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Clostridium did

John Kerr White, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Anne Mette Madsen
The airborne fungal and bacterial species present in pig farm dust have not been well characterised even though these bioaerosols are known to cause inflammation and other airway maladies. In this study, the microbial species and composition in airborne dust within and between pig farms were investigated. Passively sedimenting dust from six pig farms were collected using electrostatic dust collectors. The bacterial and fungal species were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and next generation sequencing (NGS)...
January 6, 2019: Environmental Research
Larry K Kociolek, Preeta K Kutty, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children. DESIGN: Electronic survey. METHODS: An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN). RESULTS: Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Arnaud Martrenchar, Félix Djossou, Cécile Stagnetto, Céline Dupuy, Elodie Brulez, Christiane Attica, Gerald Egmann, Jérome Gruenfeld, Jean-Michel Fontanella, Michel-Robert Popoff
Botulism type C was suspected in a 46-year old man after consumption of sick poultry from a flock where botulism type C was confirmed. The patient developed characteristic signs of botulism, but investigation of biological samples did not confirm the presence of Clostridium botulinum or botulinum toxin. Despite having classical botulism symptoms, the man recovered very quickly. This raises the question of botulism transmission to humans by ingestion of contaminated poultry.
February 11, 2019: Anaerobe
T A Masterson, A Galante, M Butaney, A Pastuszak, H Sadeghi-Nejad, R Ramasamy
Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH, Xiaflex, Xiapex) is the only FDA-approved medication for treatment of Peyronie's disease. It is unclear how practitioners actually use CCH in their own practices. The objectives of the study were: (1) to identify variability in practice patterns for CCH among practitioners, (2) to assess adherence to the package insert instructions, and (3) to evaluate whether provider satisfaction was associated with adherence to instructions. A 30-question online survey was distributed to 1270 members of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) from the EU, USA, Canada and Australia...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Impotence Research
Silvia Polívková, Lenka Vojtilová, Petr Husa, Jiří Beneš
We present a case of a 17-year-old female with anti-NMDAR encephalitis probably associated with vaccination against yellow fever. Her symptoms occurred 27 days after vaccination against yellow fever. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis manifested as acute psychosis, memory loss and catatonia following fever with complex partial epileptic seizures. Interictal electroencephalogram showed slow-wave delta background activity with "delta brushes". The diagnosis was confirmed by NMDAR antibody positivity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
June 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Emmanuel M Knight, Daryl S Schiller, Magda K Fulman, Rupangi Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence suggests that prophylactic oral vancomycin may be beneficial in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence, but long-term efficacy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) in preventing CDI recurrence in subjects who require subsequent antibiotic exposure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a community hospital. A total of 91 subjects with a history of CDI between January 2013 and December 2015 who had a subsequent hospitalization requiring systemic antibiotics within 12 months were evaluated...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Akinobu Kakigi, Teruhiko Okada, Taizo Takeda, Natsumi Uehara, Ken-Ichi Nibu
Objective The endocytosis of cationized feritin (CF) via a clathrin-mediated pathway is regulated by a signaling network. Marginal cells showed the active endocytosis of CF via a clathrin-mediated pathway. The internalization of receptors through this clathrin-mediated pathway is an important regulatory event in signal transduction. Numerous kinases are involved in endocytosis, and each endocytic route is subjected to high-order regulation by cellular signaling mechanisms. In this study, we investigated whether ROCK and MLCK signaling cascades and G-proteins regulate the endocytosis of CF in marginal cells of the stria vascularis...
February 7, 2019: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Huei-Wen Lim, Isaiah P Schuster, Ramona Rajapakse, Farah Monzur, Sundas Khan, Keith Sultan
Background/Aims: : Optimal management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with concomitant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is controversial, especially when CDI diagnosis is made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, which may reflect colonization without infection. Methods: We performed a multicenter review of all inpatients with IBD and PCR diagnosed CDI. Outcomes included length of stay, 30- and 90-day readmission, colectomy during admission and within 3 months, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, CDI relapse and death for patients who received CS after CDI diagnosis versus those that did not...
February 12, 2019: Intestinal Research
Vatsala R Srinivasa, Rahman Hariri, Linda R Frank, Lawrence Kingsley, Emily Magee, Marian Pokrywka, Mohamed H Yassin
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections. Antibiotic stewardship, environmental disinfection, and reduction of transmission via health care workers are the major modes of CDI prevention within hospitals. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the environment in the spread of CDI within hospital rooms. Bed tracing of positive-CDI inpatients was performed to detect the strength of association to specific rooms...
February 2, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Dale N Gerding, Oliver A Cornely, Simon Grill, Hilke Kracker, Anne Claire Marrast, Carl Erik Nord, George H Talbot, Martha Buitrago, Iulian Gheorghe Diaconescu, Claudia Murta de Oliveira, Liliana Preotescu, John Pullman, Thomas J Louie, Mark H Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Cadazolid is a novel quinoxolidinone antibiotic developed for treating Clostridium difficile infection. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of cadazolid compared with vancomycin in patients with C difficile infection. METHODS: IMPACT 1 and IMPACT 2 were identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trials. IMPACT 1 was done in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, Spain, and the USA, and IMPACT 2 was done in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Romania, Slovakia, South Korea, the UK, and the USA...
