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Central Africa

Patrick Musicha, Chisomo L Msefula, Alison E Mather, Chrispin Chaguza, Amy K Cain, Chikondi Peno, Teemu Kallonen, Margaret Khonga, Brigitte Denis, Katherine J Gray, Robert S Heyderman, Nicholas R Thomson, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
OBJECTIVES: ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPN) pose a major threat to human health globally. We carried out a WGS study to understand the genetic background of ESBL-producing KPN in Malawi and place them in the context of other global isolates. METHODS: We sequenced genomes of 72 invasive and carriage KPN isolates collected from patients admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. We performed phylogenetic and population structure analyses on these and previously published genomes from Kenya (n = 66) and from outside sub-Saharan Africa (n = 67)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sophie Lauridsen, Uffe Christian Braae, Helena Aminel Ngowi, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Specific health education is regarded as a central element in controlling T. solium. In 2014, an electronic health education tool called 'The Vicious Worm', which was concerned with prevention of T. Solium was introduced to health and agricultural professionals in Mbeya, Tanzania, an endemic setting. Introduction to ´The Vicious Worm' of 1.5-hours significantly improved the participants' knowledge...
February 15, 2019: Acta Tropica
Christopher K Basu, Francois Deacon, John R Hutchinson, Alan M Wilson
The study of animal locomotion can be logistically challenging, especially in the case of large or unhandleable animals in uncontrolled environments. Here we demonstrate the utility of a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in measuring two-dimensional running kinematics from free-roaming giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa ) in the Free State Province, South Africa. We collected 120 Hz video of running giraffes, and calibrated each video frame using metatarsal length as a constant object of scale. We tested a number of methods to measure metatarsal length...
2019: PeerJ
Angela E Micah, Catherine S Chen, Bianca S Zlavog, Golsum Hashimi, Abigail Chapin, Joseph L Dieleman
Introduction: Government health spending is a primary source of funding in the health sector across the world. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, only about a third of all health spending is sourced from the government. The objectives of this study are to describe the growth in government health spending, examine its determinants and explain the variation in government health spending across sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: We used panel data on domestic government health spending in 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1995 to 2015 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Ben Oppenheim, Mark Gallivan, Nita K Madhav, Naor Brown, Volodymyr Serhiyenko, Nathan D Wolfe, Patrick Ayscue
Introduction: Robust metrics for national-level preparedness are critical for assessing global resilience to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. However, existing preparedness assessments focus primarily on public health systems or specific legislative frameworks, and do not measure other essential capacities that enable and support public health preparedness and response. Methods: We developed an Epidemic Preparedness Index (EPI) to assess national-level preparedness...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Barberine A Silatsa, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Flobert Njiokou, Gustave Simo, Jean-Marc F Kameni, Alabi Tunrayo, Gaston S Amzati, Bernard Bett, Richard Bishop, Naftaly Githaka, Stephen O Opiyo, Appolinaire Djikeng, Roger Pelle
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is the most important arthropod vector of livestock diseases globally. Since its introduction in West Africa a decade ago, it has been reported in Ivory Coast, Benin, Togo, Mali, Burkina Faso and Nigeria with potentially far-reaching adverse impacts on the livestock sector in the region. Cameroon is located on a major route for transboundary cattle trade between Central and West Africa and it is therefore at risk from R. microplus invasion. This study investigated the occurrence of R...
February 7, 2019: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Praveena Gunaratnam, Anita Elizabeth Heywood, Skye McGregor, Muhammad Shahid Jamil, Hamish McManus, Limin Mao, Roanna Lobo, Graham Brown, Margaret Hellard, Tafireyi Marukutira, Neil Arvin Bretaña, Carolyn Lang, Nicholas Medland, Benjamin Bavinton, Andrew Grulich, Rebecca Guy
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a detailed analysis of trends in new HIV diagnoses in Australia by country of birth, to understand any changes in epidemiology, relationship to migration patterns and implications for public health programs. METHODS: Poisson regression analyses were performed, comparing the age-standardised HIV diagnosis rates per 100,000 estimated resident population between 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 by region of birth, with stratification by exposure (male-to-male sex, heterosexual sex-males and females)...
