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inflammation and cognitive

Eva-Britt Hysing, Lena Smith, Måns Thulin, Rolf Karlsten, Kristoffer Bothelius, Torsten Gordh
Background and aims Recent research indicates a previously unknown low-grade systemic or neurogenic inflammation in groups of chronic pain (CP) patients. Low-grade inflammation may have an important role in symptoms that have previously not been well depicted: widespread pain, tiredness and cognitive dysfunctions frequently seen in severely impaired CP patients. This study aimed to investigate the plasma inflammatory profile in a group of very complex CP patients at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up after participation in a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based multimodal pain rehabilitation program (PRP)...
March 20, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Shih-Yin Chen, Meng-Chieh Lin, Jia-Shiuan Tsai, Pei-Lin He, Wen-Ting Luo, Harvey Herschman, Hua-Jung Li
Adult brains have limited regenerative capacity. Consequently, both brain damage and neurodegenerative diseases often cause functional impairment for patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), one type of adult stem cells, can be isolated from various adult tissues. MSCs have been used in clinical trials to treat human diseases and the therapeutic potentials of the MSC-derived secretome and extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been under investigation. We found that blocking the prostaglandin E2 /prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (PGE2 /EP4 ) signaling pathway in MSCs with EP4 antagonists increased EV release and promoted the sorting of specific proteins, including anti-inflammatory cytokines and factors that modify astrocyte function, blood-brain barrier integrity, and microglial migration into the damaged hippocampus, into the EVs...
March 19, 2019: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Donal T Skelly, Éadaoin W Griffin, Carol L Murray, Sarah Harney, Conor O'Boyle, Edel Hennessy, Marc-Andre Dansereau, Arshed Nazmi, Lucas Tortorelli, J Nicholas Rawlins, David M Bannerman, Colm Cunningham
Following publication of this article, the authors noticed an error in the abstract, where they incorrectly stated that: "Direct application of IL-1β to ex vivo hippocampal slices induced non-synaptic depolarisation and irreversible loss of membrane potential in CA1 neurons from diseased animals and systemic LPS increased apoptosis in the degenerating brain, in an IL-1RI-/--dependent fashion". This has now been corrected to: "Direct application of IL-1β to ex vivo hippocampal slices induced non-synaptic depolarisation and irreversible loss of membrane potential in CA1 neurons from diseased animals and systemic LPS increased apoptosis in the degenerating brain, in an IL-1RI-dependent fashion"...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Min Ma, Qian Ren, Jun Yang, Kai Zhang, Zhongwei Xiong, Tamaki Ishima, Yaoyu Pu, Sung Hee Hwang, Manabu Toyoshima, Yoshimi Iwayama, Yasuko Hisano, Takeo Yoshikawa, Bruce D Hammock, Kenji Hashimoto
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. In rodents, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia- and ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in inflammation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we found higher levels of sEH in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile offspring after MIA. Oxylipin analysis showed decreased levels of epoxy fatty acids in the PFC of juvenile offspring after MIA, supporting increased activity of sEH in the PFC of juvenile offspring...
March 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
F Pittet, N Van Caenegem, A Hicks-Nelson, H P Santos, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd, B C Nephew
The social environment of lactation is a key etiological factor for the occurrence of postpartum disorders affecting women and their children. Postpartum depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in new mothers and negatively affect offspring's cognitive development through mechanisms which are still unclear. Here, using a rat model, we manipulated the maternal social environment during lactation and explored the pathways through which social isolation (vs. the opportunity for limited social interaction with another lactating female, from 1 day before parturition to postpartum day 16) and chronic social conflict (daily exposure to a male intruder from postpartum day 2 to day 16) affect offspring learning and memory, measured at 40 to 60 days of age...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Liuping Xiao, Bo Ge, Xu Chen, Bo Chen, Linyuan Qin, Xueping Hu, Haidong Pan, Yujie Chen, Li Tian, Yun Gao, Tianpeng Zheng
Objective: Since decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increased dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of MCI with plasma DPP4 activity to BDNF ratio (DBR) in an elderly population with normal glucose tolerance. Methods: We cross-sectionally measured C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, DPP4 activity BDNF and calculated the DBR in a total of 1,066 elderly participants in China...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Masaki Yamamoto, De-Huang Guo, Caterina M Hernandez, Alexis M Stranahan
Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), while diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans Blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dan Zhang, Na Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Wenbin Lu, Yongyan Zhang, Yuanjie Chen, Xiaoming Deng, Xiya Yu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the most common complications after surgery. Accumulating evidence suggests that postoperative neuro-inflammation plays a critical role in the mechanism of POCD. Recently, exogenous methane is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and play a neuro-protective role in acute carbon monoxide poisoning injury. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of methane on a POCD model induced by abdominal surgery and its underlying mechanism in aged mice...
March 13, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Georgios Liakakis
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder that has been fully described in clinical, neuropathological and imaging aspects. It is considered as the most prevalent ischemic CNS disorder and has been associated to arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. The hallmark of SSVD is the ischemic white matter lesions which can be presented as lacunar infracts and global brain hypoperfusion in a common and homogeneous subtype of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) which is often unrecognized...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Silvia Lai, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Andreozzi, Alessandro Sgreccia, Sabrina De Leo, Sandro Mazzaferro, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Marzia Pasquali, Paolo Protopapa, Alessandra Spagnoli, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessio Molfino
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with high cardiovascular mortality associated with emerging risk factors, including sarcopenia. Several mechanisms can affect muscle mass, such as vitamin D deficiency, low protein intake, physical inactivity, metabolic acidosis, and inflammation leading to a worsening of cardiovascular outcomes and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative and replacement therapy and the associations between sarcopenia and markers of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, psychological and cognitive function...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition
Darshpreet Kaur, Vivek Sharma, Rahul Deshmukh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is of high importance to the neuroscience world, yet the complex pathogenicity is not fully understood. Inflammation is usually observed in AD and could implicate both beneficial or detrimental effects depending on the severity of the disease. During initial AD pathology, microglia and astrocyte activation is beneficial since they are involved in amyloid-beta clearance. However, with the progression of the disease, activated microglia elicit detrimental effects by the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) bringing forth neurodegeneration in the surrounding brain regions...