January 29, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Elsa Cervantes-González, Mariela Anelhayet Guevara-García, Jaime García-Mena, Víctor Manuel Ovando-Medina
The aim of this study was to know the biodiversity of total microorganisms contained in two polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated aged soils and evaluate the strategies of bioaugmentation and biostimulation to biodegrade the biphenyls. Besides, the aerobic cultivable microorganisms were isolated and their capacity to biodegrade a commercial mixture of six congeners of biphenyls was evaluated. Biodiversity of contaminated soils was dominated by Actinobacteria (42.79%) and Firmicutes (42.32%) phyla, and others in smaller proportions such as Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Elena A Usacheva, Lance R Peterson, Katherine Mendoza, Donna M Schora, M Moazzem Hossain, Jian-Ping Jin
Background: Current diagnostics of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) heavily relies on detection of the disease-causing organism. The objective of this study was to investigate a cytoskeletal protein, tropomyosin (Tpm), as a CDI biomarker. Methods: Fecal Tpm was tested by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in a 12-month prospective study. Remnant diarrheal clinical specimens and relevant clinical data were collected. The CDI positive (CDI+ , n = 230) and CDI negative (CDI- , n = 228) groups were composed of samples testing positive or negative by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Xpert® C...
February 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Nielson T Baxter, Alexander W Schmidt, Arvind Venkataraman, Kwi S Kim, Clive Waldron, Thomas M Schmidt
Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, in the gut microbiome is required for optimal health but is frequently limited by the lack of fermentable fiber in the diet. We attempted to increase butyrate production by supplementing the diets of 174 healthy young adults for 2 weeks with resistant starch from potatoes (RPS), resistant starch from maize (RMS), inulin from chicory root, or an accessible corn starch control. RPS resulted in the greatest increase in total SCFAs, including butyrate...
January 29, 2019: MBio
Bhupinder S Romana, Abdulmajeed A Albarrak, Mohamad H Yousef, Veysel Tahan
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in ulcerative colitis (UC). The incidence and severity of CDI in IBD has shown an increasing trend in the last two decades. Patients with IBD are predisposed to CDI secondary to the recurrent use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants and secondary to dysbiosis. It is clinically challenging to distinguish the symptoms of CDI from an IBD flare. The worsening of IBD symptoms demands escalation of steroids or initiation of biologics...
September 2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Sarah E Deery, Paul M Cavallaro, Sean T McWalters, Syrene R Reilly, Holly M Bonnette, David W Rattner, Elizabeth A Mort, David C Hooper, Marcela G Del Carmen, Liliana G Bordeianou
MINI: We began a quality improvement project distributing free Surgical Site Infection Prevention Kits (SSIPK) to all patients undergoing elective colectomy. Patients who received the kit, compared to propensity matched controls who did not receive the kit, had fewer postoperative surgical site infections, lower rates of postoperative ileus, shorter hospital lengths of stay, and fewer readmissions. INTRODUCTION: Patient compliance with preoperative mechanical and antibiotic bowel preparation, skin washes, carbohydrate loading, and avoidance of fasting are key components of successful colorectal ERAS and surgical site infection (SSI)-reduction programs...
January 24, 2019: Annals of Surgery
Bih Yee Chia, Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo, Winnie Lee, Yi Xin Liew, Rachel Pui-Lai Ee, Maciej Piotr Chlebicki, Lynette Lin-Ean Oon, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
BACKGROUND: To minimize Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) incidence which can be life-threatening, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASP) have often been recommended as a viable solution. Our study aims to evaluate whether ASP interventions have contributed to reducing CDI rates. METHODS: A retrospective review of ASP interventions issued from January 2013 to April 2014 was performed using data from the ASP database of Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a 1600-bed tertiary-care hospital...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Marija Barbateskovic, Søren Marker, Anders Granholm, Carl Thomas Anthon, Mette Krag, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Anders Perner, Jørn Wetterslev, Morten Hylander Møller
PURPOSE: Most intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis. We present updated evidence on the effects of prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) versus placebo/no prophylaxis on patient-important outcomes in adult ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of PPI/H2RA versus placebo/no prophylaxis on mortality, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, serious adverse events (SAEs), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), myocardial ischemia, pneumonia, and Clostridium (Cl...
January 24, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Jonathan Cook, Jessica Waughtel, Anthony R Andreoni, Aniket Sakharpe, David Friedman
BACKGROUND: The U.S. FDA approved collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for treatment of Dupuytren contracture in 2010, and approved CCH for the concurrent treatment of up to two cords in 2014. Although outcomes and adverse events (AEs) have been well described for single injections, comparative data on concurrent injections is lacking. METHODS: We reviewed 121 concurrent CCH injections and compared these with 177 single CCH injections over eight years. All injections were performed by a single surgeon, our senior author...
January 21, 2019: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Hoa Q Nguyen, Michael M Tunney, Carmel M Hughes
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing has been reported in care homes. This may result in serious drug-related adverse events, Clostridium difficile colonization, and the development of antimicrobial resistance among care home residents. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes have been reported through clinical trials, but whether antifungal and antiviral prescribing and residential homes have been considered, or how outcomes were measured and reported in such interventions, remains unclear...
January 24, 2019: Drugs & Aging
John C Freedman, Jihong Li, Eric Mi, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens type F strains cause a common human foodborne illness and many cases of nonfoodborne human gastrointestinal diseases. Sporulation plays two critical roles during type F enteric disease. First, it produces broadly resistant spores that facilitate type F strain survival in the food and nosocomial environments. Second, production of C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), the toxin responsible for causing the enteric symptoms of type F diseases, is restricted to cells in the process of sporulation...
January 22, 2019: MBio
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