directing the fate of stem cells. During liver development, cytokines released from various cell types are critical for stem/progenitor cell differentiation and lineage expansions. To determine mechanisms in these stage-specific lineage interactions, we modeled potential effects of soluble signals derived from immortalized human fetal liver parenchymal cells on stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. For identifying lineage conversion and maturation, we utilized conventional assays of cell morphology, gene expression analysis and lineage markers...
January 28, 2019: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Subhashini Arimilli, Patrudu Makena, Gang Liu, G L Prasad
Cigarette smoking exerts diverse physiological effects including immune suppression. To better characterize the biological effects of different categories of tobacco products, a genome-wide gene expression study was performed. Transcriptomic profiling was performed in PBMCs treated with different equi-nicotine units of aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke (termed Whole Smoke-Conditioned Medium, or WS-CM), or a single dose smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from reference tobacco products. WS-CM induced dose-dependent changes in the expression of several genes...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Mansooreh Heravi, Leila Dargahi, Soha Parsafar, Amir Tayaranian Marvian, Farhang Aliakbari, Dina Morshedi
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αSN) is an abundant presynaptic brain protein that its aggregated species believed to play pivotal roles in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we compared the response of primary neuronal cells with a well-known cell line model, PC12, against the toxic aggregates of αSN. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons (PHNs) were isolated from 17 to 18 days old rat embryos. Fibrillization was induced in recombinant αSN and monitored by standard methods...
February 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Matea Cedilak, Mihailo Banjanac, Daniela Belamarić, Andrea Paravić Radičević, Ivan Faraho, Krunoslav Ilić, Snježana Čužić, Ines Glojnarić, Vesna Eraković Haber, Martina Bosnar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease with incompletely understood pathophysiology. Effectiveness of available medicines is limited and the need for new and improved therapies remains. Due to complexity of the disease, it is difficult to develop predictable in vitro models. In this study we have described precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) prepared from bleomycin treated mice as an in vitro model for testing of novel compounds with antifibrotic activity. We have shown that PCLS during in vitro incubation retain characteristics of bleomycin model with increased expression of fibrosis related genes ACTA2 (α-smooth muscle actin), COL1A1 (collagen 1), FN1 (fibronectin 1), MMP12 (matrix metalloproteinase 12) and TIMP1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)...
February 15, 2019: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon
Breast cancer (BC) remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. A balance in the opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is necessary for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Impairment in the balance between the actions of HATs and HDACs has been reported in the development of BC. By targeting histone and several non-histone proteins, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can maintain the cellular acetylation profile and reverse the function of several proteins responsible for BC development...
February 15, 2019: Drug Discovery Today
Wenmei Yang, Zhaoyi Lu, Zhifu Zhi, Liling Liu, Lingjie Deng, Xiaoli Jiang, Lihong Pang
Early Embryonic Arrest (EEA) is one of the major causes of female infertility. Genetic factors including specific genes and miRNAs may play pivotal roles on EEA. However, it is not well defined what genes and micro RNAs participate the pathophysiological alterations of EEA. In this work, we compared the Transcriptome -Seq and microRNA profiles from three pairs of villi (three EEA patients and three normal pregnancy, NP). We first confirmed the array data by qPCR with ten randomly selected differentially expressed genes and ten differentially expressed miRNAs in villi from 20 EEA and 20 NP controls...
February 15, 2019: Gene
Wan Li, Jieya Dong, Minxuan Cao, Xianxian Gao, Dongdong Wang, Bailin Liu, Qin Chen
HD-ZIP (Homeodomain leucine zipper) transcription factors play an important regulatory role in stress resistance in plants. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the HD-ZIP genes/proteins and to study their expression profiles under high and low temperature conditions in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). A strict homology search was used to find 43 HD-ZIP genes located on potato chromosomes 1-12. Exons/introns, protein features and conserved motifs were analyzed, and six segment duplications were identified from 43 HD-ZIP genes...
