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Bone And Infections

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776366/berberine-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-therapeutic-potential-in-periodontal-regeneration
#1
Rui Zhang, Jie Yang, Juan Wu, Lingling Xiao, Leiying Miao, Xiaole Qi, Yuyan Li, Weibin Sun
Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection-associated disease of the periodontal tissues characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, including alveolar bone. The ideal goal of periodontal therapy is the complete regeneration of alveolar bone in a healthy microenvironment free of infection. In this study, we found that berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid from Coptidis Rhizoma, strongly inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipain is the most important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the process of periodontal tissue destruction...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775902/investigation-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-fbp-and-panton-valentine-leukocidin-pvl-viulance-factors-in-clinical-methicillin-sensitive-and-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#2
Neslihan Cihanoglu, Riza Adaleti, Yasar Nakipoglu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the frequency of fibronectin binding protein (FBP), which is part of the first step of adhesion, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin, which contributes to the destruction of host leukocytes and tissue necrosis, in clinical S. aureus strains. METHODS: One hundred S. aureus strains were included in the study and distributed as follows; 33 from skinwound swabs and catheter tips (SWCT), 33 from body fluid and secretion specimens (BSFS) such as tracheal aspirate, sputum, and pleural effusion fluid, 18 from tissue biopsy specimens (TBS), 10 specimens from blood, and related specimens (BRS) such as bone marrow, and cerebral spinal fluid, and six specimens from mucosal membrane of pharynx, nose, and vagina (MMS)...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775055/functional-and-aesthetic-evaluation-after-cranial-reconstruction-with-polymethyl-methacrylate-prostheses-using-low-cost-3d-printing-templates-in-patients-with-cranial-defects-secondary-to-decompressive-craniectomies-a-prospective-study
#3
Juan Pablo Borges Rodrigues Maricevich, Auricelio B Cezar-Junior, Edilson Xavier de Oliveira-Junior, Jose Arthur Morais Veras E Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Amanda Amorin Nunes, Nivaldo S Almeida, Hildo Rocha Cirne Azevedo-Filho
Background: Cranial reconstruction surgery is a procedure used as an attempt to reestablish the cranial bone anatomy. This study evaluates the symptomatic and aesthetic improvement of patients with cranial defects secondary to decompressive craniectomies after cranial reconstruction with customized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) prostheses. Secondly, we aim to divide our experience in the production of these prostheses with a low-cost method. Methods: A prospective study was carried out with patients submitted to cranioplasty at the Hospital da Restauração between 2014 and 2017...
2019: Surgical Neurology International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774825/unexplained-pancytopenia-in-a-patient-with-5q35-2-q35-3-microduplication-encompassing-nsd1-a-case-report
#4
Sungwoo Park, Gyeong-Won Lee, Eun-Ha Koh, Hyun-Young Kim
The 5q35.2-q35.3 duplication phenotype is characterized by growth delay, microcephaly, mental retardation and delayed bone aging. However, there has been no reports on the occurrence of pancytopenia as a consequence of 5q35.2-q35.3 duplication. A 42-year-old male visited the emergency room due to multiple trauma. He had been diagnosed with mental retardation in the past. No previous history of severe bleeding symptom was also reported. Complete blood cell counts were leukocyte 3.51×109 /L, neutrophil 0.19×109 /L, hemoglobin 8...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774631/the-immunology-of-macrophage-activation-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Courtney B Crayne, Sabrin Albeituni, Kim E Nichols, Randy Q Cron
Synonymous with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a term used by rheumatologists to describe a potentially life-threatening complication of systemic inflammatory disorders, most commonly systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical and laboratory features of MAS include sustained fever, hyperferritinemia, pancytopenia, fibrinolytic coagulopathy, and liver dysfunction. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sCD25) and sCD163 may be elevated, and histopathology often reveals characteristic increased hemophagocytic activity in the bone marrow (and other tissues), with positive CD163 (histiocyte) staining...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774534/radioactive-cement-of-pmma-and-hap-sm-153-ho-166-or-re-188-for-bone-metastasis-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Carlos Julio Montaño, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos
Polymethylmetacrylte (PMMA) is used in the fields of dentistry and biomedicine as a constituent of bone cements. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioceramic produced naturally in the bones. PMMA and HAp are fundamental constituents in the preparation of bone cements. Bisphosphonates have also been used as radiopharmaceutical in dental implants and nuclear medicine, or as palliative systemic treatment for pain reduction in bone metastasis. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are bone cement-based techniques used in orthopedics, being minimally invasive procedures with low risks of infections, applied in osteoporosis and high-impact fractures...