March 14, 2019: Inflammopharmacology
Zhuo Gong, Jingyi Huang, Biao Xu, Zhenri Ou, Le Zhang, Xiaohong Lin, Xiujuan Ye, Xuejian Kong, Dahong Long, Xiangdong Sun, Xiaosong He, Liping Xu, Qingqing Li, Aiguo Xuan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation, and impaired neurogenesis. Urolithin A (UA), a gut-microbial metabolite of ellagic acid, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in the brain. However, it is unknown whether UA exerts its properties of anti-inflammation and neuronal protection in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of AD. METHODS: Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jianhui Wang, Xiaorui Cheng, Xiaorui Zhang, Gang Liu, Yongan Wang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Mounting evidence has shown that inflammation might drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and contribute to its exacerbation. Previous studies have indicated that indomethacin or atorvastatin are beneficial in treating AD; however, no significant clinical effects have been shown. Furthermore, no study has investigated the efficacy of combining these agents for treating AD. This study sought to determine the effect of a combination of indomethacin and atorvastatin in the PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD mouse model...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jea-Young Lee, Sandra Acosta, Julian P Tuazon, Kaya Xu, Hung Nguyen, Trenton Lippert, Michael G Liska, Andrey Semechkin, Ibon Garitaonandia, Rodolfo Gonzalez, Russell Kern, Cesario V Borlongan
International Stem Cell Corporation human parthenogenetic neural stem cells (ISC-hpNSC) have potential therapeutic value for patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we demonstrate the behavioral and histological effects of transplanting ISC-hpNSC intracerebrally in an animal model of TBI. Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact TBI surgery. Transplantation occurred at 72 h post-TBI with functional readouts of behavioral and histological deficits conducted during the subsequent 3-month period after TBI...
2019: Theranostics
Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Leandro Garbossa, Larissa Joaquim, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Khiany Mathias, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Juliete Palandi, Bruna Hoffmann de Oliveira, Daniel Fernandes Martins, Franciane Bonbinski, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Michele Garcez, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Fabricia Petronilho
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a severe organic dysfunction caused by an infection that affects the normal regulation of several organ systems, including the central nervous system. Inflammation and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the development of brain dysfunction in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a fish oil (FO)-55-enriched lipid emulsion as an important anti-inflammatory compound on brain dysfunction in septic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham (control) and treated orally with FO (600 µL/kg after CLP) or vehicle (saline; sal)...
December 7, 2018: Nutrition
Luisa F Duarte, Mónica A Farías, Diana M Álvarez, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Pablo A González
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is highly prevalent in humans and can reach the brain without evident clinical symptoms. Once in the central nervous system (CNS), the virus can either reside in a quiescent latent state in this tissue, or eventually actively lead to severe acute necrotizing encephalitis, which is characterized by exacerbated neuroinflammation and prolonged neuroimmune activation producing a life-threatening disease. Although HSV-1 encephalitis can be treated with antivirals that limit virus replication, neurological sequelae are common and the virus will nevertheless remain for life in the neural tissue...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Noman Bin Abid, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Myeong Ok Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory dysfunction and a decline in cognition. One of the biggest challenges to study the pathological process at a molecular level is that there is no simple, cost-effective, and comprehensive gene-expression analysis tool. The present study provides the most detailed (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) RT-PCR-based gene-expression assay, encompassing important genes, based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) disease pathway...
March 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Åge Oterhals, Ola Flesland, Ottar Nygård, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
Background: Age-related loss of muscle mass and function is common in older adults, and studies investigating if dietary proteins may protect and possibly build lean body mass are needed. We assessed the feasibility of conducting a nutritional intervention study in older nursing home residents to investigate the effects of fish protein supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and inflammation. Methods: This was a double-blind randomised controlled pilot study...
2019: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Tsuyoshi Hashizume, Bo-Kyung Son, Sakiko Taniguchi, Koichi Ito, Yoshihiro Noda, Tamao Endo, Michiko Nanao-Hamai, Sumito Ogawa, Masahiro Akishita
Inflammation is a critical feature of aging and its related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrated that abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), an aging-related vascular pathological condition, is associated with cognitive decline. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the role of vascular inflammation, is largely unknown because of lack of an available animal model. In this study, we examined whether vascular inflammation affects synaptic and cognitive dysfunction, using an AAA mouse model...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Eleanor King, John Tiernan O'Brien, Paul Donaghy, Christopher Morris, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, John Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas
ABSTRACTObjectives and design:To Investigate the peripheral inflammatory profile in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from three subgroups - probable Lewy body disease (probable MCI-LB), possible Lewy body disease, and probable Alzheimer's disease (probable MCI-AD) - as well as associations with clinical features. SETTING: Memory clinics and dementia services. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were classified based on clinical symptoms as probable MCI-LB (n = 38), possible MCI-LB (n = 18), and probable MCI-AD (n = 21)...
March 11, 2019: International Psychogeriatrics
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