2019: PloS One
Yusheng Shi, Aimei Zhao, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Shuying Zang, Zhengqiang Li, Tao Yu, Xingfa Gu
Mercury emissions from biomass burning contribute significantly to the atmospheric mercury budget and the interannual variation of mercury concentrations in the troposphere. This study developed a high-resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) monthly inventory of mercury emissions from biomass burning across five land types in the tropical continents (Central and South America, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia) during 2001-2017. The inventory estimates of mercury emissions from biomass burning are based on the newly released MCD64A1 Version 6 Burned Area data product, satellite and observational data of biomass density, and spatial and temporal variable combustion factors...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Geofrey Gabiri, Constanze Leemhuis, Bernd Diekkrüger, Kristian Näschen, Stefanie Steinbach, Frank Thonfeld
A combination of climate change, food demand, population growth, and other driving forces are causing land use and land cover change (LULC) in wetlands of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). This has a profound effect on water resources, thus it is imperative that such consequences arising from these changes are predicted accurately to support land use management. For that, local scale studies are required to understand the system and to perform scenario analysis. The focus of this study was on small scale inland valleys which are common in SSA...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Frederick K Wangai, Moses M Masika, Godfrey N Lule, Emma M Karari, Marybeth C Maritim, Walter G Jaoko, Beatrice Museve, Antony Kuria
BACKGROUND: There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps. METHODS: A retrospective review of VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) records capturing antimicrobial susceptibility data for the year 2015 was done and analysed using WHONET and SPSS...
2019: PloS One
Bobby Tan, Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Rehena Sultana, Janine Cynthia Jia Wen Koh, Mark Jit, Yee Hui Mok, Jan Hau Lee
Importance: The global patterns and distribution of case-fatality rates (CFRs) in pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock remain poorly described. Objective: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of children with severe sepsis and septic shock to elucidate the patterns of CFRs in developing and developed countries over time. We also described factors associated with CFRs. Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica database, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Central systematically for randomized clinical trials and prospective observational studies from earliest publication until January 2017, using the keywords "pediatric," "sepsis," "septic shock," and "mortality...
February 11, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
Liliana Cárdenas, Lina Awada, Paolo Tizzani, Paula Cáceres, Jordi Casal
This paper describes the global distribution and temporal evolution of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus during a 19-year period (1996 - 2014) using the information officially reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by veterinary services of 156 countries. Variables that can influence the health status of bovine brucellosis (i.e., year, per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), continent, and bovine population) were also analysed. Countries were classified into three categories of health situations: ENZOOTIC: countries infected, which may have been free of brucellosis but for periods of fewer than 3 years; NON-ENZOOTIC: countries where the disease was present but that had at least a 3-year period without the disease; and FREE: countries where the disease remained absent during the whole period...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Gary M Clifford, Vanessa Tenet, Damien Georges, Laia Alemany, Miquel Angel Pavón, Zigui Chen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Sara Bass, Mia Steinberg, Tina Raine-Bennett, Thomas Lorey, Nicolas Wentzensen, Joan Walker, Rosemary Zuna, Mark Schiffman, Lisa Mirabello
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 can be separated into genetic sub-lineages (A1-4, B1-4, C1-4, D1-4) which may have differential cervical cancer risk. METHODS: A next-generation sequencing assay was used to whole-genome sequence 7116 HPV16-positive cervical samples from well-characterised international epidemiological studies, including 2076 controls, 1878 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 186 adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ADC), and to assign HPV16 sub-lineage...
February 6, 2019: Papillomavirus Research
John-Baptist S N Naah, Boris Braun
Despite the importance of local ecological knowledge of forage plants, there has been little discussion on how local agro-pastoralists perceive forage species diversity, abundance trends, habitat distributions and ecological drivers influencing changing abundance trends over time in rural West Africa's savannas. In estimating, assessing and investigating the ecological variables, we performed elaborate ethnobotanical surveys in seven villages in northern Ghana and nine villages in southern-central Burkina Faso...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cyrille Bisseye, Jean-Marie Eko Mba, Jophrette Mirelle Ntsame Ndong, Heidi E Kosiorek, Richard J Butterfield, Landry Erik Mombo, Bertrand M'batchi, Mitesh J Borad, Bolni Marius Nagalo, Jean-Pierre Allain
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have been conducted on the seroprevalence of syphilis in Gabon. According to the World Health Organization, the average seroprevalence of syphilis has declined from 5.5 to 1.1% in Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that syphilis decreased in Gabon between 2004 and 2016 and to identify factors involved in this pattern by testing a large sample of first-time blood donors in the capital Libreville. METHODS: The detection of Treponema pallidum was done using a Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) and confirmed by an ELISA test using the Biorad Syphilis Total Antibody EIA II kit or BioMerieux Trepanostika TP recombinant...
