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Wearable electronics

Jaeyoung Yoon, Yunsik Joo, Eunho Oh, Byeongmoon Lee, Daesik Kim, Seunghwan Lee, Taehoon Kim, Junghwan Byun, Yongtaek Hong
Precise monitoring of human body signals can be achieved by soft, conformal contact and precise arrangement of wearable devices to the desired body positions. So far, no design and fabrication methodology in soft wearable devices is able to address the variations in the form factor of the human body such as the various sizes and shapes of individual body parts, which can significantly cause misalignments and the corresponding inaccurate monitoring. Here, a concept of soft modular electronic blocks (SMEBs) enabling the assembly of soft wearable systems onto human skin with functions and layouts tailored to the form factors of individuals' bodies is presented...
March 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xinhua Liu, Oluwadamilola O Taiwo, Chengyao Yin, Mengzheng Ouyang, Ridwanur Chowdhury, Baofeng Wang, Huizhi Wang, Billy Wu, Nigel P Brandon, Qigang Wang, Samuel J Cooper
Ionogels are a new class of promising materials for use in all-solid-state energy storage devices in which they can function as an integrated separator and electrolyte. However, their performance is limited by the presence of a crosslinking polymer, which is needed to improve the mechanical properties, but compromises their ionic conductivity. Here, directional freezing is used followed by a solvent replacement method to prepare aligned nanocomposite ionogels which exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity, good mechanical strength, and thermal stability simultaneously...
March 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Van Hiep Nguyen, Jaehwan Kim, Rassoul Tabassian, Moumita Kotal, Kiwoo Jun, Jung-Hwan Oh, Ji-Myeong Son, Muhammad Taha Manzoor, Kwang Jin Kim, Il-Kwon Oh
Electroactive ionic soft actuators, a type of artificial muscles containing a polymer electrolyte membrane sandwiched between two electrodes, have been intensively investigated owing to their potential applications to bioinspired soft robotics, wearable electronics, and active biomedical devices. However, the design and synthesis of an efficient polymer electrolyte suitable for ion migration have been major challenges in developing high-performance ionic soft actuators. Herein, a highly bendable ionic soft actuator based on an unprecedented block copolymer is reported, i...
March 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Qiang Zhang, Chou-Yi Tsai, Lain-Jong Li, Der-Jang Liaw
Colorless-to-colorful switching electrochromic polymers with very high contrast ratio are unattainable and attractive for the applications of smart wearable electronics. Here we report a facile strategy in developing colorless-to-colorful switching electrochromic polyimides by incorporating with alicyclic nonlinear, twisted structures and adjusted conjugated electrochromophores, which minimize the charge transfer complex formation. It is noted that, by controlling the conjugation length of electrochromophore, the colorless-to-black switching electrochromic polymer film (PI-1a) exhibites an ultrahigh integrated contrast ratio up to 91...
March 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Lunjia Zhang, Meng Gao, Ronghang Wang, Zhongshan Deng, Lin Gui
Nowadays, with the development of wearable devices, stretchable pressure sensors have been widely adopted in all kinds of areas. Most of the sensors aim to detect small pressure, such as fingertip tactile sensing, but only a few are focused on high-pressure sensing, such as foot pressure sensing during men's walking. In this work, a liquid metal-based stretchable sensor for large-pressure measurement is investigated. This sensor is fully stretchable because it is made of soft materials. However, when the soft sensor is subjected to high pressure, the liquid metal easily leaks from microchannels because it maintains the liquid state at room temperature...
March 15, 2019: Sensors
Changhong Yang, Yajie Han, Jin Qian, Panpan Lv, Xiujuan Lin, Shifeng Huang, Zhenxiang Cheng
A recent hot-spot topic for flexible and wearable devices involves high-performance nonvolatile ferroelectric memories operating under compressive or tensile mechanical deformations. This work presents the direct fabrication of a flexible (Mn,Ti)-codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 film capacitor with Pt bottom and Au top electrodes on mica substrate. The fabricated polycrystalline Bi(Fe0.93Mn0.05Ti0.02)O3 film on mica exhibits superior ferroelectric switching behavior with robust saturated polarization (Ps ~ 93 μC/cm2) and remanent polarization (Pr ~ 66 μC/cm2), and excellent frequency stability (1 - 50 kHz) and temperature resistance (25 - 200 C) as well as reliable long-lifetime operation...
