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Cns tumours and pathology

Guowen Qin, Jin Ye, Shengyong Lan, Youming Liang, Peng Xu, Xihe Tang, Wenwen Guo
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a condition of unknown etiology, and characterized by the proliferation of histiocytes. RDD most commonly affects lymph nodes, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old man who presented with an intradural tumour of the thoracic spine. The patient underwent a laminectomy for tumour resection and pathology results diagnosed the tumour as a RDD. Two years later, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple intracranial dural-based lesions...
February 18, 2019: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Junying Yuan, Palak Amin, Dimitry Ofengeim
Apoptosis is crucial for the normal development of the nervous system, whereas neurons in the adult CNS are relatively resistant to this form of cell death. However, under pathological conditions, upregulation of death receptor family ligands, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF), can sensitize cells in the CNS to apoptosis and a form of regulated necrotic cell death known as necroptosis that is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)...
November 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Mélanie Pagès, Kristian W Pajtler, Stéphanie Puget, David Castel, Nathalie Boddaert, Arnault Tauziède-Espariat, Stéphanie Picot, Marie-Anne Debily, Marcel Kool, David Capper, Christian Sainte-Rose, Fabrice Chrétien, Stefan M Pfister, Torsten Pietsch, Jacques Grill, Pascale Varlet, Felipe Andreiuolo
Ependymoma with RELA fusion has been defined as a novel entity of the revised World Health Organization 2016 classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by fusion transcripts of the RELA gene and consequent pathological activation of the NFkB pathway. These tumors represent the majority of supratentorial ependymomas in children. The validation of diagnostic tools to identify this clinically relevant ependymoma entity is essential. Here, we have used interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for C11orf95 and RELA, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p65-RelA and the recently developed DNA methylation-based classification besides conventional histopathology, and compared the precision of the methods in 40 supratentorial pediatric brain tumors diagnosed as ependymomas in the past years...
October 16, 2018: Brain Pathology
Luca Bertero, Vittorio Anfossi, Simona Osella-Abate, Maria Giulia Disanto, Cristina Mantovani, Francesco Zenga, Roberta Rudà, Diego Garbossa, Riccardo Soffietti, Umberto Ricardi, Mauro Papotti, Paola Cassoni
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a rare neoplasm and its classification criteria have been redefined by the latest WHO Classification of CNS Tumours. Outcome can vary significantly among patients, thus reliable prognostic markers are warranted. METHODS: Primary CNS SFT/HPC diagnosed at the Pathology Unit of our Institution between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively collected. Tumour grade along with immunohistochemistry for Ki67, STAT6, PHH3, CD34 and Bcl-2 were assessed...
2018: PloS One
Gülden Demirci Otluoğlu, M Memet Özek
Metastasis of an intracranial tumour is not a common situation in our daily neurosurgical practice. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is also a rare glial tumour with relatively a favourable prognosis among other CNS pathologies. Here, we present an anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma case which shows both haematogenous and lymphatic metastasis which is described first time in the up-to-date literature. Our case is a 17-year-old male operated for a right occipital intra-axial lesion with a diagnosis of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma which recurs 5 years later and metastasize vigorously through haematogenous and lymphatic routes...
September 4, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Carlos Tavares Bello, Patricia Cipriano, Vanessa Henriques, João Sequeira Duarte, Conceição Canas Marques
Granular cell tumours (GCT) are rare, slow-growing, benign neoplasms that are usually located in the head and neck. They are more frequent in the female gender and typically have an asymptomatic clinical course, being diagnosed only at autopsy. Symptomatic GCT of the neurohypophysis are exceedingly rare, being less than 70 cases described so far. The authors report on a case of a 28-year-old male that presented to the Endocrinology clinic with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. He also reported minor headaches without any major visual symptoms...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Nzechukwu Zimudo Ikeri, Charles Chidozie Anunobi, Olufemi B Bankole
Background: Meningioma in Nigeria has been poorly studied. Its location within the intracranial cavity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Even when completely excised, it has a tendency to recur and this is associated with repeat operations and shortened survival. The World Health Organization (WHO) grade, progesterone receptor (PR) expression and Ki-67 index are predictive for recurrence and are, therefore, useful for individualised management. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PR expression and Ki-67 index of meningiomas received in our institution...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Sung-Hye You, Tae Jin Yun, Hye Jeong Choi, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of arterial spin labelling perfusion weighted images (ASL-PWIs) to differentiate primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) from glioblastoma (GBM). METHODS: ASL-PWIs of pathologically confirmed PCNSL (n = 21) or GBM (n = 93) were analysed. For qualitative analysis, tumours were visually scored into five categories based on ASL-CBF maps. For quantitative analysis, normalised CBF values were derived by contralateral grey matter (GM) in intra- and peritumoral areas (nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral , respectively)...
