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Hiroto Yoshikawa, Shigeaki Sunada, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Akira Fujimori, Suad Elmegerhi, Del Leary, Takamitsu A Kato
Canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a locally and systemically aggressive cancer that shares many biological and clinical characteristics with human mucosal melanoma. Hypofractionated radiation protocols have been used to treat CMM but little is known about its radiation biology. This pilot study is designed to investigate response of CMM cell lines to various ionizing radiations and cytotoxic agents to better understand this canine cancer. Four CMM cell lines were evaluated by clonogenic survival assay under aerobic and hypoxic conditions and parameters such as alpha beta (α/β) ratio, oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were calculated after 137 Cs, 6 megavoltage (MV) photon, or carbon ion irradiation...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aihong Mao, Hongyun Guo, Yang Liu, Fang Wang, Jinzhou Tang, Shiqi Liao, Yongdong Zhang, Chao Sun, Xiaojun Xia, Hong Zhang
In spite of carbon ion radiotherapy is a talented modality for malignant tumor patients, the radiation damage of normal tissues adjacent to tumor and the dysfunction of immune system limits therapeutic gain. Protecting immune system against carbon ion radiation-caused damage has the possibility to improve cancer treatment, but it is uncertain whether conventional radioprotective agents play a role in carbon ion radiation. To certify carbon ion caused immune dysfunction and assess the radioprotective effect of melatonin on immune system, animal experiments were performed in radiosensitive BALB/C mice...
February 16, 2019: Toxicology
Mi Sun Chung, Young Jun Choi, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Dok Hyun Yoon, Kyeong Jin Seo, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jung Hwan Baek
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern over computed tomography (CT)-related radiation exposure, particularly in patients requiring head and neck CT due to the proximity of radiosensitive organs. PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of reduced-dose CT of the head and neck with iterative reconstruction in a phantom and patient study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the phantom study, low-contrast resolution test of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine CT performance phantom was scanned to determine the lowest acceptable tube current (mAs)...
February 18, 2019: Acta Radiologica
Colin Rae, Robert J Mairs
Although radiotherapy is often used to treat localized disease and for palliative care in prostate cancer patients, novel methods are required to improve the sensitivity of aggressive disease to ionizing radiation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor which regulates proliferation, aggressiveness and survival of cancer cells. We assessed the ability of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) to sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation. Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3 were treated with X-rays and AICAR then assessed for clonogenic survival, spheroid growth delay, cell cycle progression, and AMPK and p53 activity...
January 22, 2019: Oncotarget
Jakub Dalibor Rybka
Melanoma is responsible for the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Worryingly, prognoses show an increasing number of melanoma cases each year worldwide. Radiotherapy, which is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, has proved to be useful but insufficient in melanoma management due to exceptionally high radioresistance of melanoma cells. This problem could be overcome by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) used as heat mediators in magnetic hyperthermia, which not only enhance radiosensitivity, but also enable precise targeting by exploitation of their magnetic properties...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Chenxi Hu, Wei Zhuang, Yun Qiao, Bin Liu, Liang Liu, Kaiyuan Hui, Xiaodong Jiang
Purpose: The goals of this study were to determine the effects of combined inhibition of STAT3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathways on the radiosensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and to assess the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The expressions of VEGFR2, STAT3, related signaling molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and cyclin D1 were determined by Western blotting. Radiosensitivity was assessed using the colony-forming assay, and cell cycle and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry...
2019: OncoTargets and Therapy
Grazia Lazzari, Alessandra Briatico Vangosa, Maria Assunta De Cillis, Giovanni Silvano
Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by necrotizing granulomas involving mainly the upper-lower respiratory and renal tracts, albeit a potentially life-threatening involvement of other body parts is not rare. Furthermore, there are several reports accounting for an increased risk of solid malignancies due to the autoimmune disease per se, or the immunosuppressive therapies. Among treatments, radiotherapy could be a therapeutic option as proven by its use in typical WG lesions such as solitary granulomas or subglottic stenosis, successfully treated with low radiation dose...
2019: OncoTargets and Therapy
Chenyang Zhang, Liang Yan, Xin Wang, Xinghua Dong, Ruyi Zhou, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Traditional radiotherapy can induce injury to the normal tissue around the tumor, so the development of novel radiosensitizer with high selectivity and controllability that can lead to more effective and reliable radiotherapy is highly desirable. Herein, a new smart radiosensitizer based on Cu2(OH)PO4 nanocrystals that can simultaneously respond to endogenous stimulus (H2O2) and exogenous stimulus (X-ray) is reported. First, Cu2(OH)PO4 nanocrystals can generate CuI sites under X-ray irradiation through X-ray-induced photoelectron transfer process...