March 15, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elena Borelli, Giacomo Paolini, Francesco Antoniazzi, Marina Barbiroli, Francesca Benassi, Federico Chesani, Lorenzo Chiari, Massimiliano Fantini, Franco Fuschini, Andrea Galassi, Gian Andrea Giacobone, Silvia Imbesi, Melissa Licciardello, Daniela Loreti, Michele Marchi, Diego Masotti, Paola Mello, Sabato Mellone, Giuseppe Mincolelli, Carla Raffaelli, Luca Roffia, Tullio Salmon Cinotti, Carlo Tacconi, Paola Tamburini, Marco Zoli, Alessandra Costanzo
In this work, a flexible and extensive digital platform for Smart Homes is presented, exploiting the most advanced technologies of the Internet of Things, such as Radio Frequency Identification, wearable electronics, Wireless Sensor Networks, and Artificial Intelligence. Thus, the main novelty of the paper is the system-level description of the platform flexibility allowing the interoperability of different smart devices. This research was developed within the framework of the operative project HABITAT (Home Assistance Based on the Internet of Things for the Autonomy of Everybody), aiming at developing smart devices to support elderly people both in their own houses and in retirement homes, and embedding them in everyday life objects, thus reducing the expenses for healthcare due to the lower need for personal assistance, and providing a better life quality to the elderly users...
March 12, 2019: Sensors
Zewei Luo, Xiaotong Hu, Xiyue Tian, Chen Luo, Hejun Xu, Quanling Li, Qianhao Li, Jian Zhang, Fei Qiao, Xing Wu, V E Borisenko, Junhao Chu
Wearable electronic sensing devices are deemed to be a crucial technology of smart personal electronics. Strain and pressure sensors, one of the most popular research directions in recent years, are the key components of smart and flexible electronics. Graphene, as an advanced nanomaterial, exerts pre-eminent characteristics including high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, and flexibility. The above advantages of graphene provide great potential for applications in mechatronics, robotics, automation, human-machine interaction, etc...
March 12, 2019: Sensors
Saleem Khan, Shawkat Ali, Amine Bermak
Wearable biosensors attract significant interest for their capabilities in real-time monitoring of wearers' health status, as well as the surrounding environment. Sensor patches are embedded onto the human epidermis accompanied by data readout and signal conditioning circuits with wireless communication modules for transmitting data to the computing devices. Wearable sensors designed for recognition of various biomarkers in human epidermis fluids, such as glucose, lactate, pH, cholesterol, etc., as well as physiological indicators, i...
March 11, 2019: Sensors
Zhen Qin, Yingying Yin, Wenzheng Zhang, Congju Li, Kai Pan
Triboelectric nanogenerator can effectively harvest mechanical energy from the ambient environment, which has gradually become a research hotspot in the field of wearable electronics. Here, a self-powered and highly stretchable single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator with an undulating three-dimensional surface crumple structure is reported. The triboelectric nanogenerator has a multilayer structure with a crumpled nanofiber membrane as the triboelectric material. Due to the materials and structural innovations, the triboelectric nanogenerator performs outstanding electric output stability and stretchability...
March 12, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ainhoa Atxabal, Stephen McMillan, Be Ntilde At Garcia Arruabarrena, Subir Parui, Roger Llopis, Fèlix Casanova, Michael E Flatté, Luis E Hueso
Flexible and wearable devices are growing sectors of the opto-electronics market. Nevertheless, bendable devices should possess the same efficiency and stability as their rigid analogs. It is well known that the energy barriers between the Fermi energy of a metal and the molecular levels of an conducting organic semiconductor play a fundamental role in the performance of organic based electronic devices. Therefore, it is critical to understand how the energy barriers at metal/organic semiconductor interfaces change with bending...
March 12, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Moh Khalid Hasan, Md Shahjalal, Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury, Yeong Min Jang
Research on electronic healthcare (eHealth) systems has increased dramatically in recent years. eHealth represents a significant example of the application of the Internet of Things (IoT), characterized by its cost effectiveness, increased reliability, and minimal human eff ort in nursing assistance. The remote monitoring of patients through a wearable sensing network has outstanding potential in current healthcare systems. Such a network can continuously monitor the vital health conditions (such as heart rate variability, blood pressure, glucose level, and oxygen saturation) of patients with chronic diseases...
March 9, 2019: Sensors
M Noorjahan, A Punitha
PURPOSE: In the context of assistive technology, mobility takes the meaning of "moving safely, gracefully, and comfortably".The aim of this article is to provide a system which will be a convenient means of navigation for the Visually Impaired people, in the public transport system. METHOD: A blind regular commuter who travels by public transport facility finds difficulty in identifying the vehicle that is nearing the stop. Hence, a real-time system that dynamically identifies the nearing vehicle and informs the commuters is necessary...
