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Majid Ali, Muhammad Shakeel, Khalid Mehmood
Chitosan and chitosan based materials offer diverse applications in the field of biotechnology, nanotechnology, pharmaceuticals, environmental protection and tissue engineering due to their various biological and physicochemical properties. Major sources of chitosan are shrimps, crabs and lobsters. Properties of chitosan differ with the degree of deacetylation and the molecular weight. Researchers are investigating to produce high quality chitosan in cost effective and time efficient way which was the aim of present study...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fedia Ben Taheur, Bochra Kouidhi, Yasir Mohammed A Al Qurashi, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Kamel Chaieb
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various toxigenic fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. They have mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive and endocrine disrupting effects on both humans and animals. The ubiquitous occurrence and heat stability of these mycotoxins during food and feed processing pose serious health problems in human and animals. Therefore successful biotechnological detoxification tools are in great demand. Recently, the use of bacteria, yeast, moulds and enzymes to mitigate/bind or biodegrade various mycotoxins is a novel strategy used for mycotoxins removal...
February 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
G J Mc Callum, M B Arregui, I Smith, L F Bracco, F Wolman, O Cascone, A M Targovnik, M V Miranda
Expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus-infected insect larvae is a scarcely investigated alternative in comparison to that in insect cell lines, a system with growing popularity in the field of biotechnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior and physicochemical properties of the proteome of Rachiplusia nu larvae infected with recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), in order to design rational purification strategies for the expression of heterologous proteins in this very complex and little-known system, based on the differential absorption between target recombinant proteins and the system's contaminating ones...
February 14, 2019: Protein Expression and Purification
Philip Hartz, Carsten Mattes, Martina Schad, Rita Bernhardt, Frank Hannemann
Over the past decades, Bacillus megaterium has gained significant interest in the biotechnological industry due to its high capacity for protein production. Although many proteins have been expressed efficiently using the optimized xylose inducible system so far, there is a considerable demand for novel promoters with varying activities, particularly for the adjustment of protein levels in multi-enzyme cascades. Genome-wide microarray analyses of the industrially important B. megaterium strain MS941 were applied to identify constitutive and growth phase dependent promoters for the expression of heterologous proteins from the early exponential to the early stationary phase of bacterial growth...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Chang-Muk Lee, Su-Yeon Kim, Sang-Hong Yoon, Jung-Bong Kim, Yoon-Soo Yeo, Joon-Soo Sim, Bum-Soo Hahn, Dong-Gwan Kim
In an effort to isolate novel natural antibiotics, we searched for antibacterial long-chain N-acyl amino acid synthase (NAS) genes from 70,000 soil metagenome clones by Bacillus subtilis-overlaying screening. In an antibacterial cosmid clone, YS92B, a single gene nasYPL was responsible for the production of the Nas. nasYPL was 903 bp long, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest 71% identity with a hypothetical protein from Massilia niastensis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NasYPL belongs to Group 1 Nas...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Sarita Puri, Tapan K Chaudhuri
GroEL is the most commonly used chaperonin protein for both in-vitro refolding of aggregating proteins as well as in-vivo solubilization of over-expressed aggregation-prone proteins of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. But sometimes the stress conditions like heat and a load of over-expressed/unfolded/misfolded proteins lead to a decrease in structural stability and functional efficiency of GroEL, which results in less recovery of substrate protein through the chaperone-mediated refolding process...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vinícius Silva Lima, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Amanda Pereira da Costa Araújo, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Ives Charlie da Silva, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Guilherme Malafaia
The advent of biotechnology provided the synthesis of nanoproducts with diverse applications in the field of medicine, agriculture, food, among others. However, the toxicity of many nanoparticles (NP) currently used, which can penetrate natural systems and impact organisms, is not known. Thus, in this study, we evaluated whether the short exposure (5 days) to low concentrations of chitosan-coated zein nanoparticles (ZNP-CS) (0.2 ng/kg, 40 ng/kg, and 400.00 ng/kg) was capable of causing behavioral alterations compatible with cognitive deficit, as well as anxiety and depression-like behavior in Swiss mice...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahsan Mushir Shemsi, Firdous Ahmad Khanday, Ahsanulhaq Qurashi, Amjad Khalil, Gea Guerriero, Khawar Sohail Siddiqui
Numerous enzymes of biotechnological importance have been immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) via random multipoint attachment, resulting in a heterogeneous protein population with potential reduction in activity due to restriction of substrate access to the active site. Several chemistries are now available, where the modifier can be linked to a single specific amino acid in a protein molecule away from the active-site, thus enabling free access of the substrate. However, rarely these site-selective approaches have been applied to immobilize enzymes on nanoparticles...