February 15, 2019: Gene
Rohit P Nagare, S Sneha, S Ramesh, Trivadi S Ganesan
Stem cells or Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have now been identified in different type of tissues by using surface markers. Functional assays such as ALDEFLUOR and side population which are marker independent have been additional approaches. However, whether all these approaches identify the same population of cells remain uncertain. To address this issue we have used hematopoietic stem cells as a model. Peripheral blood stem cells enumerated by CD34 are used routinely in bone marrow transplantation which supports the recovery of bone marrow after ablative chemotherapy or radiation...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Bisera Stepanovska, Andrea Huwiler
The past two decades of intense research have revealed a key role of the sphingolipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in regulating multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell proliferation and survival, cell migration, inflammatory mediator synthesis and tissue remodeling. S1P mainly acts through five high-affinity G protein-coupled S1P receptors, which are ubiquitously expressed and mediate a complex network of signaling in a cell type dependent manner. S1P receptors have become an attractive pharmacological target to interfere with S1P-mediated cellular responses, which contribute to various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
February 15, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jaijam Suwanwela, Kanokporn Hansamuit, Jeeranan Manokawinchoke, Noppadol Sa-Ard-Iam, Rangsini Mahanonda, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon
OBJECTIVE: Jagged1 regulates several biological functions in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). The present study aimed to evaluate mRNA expression profiling of Jagged1 treated hPDLs using microarray technique. METHODS: Notch ligands, Jagged1, were indirectly immobilized on tissue culture surface. Subsequently, hPDLs were seeded on Jagged1 immobilized surface and maintained in growth medium for 48 h. Total RNA was collected and processed. Gene expression profiling was examined using microarray technique...
February 18, 2019: Oral Diseases
Kazunori Inoue, Geliang Gan, Maria Ciarleglio, Yan Zhang, Xuefei Tian, Christopher E Pedigo, Corey Cavanaugh, Janet Tate, Ying Wang, Elizabeth Cross, Marwin Groener, Nathan Chai, Zhen Wang, Amy Justice, Zhenhai Zhang, Chirag R Parikh, Francis P Wilson, Shuta Ishibe
We identified 2 genes, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2, contributing to the pathogenesis of proteinuric kidney diseases, the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. mRNA expression profiling from proteinuric mouse glomeruli was linked to Connectivity Map databases, identifying HDAC1 and HDAC2 with the differentially expressed gene set reversible by HDAC inhibitors. In numerous progressive glomerular disease models, treatment with valproic acid (a class I HDAC inhibitor) or SAHA (a pan-HDAC inhibitor) mitigated the degree of proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, leading to a striking increase in survival...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yashaar Chaichian, Daniel J Wallace, Michael H Weisman
Despite advances in understanding systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, most clinical trials of new targeted therapies have been met with disappointment. The type I IFN pathway is believed to play an important role in SLE, and the proposed involvement of this pathway helps explain the frustration behind the failure at targeting either IFN-α or the type 1 IFN receptor itself. In this issue of the JCI, Furie et al. report on an intriguing phase 1b study that demonstrates an approach for inhibiting this pathway in the skin using an mAB (BIIB059) that targets the blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA-2) receptor on plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Han-Chung Lee, Hadri Hadi Md Yusof, Melody Pui-Yee Leong, Shahidee Zainal Abidin, Eryse Amira Seth, Chelsee A Hewitt, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Norshariza Nordin, Hamish S Scott, Pike-See Cheah, King-Hwa Ling
AIMS: The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is one of the key regulators of pro-gliogenesis process during brain development. Down syndrome (DS) individuals, as well as DS mouse models, exhibit an increased number of astrocytes, suggesting an imbalance of neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift attributed to dysregulated JAK-STAT signalling pathway. The gene and protein expression profiles of JAK-STAT pathway members have not been characterised in the DS models. Therefore, we aimed to profile the expression of Jak1, Jak2, Stat1, Stat3, and Stat6 at different stages of brain development in the Ts1Cje mouse model of DS...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Neuroscience