September 2018: European Radiology
M Kopáčková, P Beránek, I Bydžovská, R Pytlík, J Soukup, M Mrhalová
OBJECTIVE: Presentation of a rare finding non-Hodgkin´s B-lymphoma of the ovary in a patient during caesarean section. DESIGN: Case report. SETTINGS: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Hospital Liberec, a.s.; First Internal Clinic - Clinic of Hematology, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University in Prague; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Praque and Motol University Hospital...
December 0: Ceská Gynekologie
Kim E Schmidt, Janina M Kuepper, Beatrix Schumak, Judith Alferink, Andrea Hofmann, Shanshan W Howland, Laurent Rénia, Andreas Limmer, Sabine Specht, Achim Hoerauf
Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Nils Lannes, Elisabeth Eppler, Samar Etemad, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira
Microglia cells are the unique residential macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). They have a special origin, as they derive from the embryonic yolk sac and enter the developing CNS at a very early stage. They play an important role during CNS development and adult homeostasis. They have a major contribution to adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation. Thus, they participate in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and contribute to aging. They play an important role in sustaining and breaking the blood-brain barrier...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
Anna Burford, Alan Mackay, Sergey Popov, Maria Vinci, Diana Carvalho, Matthew Clarke, Elisa Izquierdo, Aimee Avery, Thomas S Jacques, Wendy J Ingram, Andrew S Moore, Kieran Frawley, Timothy E Hassall, Thomas Robertson, Chris Jones
Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Wesseling, T S Jacques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the CNS. There are 15 reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic vs. malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterized epilepsy-associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEAT)...
March 2018: Brain Pathology
K S Natsis, E Boura, O Kyriazis, A Iliadis, S-A Syntila, I Kostopoulos, T Afrantou
Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia has been linked with various pathological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, tumours, and brainstem inflammatory processes. Herein the authors report a case of a 45-year-old female patient who presented with diplopia due to bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, with no evidence of brainstem lesion in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
Jason Ch Chiang, David W Ellison
Advances in our understanding of the biology of paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours have encouraged pathologists to use molecular markers alongside histopathological analysis for disease classification or prognostication and treatment stratification. In this article, we review molecular genetic alterations in paediatric CNS tumours, including those in low-grade and high-grade gliomas, ependymomas, and embryonal tumours. Some of these molecular changes with clinicopathological utility have been used for the first time in the most recent edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of CNS tumours to define entities like ependymoma, RELA fusion-positive or diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology
Gabriel Olabiyi Ogun, Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Taiwo Olabimpe Babatunde, Olufunmilola Abimbola Ogun, Ayodeji Salami, Biobele Jotham Brown, Effiong Akang
INTRODUCTION: Contrary to some earlier teachings that central nervous system (CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from Ibadan was in 1985. An update of the data on paediatric CNS neoplasms at our centre is presented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed CNS tumours in children (0-14 years) from January 2001 to December 2010 from the database of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was done...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Christoffer Ehrstedt, Ingela Kristiansen, Gunnar Ahlsten, Olivera Casar-Borota, Margareta Dahl, Sylwia Libard, Bo Strömberg
AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours. METHODS: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of ≥5 years after diagnosis...
July 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ben O'Leary, Henry C Mandeville, Naomi Fersht, Francesca Solda, Julie Mycroft, Stergios Zacharoulis, Sucheta Vaidya, Frank Saran
There is no standard treatment for glioblastoma with elements of PNET (GBM-PNET). Conventional treatment for glioblastoma is surgery followed by focal radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide. Given the increased propensity for neuroaxial metastases seen with GBM-PNETs, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with temozolomide (TMZ) could be a feasible treatment option but little is known regarding its toxicity. The clinical records of all patients treated at two UK neuro-oncology centres with concurrent CSI and TMZ were examined for details of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and toxicities related to the CSI-TMZ component of their treatment...
April 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yasuo Sugita, Hiroko Muta, Koichi Ohshima, Motohiro Morioka, Yoshihiro Tsukamoto, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita
Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration...
August 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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