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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878306/weight-gain-in-major-depressive-disorder-linking-appetite-and-disordered-eating-to-leptin-and-ghrelin
#1
Jessica G Mills, Theresa A Larkin, Chao Deng, Susan J Thomas
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves changes in appetite and weight, with a subset of individuals at an increased risk of weight gain. Pathways to weight gain may include appetite disturbances, excess eating, and dysregulation of appetite hormones. However, little research has simultaneously examined relationships between hormones, eating behaviours and MDD symptoms. Plasma ghrelin and leptin, biometrics, eating behaviours and psychopathology were compared between depressed (n = 60) and control (n = 60) participants...
March 13, 2019: Psychiatry Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878213/calcimimetics-maintain-bone-turnover-in-uremic-rats-despite-the-concomitant-decrease-in-parathyroid-hormone-concentration
#2
Juan M Díaz-Tocados, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Yolanda Almadén, Carmen Pineda, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Carmen Herencia, Noemi Vergara, M Victoria Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Rafael Santamaría, Cristian Rodelo-Haad, Antonio Casado-Díaz, Víctor Lorenzo, Catarina Carvalho, João M Frazão, Arnold J Felsenfeld, William G Richards, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Mariano Rodríguez, Ignacio López, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
Calcimimetics decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The decrease in PTH should cause a reduction in bone turnover; however, the direct effect of calcimimetics on bone cells, which express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated the direct bone effects of CaSR activation by a calcimimetic (AMG 641) in vitro and in vivo. To create a PTH "clamp," total parathyroidectomy was performed in rats with and without uremia induced by 5/6 nephrectomy, followed by a continuous subcutaneous infusion of PTH...
March 12, 2019: Kidney International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877752/antiretroviral-adherence-elevated-viral-load-and-drug-resistant-mutations-in-hiv-infected-women-initiating-treatment-in-pregnancy-a-nested-case-control-study
#3
Landon Myer, Andrew D Redd, Elton Mukonda, Briana A Lynch, Tamsin K Phillips, Anna Eisenberg, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Adam Capoferri, Alison Zerbe, William Clarke, Maia Lesosky, Autumn Breaud, James McIntyre, Daniel Bruno, Craig Martens, Elaine J Abrams, Steven J Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Elevated viral load (VL) early after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation appears frequently in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV, however the relative contributions of pre-ART drug-resistant mutations (DRM) versus non-adherence in the aetiology of elevated VL are unknown. METHODS: Within a cohort of women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa, we compared women with elevated VL after initial suppression (cases, n=80) incidence-density matched to women who maintained suppression over time (controls, n=87)...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877129/circulating-inflammation-markers-and-risk-of-gastric-and-esophageal-cancers-a-case-cohort-study-within-the-japan-public-health-center-based-prospective-study
#4
M Constanza Camargo, Minkyo Song, Taichi Shimazu, Hadrien Charvat, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Troy J Kemp, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Allan Hildesheim, Ligia A Pinto, Shoichiro Tsugane, Charles S Rabkin
Background: Circulating inflammation proteins may be important mediators or markers of carcinogenic mechanisms. There have been few studies with limited numbers of analytes in patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. We therefore evaluated risk associations of gastric and esophageal cancers with prediagnostic levels of a wide range of these molecules. Methods: We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II, including incident cases of gastric ( n = 446) and esophageal ( n = 68) cancers and a random subcohort ( n = 774)...