January 2019: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774532/clinical-evaluation-of-patients-with-vancomycin-spacer-retained-for-more-than-12-months
#7
Leonardo Kurebayashi, Adauto Telino de Melo, Fernando Brandão Andrade-Silva, Kodi Edson Kojima, Jorge Dos Santos Silva
Objective: There is no consensus in the literature regarding the time taken to remove antibiotic spacers in the treatment of bone infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of patients with prolonged retention of the same. Methods: Patients selected were diagnosed with post-osteosynthesis infection and/or osteomyelitis and were submitted to treatment using an orthopedic cement spacer (polymethylmethacrylate) with vancomycin, retaining it for a period of more than 12 months...
January 2019: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772469/antibiotic-penetration-into-bone-and-joints-an-updated-review
#8
REVIEW
Abrar K Thabit, Dania F Fatani, Maryam S Bamakhrama, Ola A Barnawi, Lana O Basudan, Shahad F Alhejaili
Treatment of bone and joint infections can be challenging as antibiotics should penetrate through the rigid bone structure and into the synovial space. Several pharmacokinetic studies measured the extent of penetration of different antibiotics into bone and joint tissues. This review discusses the results of these studies and compares them with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of common pathogens implicated in bone and joint infections in order to determine which antibiotics may have a greater potential in the treatment of such infections...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772466/molecular-diagnosis-and-enrichment-culture-identified-a-septic-pseudoarthrosis-due-to-an-infection-with-erysipelatoclostridium-ramosum
#9
Fathiah Zakham, Trestan Pillonel, Anne-Sophie Brunel, Pierre-Yves Zambelli, Gilbert Greub, Antony Croxatto, Claire Bertelli
We describe here a rare case of septic pseudarthrosis due to Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum in a female young patient. The patient, currently in remission from Ewing's sarcoma treated by a bone resection and allograft combined with chemotherapy, suffered from a chronic femoral pseudarthrosis in a context of bone insufficiency and graft resorption. A broad range 16S PCR followed by sequencing, as well as an enrichment culture of a bone biopsy revealed the presence of E. ramosum, an anaerobic firmicute with a low Gram-positive affinity staining and low GC content, that was further characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772050/does-intramedullary-nailing-improve-the-union-rate-or-decrease-mechanical-complications-for-patients-with-extremity-sarcoma-after-biological-reconstruction
#10
Jun Wang, Yi Yang, Rongli Yang, Xiaodong Tang, Wei Guo
INTRODUCTION: This is a retrospective study that evaluate the outcome of patients with extremity sarcoma between extramedullary plate and intramedullary nailing for the biological reconstruction after tumor resection. METHODS: 58 patients (40 treated with plate fixation and 18 with intramedullary nailing, IM group) with sarcomas of the lower and upper extremity who received biological reconstruction at our bone tumor center from November 2003 to November 2015 were reviewed for the study...
February 6, 2019: Injury
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772001/abatacept-initiation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-the-risk-of-serious-infection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
François Montastruc, Christel Renoux, Marie Hudson, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Teresa A Simon, Samy Suissa
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether abatacept as initial biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an increased risk of serious infections, including bone and joint, gastrointestinal, respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract, when compared with other biologic DMARDs. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study among patients newly-treated with biologic DMARDs within the US-based Truven MarketScan® population and Supplemental US Medicare from 2007 to 2014...
January 25, 2019: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771799/modular-megaprosthesis-as-definite-treatment-of-femur-osteomyelitis
#12
C Koutserimpas, K Raptis, A Mari, A Kotsirakis
Chronic osteomyelitis represents a challenging to treat clinical entity. A case of a whole femur chronic osteomyelitis, definitely treated with total femur resection and a positioning of a modular megaprosthesis in 2 stages is presented. An 81-year-old female, with hip hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation plate of the distal femur presented with signs and symptoms of femur osteomyelitis. Based on the clinical, radiologic and laboratory findings, the diagnosis of chronic femur osteomyelitis was established...
January 2019: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771503/natural-and-synthetic-nanopores-directing-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-stem-cells
#13
Johannes Fw Greiner, Martin Gottschalk, Nadine Fokin, Björn Büker, Bernhard Peter Kaltschmidt, Axel Dreyer, Thomas Vordemvenne, Christian Kaltschmidt, Andreas Hütten, Barbara Kaltschmidt
Bone regeneration is a highly orchestrated process crucial for endogenous healing procedures after accidents, infections or tumor therapy. Changes in surface nanotopography are known to directly affect the formation of osteogenic cell types, although no direct linkage to the endogenous nanotopography of bone was described so far. Here we show the presence of pores of 31.93±0.97 nm diameter on the surface of collagen type I fibers, the organic component of bone, and demonstrate these pores to be sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells...
