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Infectious laryngotracheitis

Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Shayan Sharif, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
BACKGROUND: Single stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) binds to toll-like receptor (TLR)7 leading to recruitment of immune cells and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which has been shown in mammals. In chickens, synthetic ssRNA analog, resiquimod, has been shown to elicit antiviral response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. The objective of this study was to determine the innate host responses activated by the pre-hatch in ovo administration of resiquimod against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection in chickens post-hatch...
February 8, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Stephen J Spatz, Maricarmen Garcia, Sylva Riblet, Teresa A Ross, Jeremy D Volkening, Tonya L Taylor, Taejoong Kim, Claudio L Afonso
Over the last decade the US broiler industry has fought long-lasting outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV). Previous nine genotypes (I-IX) of ILTVs have been recognized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) method with three viral alleles (gB, gM and UL 47/gG). In this study, the genotyping system was simplified to six genotypes by amplicon sequencing and examining discriminating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these open reading frames...
February 5, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Emily J Aston, Brian J Jordan, Susan M Williams, Maricarmen García, Mark W Jackwood
Avian respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in commercial poultry. Because of the need to protect long-lived poultry against respiratory tract pathogens from an early age, vaccination programs for pullets typically involve serial administration of a variety of vaccines, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Often the interval between vaccinations is only a matter of weeks, yet it is unknown whether the development of immunity and protection against challenge when vaccines are given in short succession occurs in these birds, something known as viral interference...
February 2, 2019: Viruses
Victor A Palomino-Tapia, Guillermo Zavala, Sunny Cheng, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of chickens controlled through vaccination with live-modified attenuated vaccines, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) and the tissue-culture origin (TCO). Recently, novel recombinant vaccines have been developed using herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) and fowl pox virus (FPV) as vectors to express ILTV immunogens for protection against ILT. The objective of this study was to assess the protection efficacy against ILT induced by recombinants; live-modified attenuated; and inactivated virus vaccines when administered alone or in combination...
January 14, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ahmad J Sabir, Timothy E Adams, Denise O'Rourke, Joanne M Devlin, Amir H Noormohammadi
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes upper respiratory tract disease in chickens and significant losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Both antibody and cell-mediated responses are generated against ILTV infection; however, the correlation of humoral immune response with protection against ILTV infection is debatable. To examine if whether antibody responses to individual ILTV glycoproteins are correlated with disease and protection, four ILTV glycoproteins (gD, gE, gG and gJ) were expressed as recombinant proteins and used in conjunction with commercially available recombinant gC and gI in indirect ELISAs to measure post-vaccination and/or post-challenge chicken serum antibodies...
January 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
Mesula G Korsa, Joanne M Devlin, Carol A Hartley, Glenn F Browning, Mauricio J C Coppo, José A Quinteros, Carlos A Loncoman, Adepeju E Onasanya, Dulari Thilakarathne, Andrés Diaz-Méndez
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Efforts to improve the control of this disease have resulted in the generation of new vaccine candidates, including ILTV mutants deficient in virulence factors...
2018: PloS One
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
Using Luminex xMAP (x = analyte, MAP = multi-analyte profiling) technology, a serological method for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) was established. Nano-magnetic beads coated with purified NDV protein and AIV nucleoprotein were incubated with serum samples. Using biotinylated rabbit anti-chicken IgY and streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin, the optical signals measured by a Luminex 200 detection system indicated the quantification of NDV or AIV antibodies in the serum...
November 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Ismaila Shittu, Adeyinka J Adedeji, Pam D Luka, Olayinka O Asala, Nancy M Sati, Ijeoma O Nwagbo, Chinonyerem N Chinyere, Oluwadamilola O Arowolo, Jolly A Adole, Paulinus Emennaa, Paul A Abdu, Tony M Joannis
Globally, vaccines are used to prevent and control the menace of infectious diseases in livestock with some reported to be inadvertently contaminated with extraneous agents (EAs). With the aim of screening and characterizing for some selected EAs, 44 live viral poultry vaccines were randomly selected based on availability. The vaccines comprised 14 manufacturers in 10 different countries including Nigeria were screened by Polymerase Chain Reaction. In 9% (4/44) of the vaccines, contamination with only avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J (ALV-J) was recorded...
November 16, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Yuhao Shao, Junfeng Sun, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
In this study, we isolated and identified an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) that was naturally avirulent in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, with the aim of developing a more efficacious vaccine against ILTV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We constructed a US9-deleted ILTV mutant based on this avirulent ILTV, and then constructed a recombinant ILTV (designated ILTV-ΔUS9-F) expressing the fusion protein (F) of the genotype VII NDV based on the US9-deleted ILTV mutant. Expression of the F protein in ILTV-ΔUS9-F-infected cells was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blotting...