March 15, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876766/the-coagulopathy-of-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-a-prospective-observational-study
#5
Igor Zindovic, Johan Sjögren, Henrik Bjursten, Richard Ingemansson, Jonas Ingimarsson, Mårten Larsson, Peter J Svensson, Karin Strandberg, Per Wierup, Shahab Nozohoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hemostatic system in patients undergoing surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) compared with those undergoing elective aortic procedures. DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study. SETTING: The study was performed at a single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with ATAAD were compared with 20 control patients undergoing elective surgery of the ascending aorta or the aortic root...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876196/ultrafast-x-ray-absorption-near-edge-spectroscopy-of-fe-3-o-4-using-a-laboratory-based-femtosecond-x-ray-source
#6
M I Anwar, M Iqbal, B J Hwang, M Faiyaz, B S Mun, K A Janulewicz, D Y Noh
Ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiment was performed on a magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) film using a femtosecond laser plasma x-ray source delivering Bremsstrahlung radiation. Ultrafast temporal evolution of the XANES of Fe3 O4 following an excitation by an infra-red (IR) laser pulse was observed in a pump-probe scheme. The Fe K x-ray absorption edge shifts towards low energy upon IR excitation as much as 12 eV, which is mainly attributed to the charge transfer between the Fe ions...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876173/stack-of-two-iii-nitride-laser-diodes-interconnected-by-a-tunnel-junction
#7
M Siekacz, G Muziol, M Hajdel, M Żak, K Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H Turski, M Sawicka, P Wolny, A Feduniewicz-Żmuda, S Stanczyk, J Moneta, C Skierbiszewski
We demonstrate a stack of two III-nitride laser diodes (LDs) interconnected by a tunnel junction grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Hydrogen-free growth is used to obtain as-grown p-type conductivity essential for buried tunnel junctions (TJ). We show the impact of the design of tunnel junction. In particular, we show that, apart from the beneficial piezoelectric polarization inside the TJ, heavy doping reduces the differential resistivity even further. The device starts to lase at a wavelength of 459 nm with a slope efficiency (SE) of 0...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876117/two-dimensional-measurement-of-hydrocarbon-fuel-concentration-using-multiple-laser-induced-plasma-forming-regions
#8
Hyung Min Jun, Seung Won Suh, Jack J Yoh
A two-dimensional measurement of fuel distribution in a gasoline spray flow was performed using multiple laser-induced plasma-forming regions. Multiple plasma-forming regions were generated by a laser sheet with a low breakdown threshold for a two-phase flow. To observe the formation of multiple laser-induced plasma-forming regions, shadowgraphs were imaged using a high-speed camera. Hydrogen and oxygen atomic emissions from the plasma-forming regions were obtained by attaching bandpass filters to the high-speed camera, and a two-dimensional visualization of the fuel distribution in the wide plasma-forming region was obtained by dividing the hydrogen line-filtered image with the oxygen line-filtered image...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876060/an-optically-multiplexed-single-shot-time-resolved-probe-of-laser-plasma-dynamics
#9
Z E Davidson, B Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A Higginson, K L Lancaster, S D R Williamson, M King, D Farley, D Neely, P McKenna, R J Gray
We introduce a new approach to temporally resolve ultrafast micron-scale processes via the use of a multi-channel optical probe. We demonstrate that this technique enables highly precise time-resolved, two-dimensional spatial imaging of intense laser pulse propagation dynamics, plasma formation and laser beam filamentation within a single pulse over four distinct time frames. The design, development and optimization of the optical probe system is presented, as are representative experimental results from the first implementation of the multi-channel probe with a high-power laser pulse interaction with a helium gas jet target...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875193/engineering-nav1-7-inhibitory-jztx-v-peptides-with-a-potency-and-basicity-profile-suitable-for-antibody-conjugation-to-enhance-pharmacokinetics
#10
Justin K Murray, Bin Wu, Christopher M Tegley, Thomas E Nixey, James R Falsey, Brad Herberich, Li Yin, Kelvin Sham, Jason Long, Jennifer Aral, Yuan Cheng, Chawita Netirojjanakul, Liz Doherty, Charles Glaus, Tayo Ikotun, Hongyan Li, Linh Tran, Marcus Soto, Hossein Salimi-Mossavi, Joseph Ligutti, Shanti Amagasu, Kristin L Andrews, Xuhai Be, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Robert S Foti, Christopher P Ilch, Beth Youngblood, Thomas J Kornecook, Margaret Karow, Kenneth W Walker, Bryan D Moyer, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Drug discovery research on new pain targets with human genetic validation, including the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7, is being pursued to address the unmet medical need for chronic pain and the rising opioid epidemic. As part of early research efforts on this front, we have previously developed NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide-antibody conjugates with tarantula venom-derived GpTx-1 toxin peptides with extended half-life (80 h) in rodents but only moderate in vitro activity (hNaV1.7 IC50 = 250 nM) and without in vivo activity...
