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Child and Adolescent Psychology

Maura Priest
In this article, I argue that (1) transgender adolescents should have the legal right to access puberty-blocking treatment (PBT) without parental approval, and (2) the state has a role to play in publicizing information about gender dysphoria. Not only are transgender children harmed psychologically and physically via lack of access to PBT, but PBT is the established standard of care. Given that we generally think that parental authority should not go so far as to (1) severally and permanently harm a child and (2) prevent a child from access to standard physical care, then it follows that parental authority should not encompass denying gender-dysphoric children access to PBT...
February 2019: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
José Martínez-Raga, María López-Cerveró
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, complex and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder associated with high rates of concurrent psychiatric disorders, along with problems and complications on different areas of individual functioning. ADHD is not exclusively a childhood disorder, 40-60% persisting into adulthood with an estimated prevalence of 2.5-5%. Adolescence is a stage where great and continuous changes occur, associated with a lower adherence to treatment, a greater vulnerability to the emergence of academic problems, more risk-behaviors, the onset of substance use and higher rates of other comorbid disorders...
2019: Medicina
Ijeoma Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, Annie J Keeney, Miguel T Villodas
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use, and depression adversely affect the disciplinary practices of caregivers involved with child welfare; however, it remains uncertain whether the combined effects of these conditions are syndemic. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the (1) associations between IPV, problematic drug use, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms and self-reported disciplinary practices among a sample of mothers with child welfare contact; and (2) effect of co-occurrence of these conditions on child disciplinary practices...
February 12, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eirini Flouri, Zahra Sarmadi, Marta Francesconi
OBJECTIVE: To explore if paternal psychological distress is related to the longitudinal course of child Problem behaviour after accounting for maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a large general-population birth cohort in the UK. Maternal and paternal psychological distress was measured with the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K-6) at child ages 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years. Problem behaviour was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at these ages...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
S Cotter, C Healy, D Ni Cathain, P Williams, M Clarke, M Cannon
OBJECTIVES: Migrant youths endure many challenges. Such challenges can be stressful and lead to psychological difficulties. We investigated the relationship between migration, psychopathology and stressful events in children and adolescents. We hypothesised that migrant youths would show higher levels of psychopathology and more stressful life events than non-migrant youths. METHOD: Using the Child cohort (Cohort '98) of the 'Growing up in Ireland' study we investigated psychopathology, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) at age 9 and 13 and stressful life events in migrant and non-migrant youths...
February 15, 2019: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
June S L Brown, Emily Blackshaw, Daniel Stahl, Lisa Fennelly, Lynn McKeague, Irene Sclare, Daniel Michelson
INTRODUCTION: Schools may provide a convenient intervention setting for young people with mental health problems generally, as well as for those who are unwilling or unable to access traditional clinic-based mental health services. However, few studies focus on older adolescents, or those from ethnic minority groups. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a brief school-based psychological intervention for self-referred adolescents aged 16-19 years. METHODS: A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 10 inner-city schools with block randomisation of schools...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Adolescence
Alan M Steinberg, Christopher M Layne, Ernestine C Briggs, Li-Jung Liang, Melissa J Brymer, Thomas R Belin, John A Fairbank, Robert S Pynoos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential differences in therapeutic outcomes between youths who completed a full course of treatment as planned compared to youths who terminated treatment prematurely. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) Core Data Set, the present study examined demographic characteristics, trauma history, scores on standardized measures, and ratings of functional impairment and behavior problems in a large clinical sample of children and adolescents exposed to trauma who received treatment at NCTSN centers across the United States...
February 8, 2019: Psychiatry
Tom Jewell, Tessa Gardner, Karima Susi, Kate Watchorn, Emily Coopey, Mima Simic, Peter Fonagy, Ivan Eisler
BACKGROUND: Attachment theory proposes that humans develop representations of self and other in early childhood which are relatively stable across the life-course, and play a key role in psychological adaptation. However, to date, the psychometric properties of attachment measures in middle childhood and adolescence have not been evaluated in a systematic review. METHOD: A systematic review (PROSPERO ID: CRD42017057772) was conducted using COSMIN criteria. Two researchers independently searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Embase databases for relevant articles...
January 3, 2019: Clinical Psychology Review
Jill A Rabinowitz, Ijeoma Osigwe, Laura Godshalk, Deborah A G Drabick, Sharon Nachman, Kenneth D Gadow
Although parenting behaviors are widely considered an important factor in the adjustment of children and adolescents with chronic physical health needs, few studies have addressed this topic as it pertains to youth with perinatally-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV). We examined profiles of child-centeredness, control through guilt, consistent discipline, and detachment, and whether these profiles differed in terms of parent- and youth-reported psychiatric disorder symptoms in a cohort of HIV infected youth (N = 314)...
February 7, 2019: AIDS Care
For-Wey Lung, Bih-Ching Shu, Tung-Liang Chiang, Shio-Jean Lin
Children with learning disability (LD), intellectual disability (ID), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reported higher risk of being bullied compared to their peers. Controlling for the co-morbidity of different diagnosis is important in investigating the frequency of bullying. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the pathway relationship of adolescents' psychiatric diagnoses, including LD, ID, ADHD, ASD, with being bullied, their self-perceived psychological well-being (PWB) and social adaptation status (SAS) in 12-years-olds...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amesh K Shrestha, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Christian Popow, Susanne Ohmann, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
BACKGROUND: The symptoms following a traumatic event as well as the coping strategies can be culture specific. The objective of the present study was to analyse the transcultural differences of psychologically traumatized children and adolescents with and without migration background. METHODS: The medical files of 199 psychologically traumatized children and adolescents (99 native Austrian, 100 Turkish-speaking) who were treated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Vienna were retrospectively analysed...