February 12, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Stefan Schmideder, Lars Barthel, Tiaan Friedrich, Michaela Thalhammer, Tijana Kovačević, Ludwig Niessen, Vera Meyer, Heiko Briesen
Filamentous fungi are widely used in the production of biotechnological compounds. Since their morphology is strongly linked to productivity, it is a key parameter in industrial biotechnology. However, identifying the morphological properties of filamentous fungi is challenging. Owing to a lack of appropriate methods, the detailed three-dimensional morphology of filamentous pellets remains unexplored. In the present study, we used state-of-the-art X-ray microtomography (μ CT) to develop a new method for detailed characterization of fungal pellets...
February 15, 2019: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Christian Chabannon
Car-T Cells are autologous or allogeneic lymphocytes cells, genetically engineered to express a transmembrane receptor called ?chimeric? because it consists of the assembly of different parts of molecules. These new techniques using biotechnologies (cellular engineering and genetic modifications) are developing in a complex legal context integrating the rules of the European Union (EU) and national rules, aiming to guarantee a high level of security for products and techniques but also for patients. This framework can be either considered as a guaranty for the use of new molecules in a highly secure environment or as an impediment, on the one hand regarding those who want to develop them because of a great complexity in identifying the adequate procedures and regarding the scientific prerequisites expected by the control agencies, and on the other hand by patients who have to wait many years for these innovations to be made available...
July 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Yong Hu, Christof M Niemeyer
In the past 35 years, DNA nanotechnology has grown to a highly innovative and vibrant field of research at the interface of chemistry, materials science, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. Herein, a short summary of the state of research in various subdisciplines of DNA nanotechnology, ranging from pure "structural DNA nanotechnology" over protein-DNA assemblies, nanoparticle-based DNA materials, and DNA polymers to DNA surface technology is given. The survey shows that these subdisciplines are growing ever closer together and suggests that this integration is essential in order to initiate the next phase of development...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
Rahul Vijay Kapoore, María Huete-Ortega, John G Day, Katarzyna Okurowska, Stephen P Slocombe, Michele S Stanley, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
As algal biotechnology develops, there is an increasing requirement to conserve cultures without the cost, time and genetic stability implications of conventional serial transfers, including issues regarding potential loss by failure to regrow, contamination on transfer, mix up and/or errors in the documentation on transfer. Furthermore, it is crucial to ensure both viability and functionality are retained by stored stock-cultures. Low temperature storage, ranging from the use of domestic freezers to storage under liquid nitrogen, is widely being used, but the implication to stability and function rarely investigated...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cansu Uluşeker, Jesús Torres-Bacete, José L García, Martin M Hanczyc, Juan Nogales, Ozan Kahramanoğulları
Escherichia coli have developed one of the most efficient regulatory response mechanisms to phosphate starvation. The machinery involves a cascade with a two-component system (TCS) that relays the external signal to the genetic circuit, resulting in a feedback response. Achieving a quantitative understanding of this system has implications in synthetic biology and biotechnology, for example, in applications for wastewater treatment. To this aim, we present a computational model and experimental results with a detailed description of the TCS, consisting of PhoR and PhoB, together with the mechanisms of gene expression...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Juliah Khayeli Akhwale, Manfred Rohde, Christine Rohde, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Hamadi Iddi Boga, Johannes Wittmann
We report complete genome sequences of eight bacteriophages isolated from Haloalkaline Lake Elmenteita found on the floor of Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacteriophages were sequenced, annotated and a comparative genomic analysis using various Bioinformatics tools carried out to determine relatedness of the bacteriophages to each other, and to those in public databases. Basic genome properties like genome size, percentage coding density, number of open reading frames, percentage GC content and gene organizations revealed the bacteriophages had no relationship to each other...