February 13, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771253/growth-response-of-dental-tissues-to-developmental-stress-in-the-domestic-pig-sus-scrofa
#14
Mark F Skinner, Mykolas D Imbrasas, Chris Byra, Matthew M Skinner
OBJECTIVES: To compare relative response of enamel, dentin and bone to developmental stressors between attritional and catastrophic mortality assemblages of pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heads from 70 Sus scrofa of known sex, weight and age comprising an attritional sample of 50 sick pen (SP) pigs that died prematurely versus 20 control pigs slaughtered at 6 months (Catastrophic assemblage). Hard tissue changes (alveolar bone thinning), abnormal bone formation (Harris lines) and re-modeling (auditory bullae) were recorded...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770577/an-in-vitro-biofilm-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-of-bone
#15
E Sweeney, A M Lovering, K E Bowker, A P MacGowan, S M Nelson
Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to treat, with biofilm growth and the diffusion barrier to antibiotics presented by bone contributory factors. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro model of osteomyelitis. A bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus was grown in bone blocks made from bovine femur. Light output was insufficient for detection of bacterial cells within bone by 24 h and viable counting of crushed bone blocks was used to determine bacterial survival. Challenge of 72 h biofilms with gentamicin and daptomycin for 24 h demonstrated that only concentrations of ten times the clinical peak serum target levels (100 mg l-1 gentamicin and 1000 mg l-1 daptomycin) resulted in significant reductions in cell viability compared to controls...
February 15, 2019: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768163/inflammation-status-in-hiv-positive-individuals-correlates-with-changes-in-bone-tissue-quality-after-initiation-of-art
#16
E Lerma-Chippirraz, Marta Pineda-Moncusí, A González-Mena, Jade Soldado-Folgado, H Knobel, M Trenchs-Rodríguez, A Díez-Pérez, Todd T Brown, N García-Giralt, R Güerri-Fernández
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms behind ART-induced bone changes in HIV-infected patients are poorly known. We aimed to analyse changes in inflammatory and bone markers in HIV after tenofovir disoproxil fumarate initiation, and the associations with changes in the bone strength parameters. METHODS: HIV-positive participants starting tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based ART underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (QDR 4500 SL®, Hologic, Waltham, MA, USA) for bone mineral density (BMD), a microindentation test (OsteoProbe®, Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) for bone quality [bone material strength index (BMSi)] and phlebotomy at baseline and 48 weeks after ART...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767644/hard-to-heal-diabetic-foot-ulcers-treated-using-negatively-charged-polystyrene-microspheres-a-prospective-case-series
#17
José Luis Lázaro-Martínez, Yolanda García-Álvarez, Francisco Javier Álvaro-Afonso, Esther García-Morales, I Sanz-Corbalán, Raúl Juan Molines-Barroso
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of a new product based on negatively charged polystyrene microspheres (NCM) technology, in non-responding diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). METHODS: A clinical case series of patients with a hard-to-heal DFU treated with NCM were recruited between March and June 2017 in a specialised diabetic foot unit. DFUs were treated daily with NCM over four weeks, although the health professional could decide to continue NCM treatment in some patients...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Wound Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766533/macrophage-activation-like-syndrome-a-distinct-entity-leading-to-early-death-in-sepsis
#18
REVIEW
Eleni Karakike, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fulminant cytokine storm leading to multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality. HLH is classified into familial (fHLH) and into secondary (sHLH). fHLH is rare and it is due to mutations of genes encoding for perforin or excretory granules of natural killer (NK) cells of CD8-lymphocytes. sHLH is also known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in adults is poorly studied. Main features are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatobiliary dysfunction (HBD), coagulopathy, cytopenia of two to three cell lineages, increased triglycerides and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763789/bmp2-loaded-titania-nanotubes-coating-with-ph-responsive-multilayers-for-bacterial-infections-inhibition-and-osteogenic-activity-improvement
#19
Bailong Tao, Yiman Deng, Liying Song, Wenwen Ma, Ying Qian, Chuanchuan Lin, Zhang Yuan, Lu Lu, Maowen Chen, Xin Yang, Kaiyong Cai
Bacterial infection and surface biointertness are two main causes for titanium (Ti)-based orthopedic implants failure. To improve the antibacterial ability and enhance poor osteogenic property of Ti substrates, in this work, we employed titania nanotubes (TNTs) as Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) carrier, and a pH-responsive multilayer film composed of alginate dialdehyde-gentamicin (ADA-Gen) and chitosan (Chi) was constructed onto BMP2-loaded TNTs substrates through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique, resulting in TNT-BMP2-LBLg samples...
February 7, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763585/lipopolysaccharide-mediates-time-dependent-macrophage-m1-m2-polarization-through-the-tim-3-galectin-9-signalling-pathway
#20
Wang Zhang, Yuntao Zhang, Yuxian He, Xiying Wang, Qiang Fang
Macrophages are dynamic cells whose phenotypes and functions are regulated by surrounding inflammatory mediators after pathogenic infection. Imbalanced polarization of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages is closely associated with infection-related complications and their severity. The pathway of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3) / galectin-9 (Gal-9) plays an important role in infection by regulating macrophage function. However, the effects of Tim-3/Gal-9 signalling on M1/M2 macrophage polarization are unclear...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
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