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Zohre Shahryari, Mohammad H Fazaelipoor, Younes Ghasemi, Patrik R Lennartsson, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
Integrated enzyme production in the biorefinery can significantly reduce the cost of the entire process. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the production of two hydrolyzing enzymes (amylase and xylanase) by an edible fungus used in the biorefinery, Neurospora intermedia . The enzyme production was explored through submerged fermentation of synthetic media and a wheat-based waste stream (thin stillage and wheat bran). The influence of a nitrogen source on N. intermedia was investigated and a combination of NaNO₃ and yeast extract has been identified as the best nitrogen source for extracellular enzyme production...
February 17, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yuhua Tian, Jiuzhi Xu, Yuan Li, Ran Zhao, Sujuan Du, Cong Lv, Wei Wu, Ruiqi Liu, Xiaole Sheng, Yongli Song, Xueyun Bi, Guilin Li, Mengzhen Li, Xi Wu, Pengbo Lou, Huiwen You, Wei Cui, Jinyue Sun, Jianwei Shuai, Fazheng Ren, Bing Zhang, Mingzhou Guo, Xiaohua Hou, Kaichun Wu, Lixiang Xue, Hongquan Zhang, Maksim V Plikus, Yingzi Cong, Christopher J Lengner, Zhanju Liu, Zhengquan Yu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Levels of microRNA 31 (MIR31) are increased in intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated neoplasias. We investigated the effects of this microRNA on intestinal inflammation by studying mice with colitis. METHODS: We obtained colon biopsy samples from 82 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 79 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 34 healthy individuals (controls) at Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital...
February 16, 2019: Gastroenterology
Edwin E Martínez-Leo, Armando M Martín-Ortega, Juan J Acevedo-Fernández, Rosa Moo-Puc, Maira R Segura-Campos
BACKGROUND: M. pruriens L. is a legume sown in the Mexican southeast with an important protein content. Studies have shown the potential byproducts use derived from Mucuna, as functional food because of its hypoglycemic and antihypertensive activity. Thus, this study aims to assess the antioxidant and protective effect of the peptide fractions derived from M. pruriens L., in vitro on HeLa cell line. An enzymatic hydrolysis with pepsin-pancreatin® was performed to the total protein concentrate, from which five peptide fractions were obtained...
February 18, 2019: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Fuyang Li, Quan Wang, Ja-Hwan Seol, Jun Che, Xiaoyu Lu, Eun Yong Shim, Sang Eun Lee, Hengyao Niu
Ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) mis-incorporated during DNA replication are removed by RNase H2-dependent excision repair or by topoisomerase I (Top1)-catalyzed cleavage. The cleavage of rNMPs by Top1 produces 3' ends harboring terminal adducts, such as 2',3'-cyclic phosphate or Top1 cleavage complex (Top1cc), and leads to frequent mutagenesis and DNA damage checkpoint induction. We surveyed a range of candidate enzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for potential roles in Top1-dependent genomic rNMP removal...
February 18, 2019: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
María Del Mar Contreras, Antonio Lama-Muñoz, José Manuel Gutiérrez-Pérez, Francisco Espínola, Manuel Moya, Eulogio Castro
The biorefinery concept is attracting scientific and policy attention as a promising option for enhancing the benefits of agri-food biomass along with a reduction of the environmental impact. Obtaining bioproducts based on proteins from agri-food residues could help to diversify the revenue stream in a biorefinery. In fact, the extracted proteins can be applied as such or in the form of hydrolyzates due to their nutritional, bioactive and techno-functional properties. In this context, the present review summarizes, exemplifies and discusses conventional extraction methods and current trends to extract proteins from residues of the harvesting, post-harvesting and/or processing of important crops worldwide...
February 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Ziwei Li, Jun Zhang, Yufeng Zhang, Zhong Zuo
Simvastatin is known as a pro-drug, which could be hydrolyzed by esterases to its active form, simvastatin acid. Although pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and simvastatin acid have been widely studied, hydrolysis of simvastatin to simvastatin acid during blood sampling and plasma preparation has been overlooked in the previous studies, leading to underestimation of simvastatin concentration and overestimation of simvastatin acid concentration in plasma. Since both efficacy and adverse drug reaction of simvastatin are highly dependent on simvastatin and simvastatin acid concentrations in vivo, accurate assessment of the two compounds are critical in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alexander W Sun, Stephan N Hess, Brian M Stoltz
An enantioselective synthesis of diverse N 4-Boc-protected α,α-disubstituted piperazin-2-ones using the palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation reaction has been achieved. Using a chiral Pd-catalyst derived from an electron deficient PHOX ligand, chiral piperazinones are synthesized in high yields and enantioselectivity. The chiral piperazinone products can be deprotected and reduced to valuable gem -disubstituted piperazines. This reaction is further extended to enable the enantioselective synthesis of α,α-disubstituted tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ones, which are hydrolyzed into corresponding chiral β2,2 -amino acids...