March 15, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875019/migalastat-a-review-in-fabry-disease
#11
Emma H McCafferty, Lesley J Scott
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal disorder characterized by deficient or absent α-galactosidase A activity resulting from mutations in the GLA gene. Migalastat (Galafold™), a pharmacological chaperone, stabilizes and facilitates trafficking of amenable mutant forms of α-galactosidase A enzyme from the endoplasmic reticulum to lysosomes and increases its lysosomal activity. Oral migalastat is the first pharmacological chaperone approved for treating patients [aged ≥ 18 years (USA and Canada) or ≥ 16 years in other countries] with Fabry disease who have a migalastat-amenable GLA mutation...
March 14, 2019: Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874954/lack-of-change-in-swimming-capacity-u-crit-following-acute-salinity-exposure-in-juvenile-shortnose-sturgeon-acipenser-brevirostrum
#12
F M Penny, J D Kieffer
The Saint John River (SJR) is home to the only Canadian population of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum. Adult shortnose sturgeon routinely enter saltwater to forage, yet less is known about how juveniles cope with the associated osmoregulatory pressures. Recently, it has been shown that short-term (24 h) exposure to saltwater causes significant changes to ion and water levels in juvenile shortnose. In some species of fish, notably salmonids, it has been shown that shifts in fluid and ion levels following saltwater challenges reduce the swimming capacity...
March 14, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874683/wavelength-scaling-of-terahertz-pulse-energies-delivered-by-two-color-air-plasmas
#13
A Nguyen, K J Kaltenecker, J-C Delagnes, B Zhou, E Cormier, N Fedorov, R Bouillaud, D Descamps, I Thiele, S Skupin, P U Jepsen, L Bergé
We address the long-standing problem of anomalous growth observed in the terahertz (THz) energy yield from air plasmas created by two-color laser pulses, as the fundamental wavelength λ0 is increased. Using two distinct optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs), we report THz energies scaling like λ0α with large exponents 5.6≤α≤14.3, which departs from the growth in λ02 expected from photocurrent theory. By means of comprehensive 3D simulations, we demonstrate that the changes in the laser beam size, pulse duration, and phase-matching conditions in the second-harmonic generation process when tuning the OPA's carrier wavelength can lead to these high scaling powers...
March 15, 2019: Optics Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874670/enhancement-of-water-window-soft-x-ray-emission-from-laser-produced-au-plasma-under-low-pressure-nitrogen-atmosphere
#14
Christian John, Maki Kishimoto, Tomoyuki Johzaki, Takeshi Higashiguchi, Noboru Kakunaka, Yasuhiro Matsumoto, Noboru Hasegawa, Masaharu Nishikino, Takeo Ejima, Atsushi Sunahara, Takuma Endo, Shinichi Namba
To generate bright water-window (WW) soft x rays (2.3-4.4 nm), gold slab targets were irradiated with laser pulses (1064 nm, 7 ns, 1 J). Emission spectroscopy showed that the introduction of low-pressure nitrogen enhanced the soft x-ray yield emitted from the laser-produced Au plasma. The intensity of the WW x-ray transported in a 400-Pa N2 atmosphere from the laser-produced plasma increased by 3.8 times over that in vacuum. Considering a strong x-ray absorption, the x-ray yield emitted directly from the Au plasma in the N2 gas was evaluated to be 13 times higher than that in vacuum...
