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Diamond McGehee, Mohammad Alimohammadi, Maria V Khodakovskaya
Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) were previously described as regulators of plant cell division. Here, we demonstrated the ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene to enhance biomass production in callus culture of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus cultivated in dark conditions. Furthermore, both tested CBNs were able to stimulate biosynthesis of total produced alkaloids in CBN-exposed callus culture of Catharanthus. In one case, total alkaloids in CBN-exposed Catharanthus were double that of unexposed Catharanthus...
March 22, 2019: Nanotechnology
LaTrice Montgomery, Erin A McClure, Rachel L Tomko, Susan C Sonne, Theresa Winhusen, Garth E Terry, Jason T Grossman, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of blunt smoking among cannabis users, very few studies examine the clinical profile of blunt smokers relative to those using more common methods of cannabis use, such as joints. METHODS: The current study uses baseline data from the ACCENT (Achieving Cannabis Cessation-Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment) study, a multi-site randomized pharmacotherapy clinical trial within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, to predict the association between blunt and joint use frequency and cannabis use characteristics (e...
March 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Francesca Graziano, Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
HIV-1 infects CD4+ T lymphocytes with a 'helper' function and myeloid cells, mostly tissue-resident macrophages. While infection of CD4 T lymphocytes in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) leads to their depletion and to a profound immunodeficiency, macrophages are resistant to virus-induced cytopathicity and are a source of infectious virus, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). Infected macrophages are characterized by accumulating newly formed viral particles (virions) in subcellular vacuoles defined as 'virus-containing compartments (VCC)', derived from invaginations of the plasma membrane, that are poorly accessible to antiretroviral agents and anti-HIV antibodies...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Dariusz C Górecki
Mutations in the dystrophin and sarcoglycans genes result in muscular dystrophies causing severe disability and premature death and where no effective treatment is available. New therapeutic approaches targeting secondary disease mechanisms have a strong translational potential. Dystrophic muscle damage triggers release of ATP whilst loss of ecto-ATPase activity of sarcoglycan further elevates extracellular ATP (eATP) levels. Such a high eATP activates P2X7 purinoceptors on immune cells; these contribute to chronic inflammatory and immune responses that exacerbate the dystrophic pathology...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Donghu Zhang, Tian Yang, Jianyang Lin
As a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, WSJ-557 is a potential drug for gout. To determine the WSJ-557 concentration in plasma and various tissues of rats, a fast and sensitive method was first established by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in this paper. The liquid-liquid extraction of ethyl acetate was adopted for the sample preparation, and carbamazepine was taken as the internal standard. In the process of chromatographic separation, MRM transitions for WSJ-557 and carbamazepine (internal standard, IS) were m/z 316...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marina Antonio, Natalia L Calvo, Rubén M Maggio
The assessment of polymorphism is a problematical issue for regulatory agencies, because variations among crystalline forms of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can lead to changes in the efficacy and safety of formulated product. Such conversions are very hard to be detected, thus, the development of techniques for the identification, characterization and quantification of polymorphs results essential in all stages of the manufacturing process. The presence of excipients in formulated products may change the crystal stability of an API, by catalyzing a polymorphic transformation or stabilizing the less stable form...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yan-Feng Huang, Qiao-Ping Li, Yao-Xing Dou, Tong-Tong Wang, Chang Qu, Jia-Li Liang, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Xiao-Qi Huang, Zi-Ren Su, Jian-Nan Chen, You-Liang Xie
Brucea javanica is an important Chinese folk medicine traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery (also known as inflammatory bowel diseases). Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE), the most common preparation of Brucea javanica, has a variety of pharmacological activities. In this follow-up investigation, we endeavored to illuminate the potential benefit of BJOE on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease (CD) in rats and decipher the mechanism of action. The result illustrated that BJOE treatment significantly reduced the body weight loss, disease activity index and macroscopic scores, ameliorated shortening of colon length, arrested colonic histopathological deteriorations, lowered the histological scores in parallel to the model group...