January 21, 2019: Chemical Science
Tatsuo Ito, Keiki Ogino, Kenjiro Nagaoka, Kei Takemoto, Rina Nishiyama, Yurika Shimizu
3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) is generated from the tyrosine residue in atmospheric bio-aerosol proteins via a reaction with ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Stable 3-NT is a specific marker for oxidative damage and is reported to have a promotive effect to elicit allergies. In the present study, we report the development of a highly sensitive assay to quantify 3-NT in air sampler filters to collect < 2.5 µm of particulate matter (PM2.5) from urban environmental air, including bio-aerosol. In this method, a 6 mm-diameter round hole was cut from the filters of air samplers and mixed with a nonspecific protease cocktail in order to hydrolyze proteins...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nobuhiro Aburai, Sayo Maruyama, Kouhei Shimizu, Katsuya Abe
This study focused on a culture system of aerial microalgae with the decomposition of casein protein for obtaining bioactive compounds such as peptides with inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The aerial microalga Vischeria helvetica exhibited growth in BB medium supplemented with casein protein as nitrogen source. The algal cells secreted protease and amino oxidase into the medium, and ammonium ions as a nitrogen source was produced by the conjugated-enzyme reaction. Furthermore, a bioactive peptide with ACE-inhibitory activity was efficiently produced from casein protein by the proteases secreted under light conditions...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Takeshi Yokoyama, Ryota Kitakami, Mineyuki Mizuguchi
MutT homologue 1 (MTH1) protects the nucleotide pool from oxidative stress by hydrolyzing oxidized nucleoside triphosphates and prevents their incorporation into DNA. Cancer cells are dependent on the MTH1 activity for survival due to the high-level of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells; therefore, MTH1 is considered to be a novel target for treatment of various cancers. Here, we show by X-ray crystallographic screening using an in-house cocktail library that α-mangostin, a natural xanthone from mangosteen pericarp, binds to the active site of MTH1...
February 7, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shuisheng Hu, Lin Zhu, Cheong Wing Lam, Longhua Guo, Zhenyu Lin, Bin Qiu, Kwok Yin Wong, Guonan Chen, Zhenhua Liu
A copper(II)-based two-dimensional metal-organic framework with nanosheet structure (CuBDC NS) that possesses peroxidase (POx) mimicking activity was prepared. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the system catalyses the oxidation of terephthalic acid to a blue-fluorescent product (excitation = 315 nm; emission = 425 nm). Pyrophosphate has a very strong affinity for Cu2+ ion and blocks the POx-mimicking activity of the CuBDC NS. If, however, inorganic pyrophosphatase is present, the POx mimicking activity is gradually restored because pyrophosphate is hydrolyzed...
February 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Qiao Liu, Chao Liu, Guang Zhu, Haifeng Xu, Xiao Jie Zhang, Chongju Hu, Yong Xie, Keying Zhang, Hongyan Wang
An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) based method is described for the determination of the activity of the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). It is based on the use of nicking enzyme-assisted signal amplification and catalytic hairpin assembly. UDG can recognize and hydrolyze the uracil bases from the stem of hairpin DNA1 (HP1). This causes the opening of HP1 to form a straight strand DNA. The straight HP1 can hybridize with hairpin DNA2 (HP2) to form a DNA duplex. In the presence of nicking enzyme, it can recognize and cut the specific sequences in the HP2 of the DNA duplex, and a subsequent release of HP1...
February 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Fanghui Zhang, Rongrong Li, Yunshan Yang, Chunhui Shi, Yingying Shen, Chaojie Lu, Yinghu Chen, Wu Zhou, Aifu Lin, Lei Yu, Wanjing Zhang, Zhenwei Xue, Jianli Wang, Zhijian Cai
Systemic immunosuppression greatly affects the chemotherapeutic antitumor effect. Here, we showed that CD19+ extracellular vesicles (EVs) from B cells through CD39 and CD73 vesicle-incorporated proteins hydrolyzed ATP from chemotherapy-treated tumor cells into adenosine, thus impairing CD8+ T cell responses. Serum CD19+ EVs were increased in tumor-bearing mice and patients. Patients with fewer serum CD19+ EVs had a better prognosis after chemotherapy. Upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) promoted B cells to release CD19+ EVs by inducing Rab27a mRNA transcription...