November 15, 2018: Vaccine
Feng Cong, Yujun Zhu, Jing Wang, Yuexiao Lian, Xiangnan Liu, Li Xiao, Ren Huang, Yu Zhang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: Chicken anemia virus (CAV), avian reovirus (ARV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) all cause immunosuppressive disease in birds through vertical or horizontal transmission. Mixed infections with these immunosuppressive pathogens lead to atypical clinical signs and obstruct accurate diagnoses and epidemiological investigations. Therefore, it is essential to develop a high-throughput assay for the simultaneous detection of these immunosuppressive viruses with high specificity and sensitivity...
November 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Linda Gergen, Stephanie Cook, Brooke Ledesma, Wade Cress, Deb Higuchi, Diane Counts, Julio Cruz-Coy, Colin Crouch, Phillip Davis, Ian Tarpey, M Morsey
A double recombinant strain of herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) was constructed that contains the fusion (F) gene from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the gD plus gI genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) inserted into a non-essential region of the HVT genome. Expression of the F protein was controlled by a human cytomegalovirus promoter, whereas expression of gD plus gI was driven by an ILTV promoter. The double recombinant vaccine virus (HVT-NDV-ILT) was fully stable genetically and phenotypically following extended passage in cell culture and infection of chickens...
November 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A Magouz, Sh Medhat, S Abou Asa, A Desouky
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) disease is an acute highly contagious viral disease leading to massive economic losses to the national poultry industry. This study aimed to identify the most accurate and rapid diagnostic methods to rescue layer poultry farms from intense outbreaks in Egypt. Fifty pathological specimens were collected and subjected to virus isolation (VI), histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Egg inoculation revealed stunted growth and white pock lesions on chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) in 23 samples...
2018: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, Gabriela Beltrán, Sylva Riblet, Carolina O Freitas, Maricarmen García, Joanne M Devlin
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 ) causes mild to severe respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Recombination in this virus under natural (field) conditions was first described in 2012 and more recently has been studied under laboratory conditions. Previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have also demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains generated highly virulent viruses that produced widespread disease within poultry flocks in Australia...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination. METHOD: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system...
September 21, 2018: Virology Journal
Claudio Verdugo, Adrián Pinto, Naomi Ariyama, Manuel Moroni, Carlos Hernandez
We identified two RNA (paramyxovirus and coronavirus) and two DNA (adenovirus and herpesvirus) viruses in a common aquatic bird, the Neotropic Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and determined their phylogenetic relationships to other global circulating variants. We analyzed 104 cloacal swabs from individuals collected at locations in Central Chile. Sequences were obtained from amplicons using consensus primers targeting conserved genes of the virus families Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Herpesviridae...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Glenn F Browning, José A Quinteros, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Dulari Thilakarathne, Omid Fakhri, Paola K Vaz, Joanne M Devlin
Recombination is closely linked with virus replication and is an important mechanism that contributes to genome diversification and evolution in alphaherpesviruses. Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV; Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes respiratory disease in poultry. In the past, natural (field) recombination events between different strains of ILTV generated virulent recombinant viruses that have caused severe disease and economic loss in poultry industries. In this study, chickens were vaccinated with attenuated ILTV vaccines to examine the effect of vaccination on viral recombination and diversity following subsequent co-inoculation with two field strains of ILTV...
September 11, 2018: Vaccine
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Engagement of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with TLR4 in mammals activates two downstream intracellular signaling routes; the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD)88 dependent and independent pathways. However, existence of the later pathway leading to production of type I interferons (IFNs) in avian species has been debated due to conflicting observations. The objective of our study was to investigate whether LPS induces type I IFN production in chicken macrophages leading to antiviral response attributable to type I IFN...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Xianghe Zhai, Shilei Zhang
In this study, a pair of primers were designed and synthesized for the gB gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) (GenBank accession number: EU104985). The recombinant plasmid was constructed as the positive reference material, and a real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) method was established to detect ILTV using synergy brands (SYBR) Green I. This method could detect 3.34 × 103 copies/μL viral nucleic acid in the initial template, the sensitivity of this method was higher than that of the conventional PCR, and the coefficient of variation (CV) in the repeatability test by this method was 3...
November 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Ariel Eduardo Vagnozzi, Gabriela Beltrán, Guillermo Zavala, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif, Maricarmen García
The objective of this study was to determine how cytokine transcription profiles correlate with patterns of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication in the trachea, Harderian gland, and trigeminal ganglia during the early and late stages of infection after intratracheal inoculation. Viral genomes and transcripts were detected in the trachea and Harderian gland but not in trigeminal ganglia. The onset of viral replication in the trachea was detected at day one post-infection and peaked by day three post-infection...
October 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Gustavo H Schneiders, Sylva M Riblet, Maricarmen García
In an effort to produce more stable vaccines for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), recombinant strains with deletion of genes associated with virulence have been evaluated for attenuation and protection efficacy. Among viral genes associated with virulence, a cluster of five open reading frames (ORFs; A through E) have been identified. An attenuated ILTV recombinant strain with deletion of the ORF C gene induced protection comparable to that elicited by the tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine when administered via eyedrop...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
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