March 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Berenice Ovalle-Magallanes, Andrés Navarrete, Pierre S Haddad, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega, Claudia Tovar-Palacio, Rachel Mata
BACKGROUND: Swietenia humilis seeds are consumed in Mexico to treat type 2 diabetes; the antihyperglycemic effect of this species was previously demonstrated and related to the presence of tetranortriterpenoids of the mexicanolide class. PURPOSE AND STUDY DESIGN: The present investigation was conducted to determine the mechanism of action of selected mexicanolides, including 2-hydroxy-destigloyl-6-deoxyswietenine acetate (1), methyl-2-hydroxy-3-β-tigloyloxy-1-oxomeliac-8(30)-enate (2) and humilinolide H (3), using in vivo experiments with hyperglycemic mice, and cell-based models...
March 13, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ying-Ju Lin, Wen-Miin Liang, Chao-Jung Chen, Hsinyi Tsang, Jian-Shiun Chiou, Xiang Liu, Chi-Fung Cheng, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Jianxin Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Te-Mao Li
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are a resource of natural compounds (ingredients) and their potential chemical derivatives with anticancer properties, some of which are already in clinical use. Bei-Mu (BM), Jie-Geng (JG), and Mai-Men-Dong-Tang (MMDT) are important CHMs prescribed for patients with lung cancer that have improved the survival rate. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systemically investigate the mechanisms of action of these CHM products in lung cancer cells...
March 13, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Meiying Su, Chao Dong, Jiyun Wan, Maojin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside (TRG), isolated from the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Huzhang, has been shown to have a wide range of pharmacological benefits. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of TRG and its metabolites, (TRN (trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide) and TR (trans-resveratrol)), following a single intragastric (i.g.) administration of TRG in rats. STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of TRG, TRN and TR, groups of rats were administrated a single i...
March 13, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ajay N Ambhore, Sonali S Kamble, Shuddhodan N Kadam, Rahul D Kamble, Madhav J Hebade, Shrikant V Hese, Milind V Gaikwad, Rohan J Meshram, Rajesh N Gacche, Bhaskar S Dawane
Development of novel, safe and effective drug candidates combating the emerging drug resistance has remained a major focus in the mainstream of anti-tuberculosis research. Here, we inspired to design and synthesize series of new pyridin-4-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-thio-ethylidene-hydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives as potential anti-tubercular agents. The anti-tubercular bioactive assay demonstrated that the synthesized compounds exhibit potent anti-tubercular activity (MIC = 3.9-7.81 μg/mL) in comparison with reference drugs Rifampicin and Isoniazid...
March 13, 2019: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Tanisha L Hammill, Elizabeth McKenna, Quintin Hecht, Kari Buchanan, Nina Pryor
OBJECTIVE: Information is summarized from the overall body of published literature regarding ototoxic chemicals encountered outside of clinical exposures, largely in occupational settings. While summarizing the most common non-pharmaceutical ototoxins, this review provides clinically relevant information and recommendations such that hearing health professionals may adopt a more comprehensive and appropriate diagnostic case history, test battery, documentation scheme, and education delivery...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Yuval Glick, Ariel Furer, Karina Glick, Avraham Yitzhak, Tal Brosh
INTRODUCTION: Combat wound infection is a common and serious complication, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In 2005, a point of injury antimicrobial protocol was published by the Israel Defense Forces, in which Moxifloxacin was chosen. During 2016-2017, a revision of this protocol was performed and concluded with the publication of an updated protocol. The purpose of this report is to present this process and the revised protocol, together with a review of the literature...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Hyesook Lee, Sangwon Jeon, Chae Eun Kim, Young-Joon Park, Jaewook Yang
Purpose: The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of sulglycotide (SOS), a polysulfated glycopeptide derived from porcine duodenal mucin, for the treatment of dry eye disease. Methods: NOD.B10.H2b mice were exposed to an air draft for 10 days, and, simultaneously, scopolamine hydrobromide was injected subcutaneously. The mice were randomly divided into nine groups as follows: four kinds of SOS formulations and three kinds of commercial medicine...