Xiying Shao, Ping Huang, Lei Shi, Lei Lei, Wenming Cao, Zhanhong Chen, Xiaojia Wang, Yabing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have established non-coding RNAs, which include microRNAs and lncRNAs, are aberrantly expressed in breast cancer. In this study, we explore the expression profile of microRNAs and lncRNAs in ER positive (ER+) breast and paracancerous tissues and define their possible correlations. METHODS: We collected ER+ breast cancer patients' and paracancerous tissues from the specimen bank of Zhejiang Cancer Hospital to extract total RNA for obtaining the expression level of microRNAs and lncRNAs by qRT-PCR...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Dennis Özcelik, Andrew Seto, Bojana Rakic, Ali Farzam, Frantisek Supek, John Paul Pezacki
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) catalyze disulfide bond formation between protein cysteine residues during protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and are essential for maintaining ER homoeostasis. The life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely associated with the ER. Synthesis and maturation of HCV proteins occur in the ER membrane and are mediated by multiple host cell factors that include also PDI. Here, we present a study investigating the effect of PDI inhibition on Huh7 human hepatoma cells harboring an HCV subgenomic replicon using the abscisic acid-derived PDI inhibitor origamicin...
December 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Shuo Geng, Yao Zhang, Christina Lee, Liwu Li
Nonresolving inflammation perpetuated by innate leukocytes is involved in the pathogenesis of unstable atherosclerosis. However, the role and regulation of neutrophils related to nonresolving inflammation and atherosclerosis are poorly understood. We report herein that chronic subclinical endotoxemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, skewed neutrophils into a nonresolving inflammatory state with elevated levels of inflammatory mediators (Dectin-1, MMP9, and LTB4) and reduced levels of homeostatic mediators (LRRC32, TGFβ, and FPN)...
February 2019: Science Advances
Yixing Gao, Bao Liu, Lan Feng, Binda Sun, Shu He, Yidong Yang, Gang Wu, Guoji E, Chang Liu, Yuqi Gao, Erlong Zhang, Bo Zhu
Hypoxia is a predominant feature in glioblastoma (GBM) and contributes greatly to its drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms which are responsible for the development of the resistant phenotype of GBM under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. To analyze the key pathways promoting therapy resistance in hypoxic GBM, we utilized the U87-MG cell line as a human GBM cell model and the human brain HEB cell line as a non-neoplastic brain cell model. These cell lines were cultured in the presence of 21, 5, and 1% O2 for 24 h...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Hélène Blons, Simon Garinet, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Jean-Baptiste Oudart
Immunotherapy represents one of the most promising therapeutic approaches in lung cancer, however 50% of lung cancer patients will not respond to this treatment, while others will have transitory or durable responses. Because side effects may be life threatening and treatment costs remain very high, the identification of predictive markers is mandatory and actually extensively studied. Factors that determine response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are numerous including tumor microenvironment, immune tumor infiltrates, expression of immune checkpoint proteins (PD-1/PD-L1), gene expression signatures and molecular tumor profiles...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Prita Pradhan, Biswajit Dey, Bheemanathi Hanuman Srinivas, Sajini Elizabeth Jacob, Roopesh Kumar Vadivel Rathakrishnan
Background: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a rare tumour of children and young adults, particularly for those with features of anaplasia. Materials and Methods : This retrospective study comprises five cases of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas diagnosed over a period of 4 years in a tertiary care institute. A detailed clinicopathological and immunohistochemical profile of the tumours were noted from the hospital database. Results: Five cases of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas were evaluated for their clinicoradiological, histomorphological as well as immunohistochemical findings, which included 3 females and 2 males, with age range of 11-40 years and a mean age at presentation of 22 years...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
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