February 18, 2019: Nano Letters
Lifei Zhu, Michael B Altman, Andrei Laszlo, William Straube, Imran Zoberi, Dennis E Hallahan, Hong Chen
Hyperthermia therapy (HT) raises tissue temperature to 40-45°C for up to 60 min. Hyperthermia is one of the most potent sensitizers of radiation therapy (RT). Ultrasound-mediated HT for radiosensitization has been used clinically since the 1960s. Recently, magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for thermal ablation therapy, has been adapted for HT. With emerging clinical trials using MRgHIFU HT for radiosensitization, there is a pressing need to review the ultrasound HT technology...
February 14, 2019: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Syed O Ali, Petros Fessas, Joshua D Kaggie, Fulvio Zaccagna, Gavin Houston, Scott Reid, Martin J Graves, Ferdia A Gallagher
The tumor microenvironment is characteristically acidic and this extracellular acidosis is known to play a role in carcinogenesis and metastasis and can affect tumor chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity. Intracellular pH has been used as a possible biomarker of salvageable tissue in ischemic stroke. A non-invasive MRI-based approach for the determination and imaging of cerebral pH would be a powerful tool in cancer diagnosis and monitoring, as well as stroke treatment planning. Several pH-based MRI imaging approaches have been proposed but for these to be useful, disentangling the effects of pH from other parameters which may affect the measured MRI signal is crucial to ensure accuracy and specificity...
February 13, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnus T Dillon, Katharina F Bergerhoff, Malin Pedersen, Emmanuel C Patin, Harriet Whittock, Eva Crespo-Rodriguez, Alex Pearson, James T Paget, Henry G Smith, Radhika R Patel, Shane Foo, Galabina Bozhanova, Chanthirika Ragulan, Elisa Fontana, Krisha Desai, Anna C Wilkins, Anguraj Sadanandam, Alan Melcher, Martin McLaughlin, Kevin J Harrington
PURPOSE: ATR inhibitors (ATRi) are in early phase clinical trials and have been shown to sensitise to chemotherapy and radiotherapy preclinically. No data have been published about the effect of these drugs on the tumor microenvironment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used an immunocompetent mouse model of HPV-driven malignancies to investigate the ATR inhibitor AZD6738 in combination with fractionated radiation (RT). Gene expression analysis and flow cytometry were performed post-therapy...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Pei-Shih Liang, Ronald P Haff, Inna Ovchinnikova, Douglas M Light, Noreen E Mahoney, Jong H Kim
Two natural compounds (quercetin and curcumin) were tested as sensitizing or protecting agents for Navel Orangeworm (NOW) larvae under x-ray sterilization, with the aim to reduce required doses and thus facilitate the substitution of x-ray for radioisotopes. The compounds were added to NOW diet at concentrations between 0 and 1.0 mmol kg-1 and subsequent reared male larvae were subjected to x-ray irradiation (90 keV, 9 mA) to doses up to 15 Gy. Upon emergence as adults, surviving male NOW were paired with colony virgin females and placed in isolation for observation of deformity, mortality, and fertility...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Wun-Ke Chen, Chien-An Chen, Chih-Wen Chi, Li-Hui Li, Chin-Ping Lin, Hui-Ru Shieh, Ming-Ling Hsu, Chun-Chuan Ko, Jeng-Jong Hwang, Yu-Jen Chen
Esophageal cancer prognosis remains poor in current clinical practice. We previously reported that moscatilin can induce apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe in esophageal cancer cells, accompanied by upregulation of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) expression. We aimed to validate in vitro activity and Plk1 expression in vivo following moscatilin treatment and to examine the treatment's radiosensitizing effect. Human esophageal cancer cells were implanted in nude mice. Moscatilin was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected into the mice...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Bi Meng, Yao Xing, Hao Li, Fei Gao, Yang Chen Liu
BACKGROUND POU5F1B, serving as a carcinogen, participates in radiosensitivity of several tumors. However, in esophageal cancer, its potential mechanism and function in regulating radiosensitivity remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression level of POU5F1B was detected in plasma of esophageal tumor patients and cancer cell lines. The effect of POU5F1B knockdown on cell proliferation and colony formation was determined using CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry...