February 1, 2019: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Eric F Dubow, L Rowell Huesmann, Paul Boxer, Cathy Smith, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine whether cumulative-past and concurrent exposure to ethnic-political violence among Israeli and Palestinian youth predict serious violent behavior and antisocial outcomes toward the in-group and the out-group. We collected four waves of data from 162 Israeli Jewish and 400 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents. The first three waves were consecutive annual assessments, and the fourth was conducted 4 years after the third wave, when the three age cohorts were 14, 17, and 20 years old, respectively...
January 28, 2019: Aggressive Behavior
Martin Pinquart
The present meta-analysis analyzed whether parents of young people with pediatric chronic physical illnesses experience higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than other adults and searched for correlates of PTSS in these parents. Based on a systematic search in electronic databases, 184 studies were included in the meta-analysis. On average, 18.9% of the parents fulfilled the criteria for PTSD, and PTSS were more common among parents of young people with pediatric chronic physical illnesses than in other adults, with Hedges' g showing a 0...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Traumatic Stress
J J Carballo, C Llorente, L Kehrmann, I Flamarique, A Zuddas, D Purper-Ouakil, P J Hoekstra, D Coghill, U M E Schulze, R W Dittmann, J K Buitelaar, J Castro-Fornieles, K Lievesley, Paramala Santosh, C Arango
Suicidality in childhood and adolescence is of increasing concern. The aim of this paper was to review the published literature identifying key psychosocial risk factors for suicidality in the paediatric population. A systematic two-step search was carried out following the PRISMA statement guidelines, using the terms 'suicidality, suicide, and self-harm' combined with terms 'infant, child, adolescent' according to the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health classification of ages...
January 25, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Fleur Souverein, Tycho Dekkers, Elena Bulanovaite, Theo Doreleijers, Heidi Hales, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Aurelio Oddo, Arne Popma, Nora Raschle, Klaus Schmeck, Marco Zanoli, Thimo van der Pol
All over Europe youth delinquency is decreasing; our understanding of the factors related to juvenile delinquency and the characteristics of effective forensic youth care has increased substantially. However, effective prevention and intervention strategies are not always employed due to financial, demographical and socio-political challenges countries face, while the burden of mental health in juvenile justice populations is high. With this commentary, we highlight the importance of international collaboration to set out a direction to improve forensic youth care, to bundle our strengths and overcome our challenges...
2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Louise Mewton, Katrina Champion, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Matthew Sunderland, Louise Thornton, Maree Teesson
BACKGROUND: The current study investigates the extent to which an adolescent-specific lifestyle risk factor index predicts indicators of the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data came from 13 to 17 year-old respondents from the 2013-2014 nationally representative Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 2314). Indicators of adolescent disease burden included Major Depressive Disorder, psychological distress, self-harm and suicide attempt...
January 14, 2019: BMC Public Health
Tobias Schuldt, Wilma Großmann, Nora M Weiss, Atilla Ovari, Robert Mlynski, Sebastian P Schraven
OBJECTIVES: Foreign body incorporation in children is often a serious situation. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could be a risk factor for self-insertion of foreign bodies. Large cohort analyses are missing. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients' records from a health insurance company representing 2.19% of the German population and 1.75% of German children and adolescents. According to the International Classification of Diseases, children in the age range between 1 and 18 years have been screened for foreign bodies in ear, nasal sinus and nostrils as well as for hyperkinetic disorders (F90), disorders of psychological development (F80-F89), and congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99)...
March 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Nicholas H Nguyen, Avery B Albert, Sarah Van Orman, Patricia Forken, Steven D Blatt, Wanda P Fremont, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt
BACKGROUND: The Research Domain Criteria initiative was launched by the US National Institute of Mental Health to establish a multi-level framework for understanding psychological constructs relevant to human psychiatric disorders, and identified 'effort valuation/willingness to work' as a clinically useful construct worthy of further study. This construct encompasses the processes by which the cost(s) of obtaining an outcome are calculated, and the tendency to overcome response costs to obtain a reinforcer...
January 14, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Sofie Prikken, Leen Oris, Jessica Rassart, Lies Christine Missotten, Ilse Weets, Philip Moons, Liesbet Goubert, Koen Luyckx
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between the functioning of youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents, including parenting dimensions as intervening mechanisms. The study adds to the existing literature by focusing on (1) the concept of parental illness intrusiveness; (2) the (understudied) periods of adolescence and emerging adulthood; and (3) maternal and paternal functioning. DESIGN: Questionnaires were completed by 317 patient-mother dyads and 277 patient-father dyads...
January 12, 2019: Psychology & Health
Brigitta U Monz, Richard Houghton, Kiely Law, Georg Loss
Children with autism receive different types of non-drug treatments. We aimed to describe caregiver-reported pattern of care and its variability by geography and healthcare coverage in a US-wide sample of children aged 3-17 years. We recruited caregivers from the Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge (SPARK) cohort. Two online questionnaires (non-drug treatment, Autism Impact Measure) were completed in September/October 2017. Primary outcome measures were caregiver-reported types and intensities of treatments (behavioral, developmental/relationship, speech and language (SLT), occupational, psychological, "other"; parent/caregiver training) in the previous 12 months...
January 10, 2019: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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