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Milk fortification

Pasqua Piemontese, Domenica Mallardi, Nadia Liotto, Chiara Tabasso, Camilla Menis, Michela Perrone, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Donor human milk (DHM) is the best alternative for preterm infants when their own mother's milk is unavailable. DHM should be pasteurized to guarantee microbiological safety; however, this process can influence the macronutrient content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Holder pasteurization (HoP) on DHM macronutrient content. METHODS: Protein, lactose, lipids (g/100 ml) and energy (kcal/100 ml) of DHM pools were analysed before and after HoP (62...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Joseph Alvin R Santos, Anthea Christoforou, Kathy Trieu, Briar L McKenzie, Shauna Downs, Laurent Billot, Jacqui Webster, Mu Li
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect close to 1.9 billion people worldwide, and are a major public health concern in many countries. Among children, iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable deficits of central nervous system development and impairment of cognitive function, as well as goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. Salt iodisation is the preferred strategy for IDD prevention and control, however, in some instances where salt is not the major condiment, alternate vehicles for iodine fortification have been considered...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jean-Michel Hascoët, Martine Chauvin, Christine Pierret, Sébastien Skweres, Louis-Dominique Van Egroo, Carole Rougé, Patricia Franck
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers' milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable, leading to the risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining the factors influencing mothers' milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first five weeks after premature delivery by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers' nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians, and then analyzed with reference software...
February 10, 2019: Nutrients
Pitiporn Siripattanapipong, Buranee Yangthara, Sopapan Ngerncham
BACKGROUND: The nutritional content of preterm human milk (HM) can be increased by adding human milk fortifier (HMF). Premature formula (PF) has been used as an alternative to HMF due to the high cost of HMF in some countries. However, the osmolality of HM after fortification remains a matter of concern. AIM: To evaluate the osmolality of fortified preterm HM. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. HM was collected from 28 mothers of infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks or birthweight <1500 g...
February 11, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Aftab Siddique, Young W Park
In this study, we manufactured 3 types of caprine milk Cheddar cheese: a control cheese (unfortified) and 2 iron-fortified cheeses, one of which used regular ferrous sulfate (RFS) and the other used large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS). We then compared the iron recovery rates and the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of the 3 cheeses under different storage conditions (temperature and duration). Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, and moisture contents. The RFS (FeSO4 ·7H2 O) and LMFS (with 700- to 800-μm large particle ferrous sulfate encapsulated in nonhydrogenated vegetable fat) were added to cheese curds after whey draining and were thoroughly mixed before hooping and pressing the cheese...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Mariana Dineva, Margaret P Rayman, Deborah Levie, Mònica Guxens, Robin P Peeters, Jesus Vioque, Llúcia González, Mercedes Espada, Jesús Ibarluzea, Jordi Sunyer, Tim I M Korevaar, Sarah C Bath
PURPOSE: As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status. METHODS: Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254)...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
Klara McClunan, Daniel Gerhardus Nel, Muhammad Ali Dhansay, Evette van Niekerk
BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (HBM) is considered inadequate in meeting protein requirements, especially for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, which could affect body composition. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the effect of HBM on body composition of HIV-exposed and unexposed preterm VLBW and extremely low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to ascertain the effect breast milk fortification and days nil per os (NPO) have on body composition...
February 4, 2019: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Ashley John, Ruichen Sun, Lisa Maillart, Andrew Schaefer, Erin Hamilton Spence, Maryanne T Perrin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The composition of human milk varies widely and impacts the ability to meet nutrient requirements for preterm infants. The purpose of this study is to use a large dataset of milk composition from donors to a milk bank to: (1) describe the macronutrient variability in human milk and how it contributes to the ability to meet the protein and calorie targets for the preterm infant using fortification with commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers; (2) assess how temporal versus subject effects explain macronutrient variability; (3) determine how macronutrient variability contributes to the nutrient distribution in pooled donor milk...
2019: PloS One
Sabri Bromage, Enkhmaa Gonchigsumlaa, Margaret Traeger, Bayarbat Magsar, Qifan Wang, Jorick Bater, Hewei Li, Davaasambuu Ganmaa
This study assessed awareness and attitudes regarding industrial food fortification among adults in urban and rural Mongolia, and the city of Harbin, China. Between 2014 and 2017, surveys were collected from healthy men and women aged ≥18 years (182 Harbin residents and 129 urban and rural Mongolians participating in a nationwide nutrition survey in Mongolia). Survey reproducibility was assessed among 69 Mongolian participants to whom it was administered twice (summer and winter). Findings revealed that only 19% of rural and 30% of urban Mongolians, and 48% of Harbin residents were aware that industrial fortification is practiced in their countries...
January 19, 2019: Nutrients
Abadi Leul Welderufael, Birhane Alem Berihu, Yibrah Berhe, Tony Magana, Selemawit Asfaw, Kibrom Gebreselassie, Ezra Beley, Hayelom Kebede, Afework Mulugeta
BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficiency in pregnant women is a confirmed cause of neural tube defects (NTDs). Alongside to this background, We sought to determine the nutritional status and level of awareness on the issue of the NTDs as well as folic acid (FA) utilization among women who born infants with NTDs in Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHOD: A standard interviewer and a food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information from mothers of cases with neural tube defects (n = 205) and their controls (n = 412)...