February 14, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Felipe J Núñez, Flor M Mendez, Padma Kadiyala, Mahmoud S Alghamri, Masha G Savelieff, Maria B Garcia-Fabiani, Santiago Haase, Carl Koschmann, Anda-Alexandra Calinescu, Neha Kamran, Meghna Saxena, Rohin Patel, Stephen Carney, Marissa Z Guo, Marta Edwards, Mats Ljungman, Tingting Qin, Maureen A Sartor, Rebecca Tagett, Sriram Venneti, Jacqueline Brosnan-Cashman, Alan Meeker, Vera Gorbunova, Lili Zhao, Daniel M Kremer, Li Zhang, Costas A Lyssiotis, Lindsey Jones, Cameron J Herting, James L Ross, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Shawn Hervey-Jumper, Maria E Figueroa, Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
Patients with glioma whose tumors carry a mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1R132H ) are younger at diagnosis and live longer. IDH1 mutations co-occur with other molecular lesions, such as 1p/19q codeletion, inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor protein 53 (TP53 ) gene, and loss-of-function mutations in alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene ( ATRX ). All adult low-grade gliomas (LGGs) harboring ATRX loss also express the IDH1R132H mutation. The current molecular classification of LGGs is based, partly, on the distribution of these mutations...
February 13, 2019: Science Translational Medicine
Hongbing Ma, Shuyu Zheng, Xiaozhi Zhang, Tuotuo Gong, Xin Lv, Shenbo Fu, Shuqun Zhang, Xiaoran Yin, Jingcan Hao, Changyou Shan, Shan Huang
Resistance to radiotherapy results in relapse and treatment failure in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is reported to be associated with the radioresistance in bladder and breast cancer. However, the role of HMGB1 in the radiotherapy response in ESCC has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of HMGB1 to radioresistance in ESCC clinical samples and cell lines. We found that HMGB1 expression was associated with tumor recurrence after postoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced ESCC patients...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Lisa S Kahalley, M Douglas Ris, Anita Mahajan, M Fatih Okcu, Murali Chintagumpala, Arnold C Paulino, William E Whitehead, Charles G Minard, Heather H Stancel, Jessica Orobio, Judy J Xue, Emily A Warren, David R Grosshans
Background: Proton radiotherapy (PRT) reduces the volume of normal tissue receiving radiation dose, which may lead to better neurocognitive outcomes. We examined change in neurocognitive scores over time in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI), proton focal RT, or surgery only. Methods: Patients received annual neurocognitive evaluations for up to 6 years. We examined Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI), Working Memory (WMI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores...
February 7, 2019: Neuro-oncology
Qiu Chen, Ya-Nan Zeng, Ke Zhang, Ying Zhao, Yong-You Wu, Gen Li, Hui-Ying Cheng, Meng Zhang, Feng Lai, Jin-Bing Wang, Feng-Mei Cui
This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitizing effect of polydatin (PD) on colorectal cancer (CRC) and its underlying mechanism. The C57BL/6 mouse model of CRC was induced by treatment with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and then divided into four groups: control, PD alone, IR alone, and combination of PD and IR. Radiation therapy (200 cGy/min, 10Gy) was performed in mice in the experimental groups for once a week with a total of four times. Thirty minutes before IR, mice were intraperitoneally injected with PD at the dose of 25mg/kg...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Zhenkun Zong, Lei Hua, Zhen Wang, Haoyue Xu, Chengkun Ye, Bomin Pan, Zongren Zhao, Longzhen Zhang, Jun Lu, Liu Hong Mei, Yu Rutong
The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy (RT) improves survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). However, TMZ + RT causes excess toxicity in patients. In this study, we prepared angiopep-2 (A2) modified lipid-poly (hypoxic radiosensitized polyprodrug) nanoparticles for TMZ delivery (A2-P(MIs)25/TMZ) to achieve synergistic effects against glioma. This A2-P(MIs)25/TMZ display highly promising advantages: (1) a hydrophobic P-(MIs)25 core where poorly water-soluble TMZ can be encapsulated; (2) nitro groups of the hydrophobic P-(MIs)25 core that are converted into hydrophilic amino groups (P(NH2 s)25) under low oxygen conditions to mimic the oxygen-increased sensitization to RT; (3) a lipid monolayer at the interface of the core and the shell to modify the A2 (a specific ligand for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1), which are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and human glioma cells), thereby enhancing the drug encapsulation efficiency in glioma...
December 2019: Drug Delivery
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