2019: PloS One
Wilma Raianny Vieira da Rocha, Tales Alexandre Costa-Silva, Gualberto Segundo Agamez Montalvo, Valker Araújo Feitosa, Suellen Emilliany Feitosa Machado, Gláucia Manoela de Souza Lima, Adalberto Pessoa-Jr, Harley da Silva Alves
AIMS: The aim of this study was to find new eukaryotic sources of the L-asparaginase (L-ASNase), since the prokaryotic sources of the enzyme are well reported as causing allergic hypersensitivity reactions in a significant number of patients. This report describes screening for L-ASNase production by filamentous fungi isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga, and the optimization of fermentation parameters to increase fungal growth and improve yield in the production of L-ASNase. METHODS AND RESULTS: 32 filamentous fungi were investigated in this study...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jiao Tang, Liangkun Long, Yunfeng Cao, Shaojun Ding
The thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris when cultured on cellulose produces a cocktail of thermal hydrolases with potential application in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and other biotechnological areas. Glucuronoyl esterases are considered to play a unique role as accessory enzymes in lignocellulosic material biodegradation by cleaving the covalent ester linkage between 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) and lignin in lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs). Two glucuronoyl esterases from T...
February 14, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhixin Wu, Zhongqiu Chen, Xinyue Gao, Jing Li, Guangdong Shang
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a Gram-negative, biosafety strain that plays important roles in environmental and biotechnological applications. Highly efficient genome editing strategy is essential to the elucidation of gene function and construction of metabolic engineered strains. Building on our previously established recombineering-mediated markerless and scarless P. putida KT2440 chromosomal gene deletion methods, herein we combined single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering and CRISPR-Cas9 technologies for P...
February 14, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Andreas Marx, Heike Kropp, Kay Diederichs
Archaeal B-family DNA polymerases (DNA pols) are the driving force of cutting edge biotechnological applications like next-generation sequencing. The acceptance of chemically modified nucleotides by the DNA pols is key to these technologies. By now, no structural data are available for these DNA pols in complex with modified substrates which could build the basis for understanding interactions between the enzyme and the chemical modification and for further development of next generation nucleotides. For the first time we crystallized an exonuclease deficient variant of B-family KOD DNA pol wild-type with a modified nucleotide in a closed, ternary complex...
February 14, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Yessica Parera-Valadez, Alejandro Yam-Puc, Lluvia Korynthia López-Aguiar, Rocío Borges-Argáez, Mario Alberto Figueroa-Saldivar, Mirbella Cáceres-Farfán, Norma Angélica Márquez-Velázquez, Alejandra Prieto-Davó
The quest for novel natural products has recently focused on the marine environment as a source for novel microorganisms. Although isolation of marine-derived actinomycete strains is now common, understanding their distribution in the oceans and their adaptation to this environment can be helpful in the selection of isolates for further novel secondary metabolite discovery. This study explores the taxonomic diversity of marine-derived actinomycetes from distinct environments in the coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula and their adaptation to the marine environment as a first step towards novel natural product discovery...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Ricardo Ulloa, Ana Moya-Beltrán, Camila Rojas-Villalobos, Harold Nuñez, Patricia Chiacchiarini, Edgardo Donati, Alejandra Giaveno, Raquel Quatrini
Extreme acidophiles play central roles in the geochemical cycling of diverse elements in low pH environments. This has been harnessed in biotechnologies such as biomining, where microorganisms facilitate the recovery of economically important metals such as gold. By generating both extreme acidity and a chemical oxidant (ferric iron) many species of prokaryotes that thrive in low pH environments not only catalyze mineral dissolution but also trigger both community and individual level adaptive changes. These changes vary in extent and direction depending on the ore mineralogy, water availability and local climate...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
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