March 11, 2019: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Julia E Mück, Barış Ünal, Haider Butt, Ali K Yetisen
Wearable medical devices (WMDs) will advance point-of-care diagnostics and therapeutics. This article analyses the market and patents for wearable devices. Activity monitors have the largest market share, and the intellectual property landscape is dominated by electronics corporations. However, the majority of these patents have not been realized in commercial products.
March 6, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Hairong Kou, Lei Zhang, Qiulin Tan, Guanyu Liu, Helei Dong, Wendong Zhang, Jijun Xiong
We propose a flexible wireless pressure sensor, which uses a graphene/polydimethylsiloxane (GR/PDMS) sponge as the dielectric layer. The sponge is sandwiched between two surfaces of a folded flexible printed circuit with patterned Cu as the antenna and electrode. By adjusting graphene and NH4 HCO3 concentrations, a composite with 20% concentration of NH4 HCO3 and 2% concentration of graphene as the dielectric layer is obtained, which exhibits high sensitivity (2.2 MHz/kPa), wide operating range (0-500 kPa), rapid response time (~7 ms), low detection limit (5 Pa), and good stability, recoverability, and repeatability...
March 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Guoying Gu, Haipeng Xu, Sai Peng, Ling Li, Sujie Chen, Tongqing Lu, Xiaojun Guo
Skin-like stretchable sensors with the flexible and soft inorganic/organic electronics have many promising potentials in wearable devices, soft robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring equipment. Hydrogels with ionic conduction, akin to the biological skin, provide an alternative for soft and stretchable sensor design. However, fully integrated and wearable sensing skin with ionically conductive hydrogel for hand-motion monitoring has not been achieved. In this article, we report a wearable soft ionotronic skin (iSkin) system integrating multichannel stretchable and transparent hydrogel-elastomer hybrid ionic sensors and a wireless electronic control module...
March 8, 2019: Soft Robotics
Shanshan Guo, Rongyuan Lei, Xinmiao Liang, Jiyan Liu, Xueqing Liu, Shuyu Gao, Xianghong Peng, Shilong Bian, Yangwei Chen, Yi Jin, Shaojun Cai, Zhihong Liu, Jiwen Feng
Artificial intelligence sensations have aroused scientific interests from electronic conductors to bio-inspired ionic conductors. The conductivity of electrons decreases with increasing temperature, while the ionic conductivity agrees with an Arrhenius equation or a modified Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) equation. Herein, thermo-responsive poly (N-isopropyl amide) (PNIPAm) and single-ion-conducting poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic lithium salt) (PAMPSLi) were copolymerized via a facile radical polymerization to demonstrate a very intriguing anti-Arrhenius ionic conductivity behaviour during thermally induced volume phase transition...
March 7, 2019: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Mariachiara Ricci, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Antonio Pisani, Nicola B Mercuri, Franco Giannini, Giovanni Saggio
OBJECTIVE: The complex nature of Parkinson's disease (PD) makes difficult to rate its severity, mainly based on visual inspection of motor impairments. Wearable sensors have been demonstrated to help overcoming such a difficulty, by providing objective measures of motor abnormalities. However, up to now those sensors have been used on advanced PD patients with evident motor impairment. As a novelty, here we report the impact of wearable sensors in the evaluation of motor abnormalities in newly diagnosed, untreated, namely de novo, patients...
March 7, 2019: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Tian-Yang Zhao, Dingdong Zhang, Ting-Yu Qu, Lin-Lin Fang, Qian-Bing Zhu, Yun Sun, Tian-Hong Cai, Maolin Chen, Bing-Wei Wang, Jinhong Du, Wencai Ren, Xin Yan, Qingwen Li, Song Qiu, Dongming Sun
Carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors are expected to be promising for use in flexible electronics including flexible and transparent integrated circuits, wearable chemical and physical sensors, and driving the circuits of flexible display panels. However, current devices based on CNT channels suffer from poor performance uniformity and low manufacturing yield, therefore are still far from practical. This is usually caused by nonuniform deposition of the semiconducting CNTs and rough surface of flexible substrate...
March 6, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paul C Van Ness
Standards for testing and clinical validation of seizure detection Beniczky S, Ryvlin P. Epilepsia. 2018;59(S1):9-13. To increase the quality of studies on seizure detection devices, we propose standards for testing and clinical validation of such devices. We identified 4 key features that are important for studies on seizure detection devices: subjects, recordings, data analysis and alarms, and reference standard. For each of these features, we list the specific aspects that need to be addressed in the studies, and depending on these, studies are classified into 5 phases (0-4)...
January 2019: Epilepsy Currents
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