February 6, 2019: Immunity
Md Tabish Rehman, Mohamed F AlAjmi, Afzal Hussain, Gulam Mohmad Rather, Meraj A Khan
The bacteria expressing New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) can hydrolyze all β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, causing multi-drug resistance. The worldwide emergence and dissemination of gene bla NDM-1 (produces NDM-1) in hospital and community settings, rising problems for public health. Indeed, there is an urgent need for NDM-1 inhibitors to manage antibiotic resistance. Here, we have identified novel non-β-lactam ring-containing inhibitors of NDM-1 by applying a high-throughput virtual screening of lead-like subset of ZINC database...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Heidi E Schwartz-Zimmermann, Sabina B Binder, Christian Hametner, Eugènia Miró-Abella, Christiane Schwarz, Herbert Michlmayr, Nicole Reiterer, Silvia Labudova, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller
Plant-derived mycotoxin conjugates like deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside can be partly hydrolyzed to their aglycones in vivo, albeit to different extent depending on the mycotoxin conjugate and on the animal species. The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolization of the trichothecene mycotoxin nivalenol (NIV) and the fate of its modified form NIV-3-glucoside (NIV3 G) in rats. To that end, 350 µg/kg body weight of NIV and the equimolar dose of NIV3 G were administered to six rats by gavage in a 5 × 6 design and excreta were collected for 2 days after each treatment...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology Letters
Steffen Daum, Johannes Toms, Viktor Reshetnikov, Gizem Hülya, Frank Hampel, Simone Maschauer, Amir H Hakimioun, Frank R Beierlein, Olaf Prante, Andriy Mokhir, Leopold Sellner, Michael Schmitt
N-Alkylaminoferrocene (NAAF)-based prodrugs are activated in the presence of elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that corresponds to cancer specific conditions, with formation of NAAF and p-quinone methide. These both products act synergistically by increasing oxidative stress in cancer cells that causes their death. Though it has been already demonstrated that the best prodrugs of this type retain their antitumor activity in vivo, the effects were found to be substantially weaker than those observed in cell cultures...
February 15, 2019: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Genoa R Warner, Zhong Li, Madeline L Houde, Cassandra E Atkinson, Daryl D Meling, Catheryne Chiang, Jodi A Flaws
Phthalates are synthetic chemicals with widespread human exposure due to their use as additives in consumer products. Phthalate diesters are hydrolyzed in the environment and in the body to monoesters that may be more toxic than the parent compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that adult mouse antral follicles, but not neonatal ovaries, are able to metabolize an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates. Whole neonatal ovaries and isolated adult antral follicles from CD-1 mice were cultured in media treated with vehicle control or 0...
February 15, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Philip I Richards, Gavin T Lawson, Jamie F Bickley, Craig M Robertson, Jonathan A Iggo, Alexander Steiner
Trimethylaluminum finds widespread applications in chemical and materials synthesis, most prominently in its partially hydrolyzed form of methylalumoxane (MAO), which is used as a cocatalyst in the polymerization of olefins. This work investigates the sequential reactions of trimethylaluminum with hexaprotic phosphazenes (RNH)6 P3 N3 (=XH6 ) equipped with substituents R of varied steric bulk including tert-butyl (1H6 ), cyclohexyl (2H6 ), isopropyl (3H6 ), isobutyl (4H6 ), ethyl (5H6 ), propyl (6H6 ), methyl (7H6 ), and benzyl (8H6 )...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Lisa Katharina Maresch, Pia Benedikt, Ursula Feiler, Sandra Eder, Kathrin A Zierler, Ulrike Taschler, Stephanie Kolleritsch, Thomas O Eichmann, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Christina Leopold, Beatrix I Wieser, Caroline Lackner, Thomas Rülicke, Jan van Klinken, Dagmar Kratky, Tarek Moustafa, Gerald Hoefler, Guenter Haemmerle
Murine hepatic carboxylesterase 2c ( Ces2c ) and the presumed human ortholog carboxylesterase 2 ( CES2 ) have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and obese humans. These studies demonstrated that Ces2c hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. Interestingly, Ces2c / CES2 is most abundantly expressed in the intestine, indicating a role of Ces2c / CES2 in intestinal TG metabolism. Here we show that Ces2c is an important enzyme in intestinal lipid metabolism in mice...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Awdhesh Kumar Mishra, Jinhee Choi, Muhammad Fazle Rabbee, Kwang-Hyun Baek
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute one of the largest gene families in all living organisms, most of which mediate transport across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. However, detailed studies of ABC transporter genes in the important oil crop, soybean, are still lacking. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and transcriptional analyses of the ABC gene family in G . max . A total of 261 G . max ABC (GmABCs) genes were identified and unevenly localized onto 20 chromosomes...
2019: BioMed Research International
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