February 8, 2019: BMC Public Health
Veerle Msimang, Peter N Thompson, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Stefano Tempia, Claudia Cordel, Joe Kgaladi, Jimmy Khosa, Felicity J Burt, Janice Liang, Melinda K Rostal, William B Karesh, Janusz T Paweska
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging arboviral disease of public health and veterinary importance in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Major RVF epidemics were documented in South Africa in 1950⁻1951, 1974⁻1975, and 2010⁻2011. The number of individuals infected during these outbreaks has, however, not been accurately estimated. A total of 823 people in close occupational contact with livestock were interviewed and sampled over a six-month period in 2015⁻2016 within a 40,000 km² study area encompassing parts of the Free State and Northern Cape provinces that were affected during the 2010⁻2011 outbreak...
February 7, 2019: Viruses
Ambrose R Orr, Josephine E Quagraine, Peter Suwondo, Santosh George, Lisa M Harrison, Fabio Pio Dornas, Benjamin Evans, Adalgisa Caccone, Debbie Humphries, Michael D Wilson, Michael Cappello
Hookworm infection causes anemia, malnutrition, and growth delay, especially in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthics to school-age children (SAC) as a means of reducing morbidity. Recently, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of MDA as a global control strategy for hookworms and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Genomic DNA was extracted from Necator americanus hookworm eggs isolated from SAC enrolled in a cross-sectional study of STH epidemiology and deworming response in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana...
February 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
H Delatte, M De Meyer, M Virgilio
Hypotheses about the worldwide colonization routes of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), are mainly based on sparse historical records. Here we aim at reconstructing the colonization history of the African continent based on an improved description of the population structure of Z. cucurbitae and approximate Bayesian analyses. Individuals of Z. cucurbitae were sampled in 17 localities from East, West and Central Africa and genotyped at 19 microsatellite markers. Bayesian analyses showed intracontinental population structuring with populations from Uganda diverging from those of Tanzania and populations from Burundi and Kenya showing traces of admixture with West African samples...
February 6, 2019: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Renzo Perissinotto
A male cetoniine specimen from the old Schürhoff collection currently deposited in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (Pretoria, South Africa), was recently submitted for identification and has been found to represent a yet undescribed species of the poorly-known genus Callophylla Moser, 1916. The species is named C.macrocephala sp. n. , in recognition of its wider than average head, particularly at the level of the clypeus, and originates from the southern Tanzanian highlands, near the Tanzania-Zambia border town of Nakonde...
2019: ZooKeys
Ashraf Reda, Mohamed Ashraf, Mahmoud Soliman, Hany Ragy, Ahmed El Kersh, Waleed Abdou, Tamer Mostafa, Mohammed Hassan, Elsayed Farag, Hazem Khamis, Moheb Wadie, Atef Elbahry, Sameh Salama, Ghada Kazamel, Mohammed Sadaka, Morsy Mostafa, Akram Abd El-Bary, Osama Sanad, Samir Rafla, Yaser Abd El-Hady, Mohammed Selim, Nabil Farag, Helmy El-Ghawaby, Hosam El-Araby, Sameh Emil, Morad Beshay, Ahmed Shawky, Mahmoud Yusef, Mohammed Abd El-Ghany, Awni Gamal, Yaser Baghdady, Taymour Mostafa, Mohammed Zahran, Khaled El Rabat, Ahmed Bendary, Amany El Shorbagy
BACKGROUND: Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and North Africa and has more than 15% of the cardiovascular deaths in the region, but little is known about the prevalence of traditional risk factors and treatment strategies in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients across Egypt. METHODS: From November 2015 to August 2017, data were collected from 1 681 patients with ACS in 30 coronary care centres, covering 11 governorates across Egypt, spanning the Mediterranean coast, Nile Delta and Upper Egypt, with a focus on risk factors and management strategies...
January 16, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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