January 14, 2019: Brain & Development
Robert L Beverly, Mark A Underwood, David C Dallas
Over the course of milk digestion, native milk proteases and infant digestive proteases fragment intact proteins into peptides with potential bioactivity. This study investigated the release of peptides over three hours of gastric digestion in 14 preterm infant sample sets. The peptide content was extracted and analyzed from milk and gastric samples via Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The relative ion intensity (abundance) and count of peptides in each sample were compared over time and between infants fed milk fortified with bovine milk fortifier and infants fed unfortified milk...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Sagar K Thakkar, Carlos Antonio De Castro, Lydie Beauport, Jean-François Tolsa, Céline J Fischer Fumeaux, Michael Affolter, Francesca Giuffrida
We longitudinally compared fatty acids (FA) from human milk (HM) of mothers delivering term and preterm infants. HM was collected for 4 months postpartum at 12 time points for preterm and for 2 months postpartum at 8 time points for term group. Samples were collected from the first feed of the morning, and single breast was fully expressed. FA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector. Oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids were the most abundant FA across lactation and in both groups...
January 8, 2019: Nutrients
Yanyan Li, Jia Hu, Wei Liu, Lide Jin, Peipei Zhou, Yaxin Zhang, Bo Zhang, Randy A Dahlgren, Xuedong Wang, Yikai Zhou
Herein, a novel method, magnetic effervescent tablet-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (META-IL-DLLME), was pioneered for extraction and preconcentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in liquid matrix samples. In this proposed method, a magnetic effervescent tablet, containing CO2 sources, ionic liquids and Fe3 S4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), combines extractant dispersion and magnetic recovery into one-step. Fe3 S4 was synthesized, characterized and applied it for the first time to the newly developed method, and its extraction recoveries (ERs) for PBDEs were 20...
April 1, 2019: Talanta
Jonathan Emiliano Laiño, Romina Levit, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Graciela Savoy de Giori, Jean Guy LeBlanc
Mandatory fortification of foods with folic acid is being questioned by many scientists principally because of the potential adverse secondary effects associated with their excessive consumption. It has been shown that selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to produce natural forms of folate and these could be included in foods to prevent deficiencies without causing adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate folate production and fol gene expression by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp...
June 2019: Food Microbiology
Paul Lips, Renate T de Jongh
Vitamin D deficiency and rickets are more common in non-western immigrants and refugees than in the native population. Severe vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25 nmol/l) may occur in up to 50% of children and adults of non-western origin. They are not used to sunshine exposure due to the often excessive sunshine in the country of origin. They usually have a more pigmented skin. Non-western immigrants and refugees often wear skin-covering clothes due to religious or cultural tradition. The food contains little vitamin D with the exception of fatty fish...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Shashank Gaur, Anna W Waller, Juan E Andrade
INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient malnutrition is a persistent problem in India mainly due to low dietary diversity and poor nutrient density of staple foods. The addition of a commercial micronutrient mix in terms of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics was evaluated. METHODS: The yogurt prepared with reduce-fat milk (2%), 20 g/L CHN-11 fermentation culture and 12 h incubation (42 °C) was diluted at a rate of 35% to yield a 32 mg/100 mL concentration. The premix provided vitamin A, vitamin D, folic acid, iodine, iron, and zinc oxide to cover ~20⁻35% recommended RDA (recommended dietary allowance) per serving (250 mL)...
December 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Glenville Jones
Although vitamin D deficiency was first recognized as rickets/osteomalacia in the early 1600s, it was only a century ago that vitamin D, the nutritional factor responsible, was discovered. This discovery was made difficult by the fact that the substance could be synthesized in human skin by exposure to UV light and could also be present in the diet in animal-derived (D3 ) and plant-derived forms (D2 ). Prior to 1920, the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in the general population of industrialized cities was high...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Hayam Mohamed Abbas, Jihan Mohamed Kassem, Sahar Hassan Salah Mohamed, Wafaa Mohamed Zaky
BACKGROUND: Preparing and producing a healthy new dairy product that attracts consumers is an important issue. Assessing the effects of supplementation of milk with an essential oil to improve the quality of ultra- filtered soft buffalo cheese was the main target of this research. METHODS: UF soft buffalo cheese was traditionally prepared to achieve four treatments: control samples (C) had no additives and (T1, T2 and T3) were supplemented with extracted basil essential oil (E-BO) at concentrations of 0...
October 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Gopal Agrawal, Sanjay Wazir, Surender Kumar, Bir Singh Yadav, Manish Balde
Objectives: The objective of this study was to show the effects of routine vs. selective fortification of human milk (HM) on short-term growth and metabolic parameters. Methods: Single-centre retrospective pre-post cohort study in India. Preterm infants ≤32 weeks' gestation and weighing ≤1500 g were included. Routine fortification: pre-fixed feed volume (100 ml/kg/day in our unit) at which fortification was done. Selective fortification: feed volume was gradually optimized till 180-200 ml/kg/day...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Vijay Gupta, Grace Rebekah, Yesudas Sudhakar, Sridhar Santhanam, Manish Kumar, Niranjan Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To optimize growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, human milk fortification is standard of care in neonatal units of high income countries. However, commercial fortifiers may not be available or it may be too expensive in resource limited settings. As an alternative to using human milk fortifiers, we studied the effects of milk fortification with an infant formula on growth and biochemical parameters of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants Methods: We undertook a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in south India...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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