March 15, 2019: Optics Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874353/linking-signaling-and-selection-in-the-germinal-center
#15
REVIEW
Mark J Shlomchik, Wei Luo, Florian Weisel
Germinal centers (GC) are sites of rapid B-cell proliferation in response to certain types of immunization. They arise in about 1 week and can persist for several months. In GCs, B cells differentiate in a unique way and begin to undergo somatic mutation of the Ig V regions at a high rate. GC B cells (GCBC) thus undergo clonal diversification that can affect the affinity of the newly mutant B-cell receptor (BCR) for its driving antigen. Through processes that are still poorly understood, GCBC with higher affinity are selectively expanded while those with mutations that inactivate the BCR are lost...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874285/the-effect-of-diet-and-exercise-on-tobacco-carcinogen-induced-lung-cancer
#16
Ingrid Elisia, Brandon Cho, Mariah Hay, Michael Yu Li, Elyse Hofs, Vivian Lam, Roger A Dyer, Julian Lum, Gerald Krystal
In previous studies we found that low carbohydrate (CHO) diets reduced the incidence of tumors in mice genetically predisposed to cancer. However, since more than 90% of human cancers arise via carcinogen-induced somatic mutations we investigated, herein, the role that different types and levels of CHO, protein and lipid play in lung cancer induced by the tobacco-specific carcinogen, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) in A/J mice. We found lowering CHO levels significantly reduced lung nodules and blood glucose levels...
March 15, 2019: Carcinogenesis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873821/the-deletion-of-trpc6-channels-perturbs-iron-and-zinc-homeostasis-and-pregnancy-outcome-in-mice
#17
Jessy Hasna, Roland Abi Nahed, Frédéric Sergent, Nadia Alfaidy, Alexandre Bouron
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) protein is a nonselective cation channel permitting the uptake of essential elements such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). TRPC6 is found throughout the body with high expression levels in the placenta. However, its role in this organ is still to be determined. To further advance our understanding of the physiological relevance of TRPC6, we have studied the placental histology, pregnancy outcome and the Fe and Zn status of organs (placenta, brain, kidney, liver and lung) collected from TRPC6 deficient (TRPC6-/- ) mice and sex and age-matched C57Bl6/J and B6129SF2/J mice...
2019: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873579/postoperative-plasma-mitochondrial-dna-and-cytokine-profiles-of-elderly-patients-undergoing-minimally-invasive-aortic-valve-replacement
#18
Francisco Estevez-Cid, Maria E Serrano-Teruel, Fernando Fernandez-Rodriguez, Alberto Bouzas-Mosquera, Mercedes Fernandez-Moreno, Paula Dieguez-Garcia, Jose J Cuenca-Castillo, Victor Bautista-Hernandez
INTRODUCTION:  Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is gaining increasing interest as a marker of cellular damage and could also act as an inflammatory mediator in cardiopulmonary bypass induced postoperative inflammatory response. Although minimally invasive heart valve surgery reportedly reduces inflammation, the mtDNA and cytokine profile in this context remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Here, we report a prospective series of 40 elderly patients with aortic stenosis who underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) through upper ministernotomy with either a sutureless ( n  = 20) or a conventional ( n  = 20) valve...
March 14, 2019: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873501/the-effects-of-trans-resveratrol-on-insulin-resistance-inflammation-and-microbiota-in-men-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Jeanne M Walker, Patricia Eckardt, Jose O Aleman, Joel Correa da Rosa, Yupu Liang, Tadasu Iizumi, Stephane Etheve, Martin J Blaser, Jan L Breslow, Peter R Holt
Background and Aim: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a pathological condition comprised of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. It has become a major threat globally, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. The polyphenol resveratrol (RES) is believed to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance by activating sirtuin, which acetylates and coactivates downstream targets and affects glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver, insulin secretion in the pancreas, and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873484/ophthalmic-acid-as-a-read-out-for-hepatic-glutathione-metabolism-in-humans
#20
Mierlo Kim Mc van, Simon Awg Dello, Mechteld C de Jong, Hans Mh van Eijk, Theo M de Kok, Jacob J Briedé, Frank G Schaap, Steven Wm Olde Damink, Cornelius Hc Dejong
Background and Aim: Animal studies indicated that systemic ophthalmic acid (OPH) is a biomarker for hepatic glutathione (GSH) homeostasis, an important determinant of liver function. We aimed to clarify whether OPH levels can be used as a read-out for hepatic GSH homeostasis after paracetamol (APAP) challenges during pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) or partial hepatectomy (PH). Methods: Nineteen patients undergoing PPPD (n=7, control group) or PH (n=12) were included...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
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