March 1, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Huanyu Zhou, Li Xi, Daniel Ziemek, Shawn O'Neil, Julie Lee, Zachary Stewart, Yutian Zhan, Shanrong Zhao, Ying Zhang, Karen Page, Austin Huang, Mateusz Maciejewski, Baohong Zhang, Kenneth J Gorelick, Lori Fitz, Vivek Pradhan, Fabio Cataldi, Michael Vincent, David Von Schack, Kenneth Hung, Mina Hassan-Zahraee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To define pharmacodynamic and efficacy biomarkers in ulcerative colitis [UC] patients treated with PF-00547659, an anti-human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 [MAdCAM-1] monoclonal antibody, in the TURANDOT study. METHODS: Transcriptome, proteome and immunohistochemistry data were generated in peripheral blood and intestinal biopsies from 357 subjects in the TURANDOT study. RESULTS: In peripheral blood, C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 [CCR9] gene expression demonstrated a dose-dependent increase relative to placebo, but in inflamed intestinal biopsies CCR9 gene expression decreased with increasing PF-00547659 dose...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Monika P Oktora, Petra Denig, Jens H J Bos, Catharina C M Schuiling-Veninga, Eelko Hak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Polypharmacy is becoming increasingly common owing to the ageing population, which can pose problems for patients and society. We investigated the trends in polypharmacy and underlying drug groups among adults in the Netherlands from 1999 to 2014 stratified by age, and compared these with findings from the United States (US). METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study using the Dutch prescription database. All patients aged 20 years and older in the period 1999 to 2014 were included...
2019: PloS One
Masato Kobayashi, Toshitaka Kato, Kohshin Washiyama, Masaaki Ihara, Asuka Mizutani, Kodai Nishi, Leo G Flores, Ryuichi Nishii, Keiichi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Although a 3-arm DOTA construct, which has three carboxylic acids, h has been applied for conjugation to many peptides, we investigated if a 4-arm DOTA construct conjugated to peptides improves chemical properties for melanoma imaging of the melanocortin 1 receptor compared to 3-arm DOTA-conjugated peptides. METHODS: Specific activities, radiolabeling efficiencies, and partition coefficients were evaluated using 111In-labeled 3-arm and 4-arm DOTA-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)...
2019: PloS One
Andrea Neri, Elisa Scalzotto, Valentina Corradi, Carlotta Caprara, Alberto Salin, Manuela Cannone, Massimo De Cal, Giulio Romano, Patrizia Tulissi, Anna Rosa Cussigh, Domenico Montanaro, Annachiara Frigo, Davide Giavarina, Stefano Chiaramonte, Claudio Ronco
Background Acute rejection (AR) is one of the most frequent complications after kidney transplantation (KT). Scientific evidence reports that some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes involved in the immune response and in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive drugs are associated with rejection in renal transplant patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate some SNPs located in six genes: interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A9 (UGT1A9), inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 (IMPDH1) and IMPDH2...
March 22, 2019: Diagnosis
Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Abdoulaye Djimdé, Stéphane Picot
Global malaria cases have not been significantly reduced over the last three years although more than USD 3 billion was invested in malaria control and elimination. The reasons for this stagnation are highly complex and multi-factorial. It remains that almost three billion treatment courses were supplied over the period 2010-2017: 30% of them without malaria tests, and some with suboptimal doses leading to the risk of selection of resistant parasites. An antimalarial stewardship program should be implemented at the healthcare provider, physician, pharmacist, medical student, and population levels...
2019: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Lin Chen, Xuxiao Ye, Kuan Hu, Yu Zhai, Wenping Li, Xin Wang, Jin Yang
1. 2-[1-Hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH), a second-generation photosensitizer, has been widely employed in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of malignant lesions. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of HPPH in Chinese patients using a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) approach. 2. For the first time, a PopPK model of HPPH for Chinese (n = 20) was developed (registration number: CTR20160425). The pharmacokinetics of HPPH was described by a three-compartment model with linear elimination...
March 22, 2019: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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